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C.D. Warner, et al., comp.
The Library of the World’s Best Literature. An Anthology in Thirty Volumes. 1917.

Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 B.C.)

Cicero, Marcus Tullius (sise‘rō). The prince of Roman orators, a statesman, and a distinguished writer on philosophy, rhetoric, morals, etc. (106–43 B.C.); born at Arpinum. He wrote several treatises on the art of oratory, the chief of these being: ‘The Orator, to Marcus Brutus’; ‘Of the Orator’; and ‘Brutus, or of Illustrious Orators.’ Of his philosophical writings we have: ‘The Academics’; ‘Tusculan Disputations’; ‘Of Definitions of Good and Evil.’ Of discussions of moral questions we have the practical treatise ‘Of Mutual Offices.’ Theological notions are examined in the two treatises ‘Of Divinations’ and ‘Of the Nature of the Gods.’ In the shorter treatises ‘Of Old Age,’ ‘Of Friendship,’ ‘Of Consolation,’ he collects such precepts of philosophy as have special application in the decline of life. The letters of Cicero to his friends (and some of theirs to him) are extant to the number of 864, distributed under these titles: “To Intimate Friends’ (16 books), extending over the years 62–43 B.C.; ‘To Atticus’ (also 16 books) years 68–43; ‘To Quintus,’ his brother (3 books), years 60–54; and ‘Correspondence with M. Brutus’ (2 books), belonging to the time immediately after Cæsar’s assassination. (See Critical and Biographical Introduction).