The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).>br>Volume I. From the Beginnings to the Cycles of Romance.

III. Early National Poetry



Bode, W. Die Kenningar in der angelsächsischen Dichtung. Darmstadt, 1886. [Kenningar=descriptive appellatives, frequent in Old English and Old Norse poetry.] Bradley, H. The Goths. 1888.

Brooke, Stopford A. History of Early English Literature to the accession of King Aelfred. 1892.

—— English Literature from the beginning to the Norman Conquest. 1898. [Both works contain excellent verse translations.] Chadwick, H. M. Origin of the English Nation. Cambridge, 1907.

Conybeare, J. J. Illustrations of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. 1826.

Cook, A. S. and Tinker, C. B. Select translations from Old English poetry. 1902.

Courthope, W. J. History of English Poetry. Vol. 1. 1895.

Dale, E. National Life and Character in the Mirror of Early English Literature. Cambridge, 1907.

Earle, J. Anglo-Saxon Literature. 1884.

Ebert, A. Allg. Gesch. der Literat. des Mittelalters im Abendlande. 3 vols. 1874–1887. [The standard work on its subject.]

Elton, C. Origins of English History. 1890.

Ettmüller, L. Engla and Seaxna Scopas and Boceras. Leipzig, 1850. Green, J. R. The Making of England. 1882.

—— The Conquest of England. 1883. Grein, C. W. M. Bibliothek der angelsächsischen Poesie. Vols. I and II (Text). Göttingen, 1857, 1858. Vols. III and IV (Glossary). Cassel and Göttingen, 1861–4. 2nd ed. by Wülcker, R. P. Vol. I. Cassel, 1881–3. [This work contains the text of all the poems treated in these chapters and is indispensable to the student of Old English poetry.]

Griffin, W. Hall. A Handbook of English Literature. 1897. [See esp. pp. 5–15.]

Grimm, J. Deutsche Mythologie. 1835. Trans. Stallybrass, J. S. 1883. Gummere, F. B. Germanic Origins: A Study in Primitive Culture. New York, 1892. [A useful work on social and national life.]

Jiriczek, O. L. Northern Hero Legends. Trans. Smith, M. Bentinck. 1902.

Jónsson, F. Den oldnorske og oldislandske Litteraturs Historie. 1894. Jusserand, J. J. Hist. Litt. du Peuple Anglais. Vol. 1. Des Origines a la Renaissance. 2[char]ed. Paris, 1896.

Kauffmann, F. Northern Mythology. Trans. Smith, M. Steele. 1903. Keary, C. F. The Vikings in Western Christendom. 1891.

Kemble, J. M. The Saxons in England. 2nd ed. by de G. Birch, W. 1876. Ker, W. P. The Dark Ages. (Periods of European Literature.) 1904.

—— Epic and Romance. 1897.

Kögel, R. Geschichte der deutschen Litterature. Vol. I, Pt. I. Strassburg, 1894.

Körting, G. Grundriss der Geschichte der englischen Litteratur. Münster, 1887, 4th ed. 1905.

Laing, S. (ed.). Heimskringla Saga. (R. B. Anderson’s ed.) 4 vols. 1889. Longfellow, H. W. Poets and Poetry of Europe. 1838. Merbach, H. Das Meer in der Dichtung des Ags. Breslau, 1884. Merbod, R. Ästhetische Studien zur ags. Poesie. Breslau, 1883. Mone, F. J. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der teutschen Heldensage. Leipzig, 1836. Morley, H. English Writers. Vols. I and II. 1887, 1888. [Contains many translations.] Morris, W. and Magnússon, E. (ed.). Saga Library. 1890 ff. Poole, R. L. Illustrations of the History of Medieval Thought. 1884. Rask, E. A Grammar of the Anglo-Saxon Tongue. Trans. Thorpe, B.

Copehagen, 1830. [Of historical interest.]

Rydberg, V. Teutonic Mythology. Trans. Anderson, R. B. 1889.

Saxo Grammaticus: Gesta Danorum. Ed. Holder, A. Strassburg, 1886. Trans. Elton, O. London, 1894.

Simrock, K. Deutschen Mythologie. Bonn, 1853 ff. Sweet, H. in Warton, T. History of English Poetry. Vol. II. 1871. Ten Brink, B. Geschichte der englischen Litteratur. Vol. I. Berlin, 1877 2nd ed. by Brandl, A. Strassburg, 1899. Trans. Kennedy, H. M. 1883. Tolman, A. H. The Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. MLA. III.

Traill, H. D. Social England. Vol. I. 1898. [Contains useful lists of authorities.]

Turner, Sharon. History of the Anglo-Saxons. 1799–1805. [“Durch dieses Werk wurde das Interesse und die Liebe für die ältere Zeit in England wieder mächtig angeregt” (Wülker).]

Vigfusson, G. Icelandic Sagas. 2 vols. 1887.

Vigfusson, G. and Powell, F. York. Corpus Poeticum Boreale. Oxford, 1883.

Wright, T. Biographia Britannica Literaria. 1842.

Wülcker, R. P. Kleinere angelsächsischen Dichtungen. Halle, 1882. Wülker, R. Grundriss zur Geschichte der angelsächsischen Litteratur. Leipzig, 1885.

—— Geschichte der englischen Litteratur von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart. Leipzig, 1896, 1907. Zeuss, J. C. Die Deutschen und die Nachbarstämme. Munich, 1837.


[The unique MS. is in the Cottonian collection, British Museum (Codex Vitellius, A. xv). It was first noticed by Humfrey Wanley (1672–1726) in the catalogue of Old English MSS. which he contributed to George Hickes’s Linguarum veterum septentrionalium thesaurus grammatico-criticus et archaeologicus, Oxford, 1703–5. The MS. was injured by fire in 1731 before any transcript of it was in existence. The Icelandic scholar G. J. Thorkelin had it transcribed in 1787 in the British Museum, whither it had been removed from its Westminster home in 1753. In 1815 Thorkelin’s first edition was published. See Thorkelin, inf., and Sharon Turner, ante. An autotype facsimile of the MS., together with transliteration and notes by J. Zupitza, was published by the Early English Text Society in 1882.]

Arnold, T. Prose translation, introduction and bibliography. 1876.

—— Notes on Beowulf. 1898.

Binz, G. HBeitr. xx, 141–223.

Boer, R. C. Arkiv for nordisk Filologi, xv, 19–88. Botkine, L. Beowulf, Analyse hist. et géogr. Paris, 1876. French translation. Havre, 1877. Bouterwek, K. Das Beowulflied, Pfeiffer’s Germania 1, 385–418. 1856.

—— Zur Kritik des Beowulfliedes ZDA. XI, 59–113. Brandl, A. Arch. CVIII, 152–5. Bugge, S. HBeitr. XII, 1–112.

—— The Home of the Eddic Poems. Trans. Schofield, W. H. Grimm Lib. 1899.

Child, C. G. Translation. New York, 1904.

Dederich, H. Historische und geographische Studien zum angelsächsischen Beowulfliede. Köln, 1877.

Earle, J. The Deeds of Beovulfi Prose translation and introduction. Oxford, 1892.

Ettmüller, L. Carmen de Beovulfi Gautarum regis rebus…gestis, etc. Zürich, 1875.

—— Beowulf. Zürich, 1840 Garnett, J. M. Verse version and bibliography [includes Finnsburh]. Boston, 1882 ff.

Grein, C. W. M. Die historischen Verhältnisse des Beowulfliedes. Ebert’s Jahrbuch für romanische und englische Litterature, IV, 260–285.

Grettis Saga. Translated by Morris, W. and Magnússon E. 1869.

Grundtvig, N. F. S. Bjowulfs Drape. Copenhagen, 1820.

—— Beowulfes Beorh eller Bjovulfs-Drapen, det Old-Angelske Heltedigt, paa Grund-sproget. Copenhagen, 1861. Haigh, D. H. The Anglo-Saxon Sagas, 1861. [Favours the view that the scenery in Beowulf is English.]

Hall, J. Leslie. Verse translation. Boston, 1892, 1900.

Hall, J. R. Clark. Translation. [Good bibliography, includes Finnsburh] 1991.

Harrison, J. A. and Sharp, R. Beowulf and Finnsburh. Boston, 1883. Based on Heyne.

Heinzel, R. Über den Styl der altegerman. Poesie (QF. 10). Heusler, A. ZDA. XLVIII, 57–87.

Heyne, M. [A good edition.] Paderborn, 1863. 7th ed. by Socin, A., 1903.

Holder, A. Freiburg and Tübingen, 1884. 2nd ed., 1899.

Holthausen, F. [Contains a good bibliography.] Heidelberg, 1906. Jordanes or Jornandes (6th c.). De origine actibusque Getarum. Kemble, J. M. The Anglo-Saxon Poems of Beowulf, the Traveller’s Song, and the Battle of Finnesburh. 1833. 2nd ed., 1835. Translation, 1837. [Kemble, Leo, and Ettmüller incline towards a mythological interpretation of the poem.] Köhler, A. ZDPh. II, 305–321. Kölbing, E. Zur Beóvulfhandschrift. Arct. LVI, 91–118 (1876). 1876. Krueger, Th. Geschichte der B. Kritik. See Wülker’s Grundriss, 515. Laistner, L. Nebelsagen. Stuttgart, 1879. Leo, H. Beowulf. Halle, 1839. Lumsden, H. W. Beowulf, an Old English Poem, translated into Modern Rhymes. 1881. Möller, H. Das altenglische Volksepos. Kiel, 1883. [Considers that the Old English epic has a strophic form.] Moorman, F. The Interpretation of Nature in English Poetry (QF.95). Strassburg, 1905. Morris, W. and Wyatt, A. J. The Tale of Beowulf (translated). 1898. Müllenhoff, K. Beóvulf. Berlin, 1889. [M.’s view is that the poem, as we have it, is made up of parts which were originally separate lays.]

—— Sceaf und seine Nachkommen. ZDA. VII, 410.

—— Die innere Geschichte des B. ZDA. (1869) XIV, 242.

—— Zur deutschen Heldensage. ZDA. XII, 253–386. 1865.

Müller, N. Die Mythen im Beowulf. Leipzig, 1878.

Olrik, A. Danmarks Helte-Digtning. Copenhagen, 1993.

Sarrazin, G. Beöwulf Studien. Berlin, 1888.

Sievers, E. Berichte der k. sächs. Gesellsch. d. Wiss. XLVII, 175–192.

—— Zur Rhythmik des germ. Alliterationsverses. [HBeitr. x, 209 and 451.] Simrock, Karl. Beowulf. Stuttgart and Augsburg, 1859.

Skeat, W. W. J. of Phil., July, 1886. The Monster Grendel in Beowulf. See also Academy, 1876–7.

Ten Brink, B. Beowulf (QF. 62). Strassburg, 1888. Tinker, C. B. The translations of Beowulf: a critical bibliography. Yale Studies. New York, 1903. See also under Cook and Tinker above.

Thorkelin, G. J. De Danorum Rebus Gestis Secul. III et IV. Copenhagen, 1815. [For early discussions consequent upon the appearance of Thorkelin’s work, see Morley, English Writers, 1, 356, and Wulker’s Grundriss.]

Thorpe, B. The Anglo-Saxon Poems of Beowulf, the Scop or Gleeman’s Tale, and the Fight at Finnesburg. Oxford, 1855. Includes translations.

Trautmann, M. Bonn, 1904. BBA. XVI.

Volsunga Saga. Trans. Morris, W. and Magùsson, E. 1876, 1888.

Wyatt, A.J. Text and Notes. Cambridge, 1894. 2nd ed., 1899.


MSS. See Grein-Wülcker, Bibl. I, pp. 414–6; Wülker, Grundriss, pp. 347–355.

Bradley, H. Arch. CVIII, 144f.

Cockayne, T.O. Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. 3 vols. Rolls Series. 1864–6.

Grimm, J. Deutsche Mythologie (see above), pp. 1236–40, 1243–5.

Kemble, J. M. Saxons in England (see above), I, pp. 403 f., 528–535.

Kögel, R. Gesch. der deutsch. Litt. (see above), I, I, pp. 39–42, 88 f., 93–5.

Payne, J.F. English Medicine in the Anglo-Saxon Times, pp. 137–142. Oxford, 1904.


(For the Exeter Book see bibliography to Chapter IV.)

Atlantic Monthly, The, LXVII, 287 (Febr. 1891). Translation.

Müllenhoff, K. ZDA. XI, 272–5; XII, 261; VII, 530 f.

Tupper, J.W. MLN. X, 125–7.


This poem included in most of the editions and translations of Beowulf given above. See under: Garnett, Clark Hall, Ettmüller, Grein, Möller, Bugge, Binz, Harrison and Sharp, Kemble, Thorpe, etc.; also under general authorities for this and the following poems, Mone, Wülcker, etc. [Discovered by George Hickes in the library of Lambeth Palace as part of the cover of another MS. See Hickes, op. cit. The MS. of the fragment is now lost.]

Boer, R.C. ZDA. XLVII, 125–160.

Hickes, G. Linguarum Septentrionalium Thesaurus, I, p. 192 f. Oxford, 1705.

Jellinek, M. H. HBeitr. XV, 428–431.

Müllenhoff, K. ZDA. XI, 281–3.

Rieger, M. ZDA. XVIII, 9–13.

Schilling, H. MLN. I, 178–183, 231–3; II, 291–9.

Swiggett. MLN. XX, 169–171.

Trautmann, M. BBA. VII, 1–64.

Ten Brink, B. In Paul’s Grundriss der germ. Philologie, II, 545–50.

(See also under Grein and Hicketier below.)

Earle, J. An ancient Saxon Poem of a City in Ruins, supposed to be Bath. Bath, 1872.

Earle, J. Academy, July, 12, 1884. (Trans.) [The reader may also like to be reminded of Browning’s Love among the Ruins.]

(See also under Ferrell and Lawrence below.)

Hönncher, E. Anglia, IX, 435–446.

Kluge, F. Englische Studien, VI, 322–7; VIII, 472–4.

Merry, G. R. Academy, Febr. 8, 1890. (Trans.)

Rieger, M. ZDPh. 1, 331–9.


[The MS. consists of two leaves discovered by E. C. Werlauff in the National Library of Copenhagen as part of the binding of another book.]

Althof, H. Waltharii Poesis. Leipzig, 1899–1905.

Dieter, F. Anglia, X, 227–234; XI, 159–170.

Dietrich, F. and Müllenhoff, K. ZDA. XII, 264–279.

Heinzel, R. Über die Walthersage. Vienna, 1889.

Kelle, J. Gesch. der deutschen Litt. I, pp. 218–226. Berlin, 1892.

Kölbing, E. Die Waldere Fragmente. Engl. St. v, 240 f., 292 f.

Learned, M. D. The Saga of Walther of Aquitaine. MLA. 1892.

Stephens, G. Two Leaves of King Waldere’s Lay. Copenhagen and London, 1860. (Text, translation, etc.)

Symons, B. In Paul’s Grundriss (2nd ed.), III, 703–9.

Trautmann, M. BBA. XI, 133–8.


Boer, R. C. ZDPh. XXXV, 1–28.

Brown, A. R. Poet-Lore. March, 1891. (Trans.)

Ferrell, C. MLN. IX, 402–7.

Hickey, E. H. Academy, May 14, 1881. (Trans.)

Lawrence, W. W. JGPh. IV, 460–480.

Rice Sims, W. MLN. V, 402–4. (Trans.)

Rieger, M. ZDPh.I, 324–331.

(See also under Beowulf: Kemble, Thorpe.)

Binz, G. HBeitr. XX, 141–223.

Bojunga, K. HBeitr. XVI, 545–8.

Guest, E. History of English Rhythms. 1838., Ed. Skeat, W. W. 1882.

Gummere, F. MLN. IV, 418–423. (Trans.)

Möller, H. Das Altenglische Volksepos. Kiel, 1883.

Müllenhoff, K. ZDA. XI, 275–294.

—— Nordalb. Stud. I, 148, 165.

Schütee, G. Oldsagn om Godtjod. Copenhagen, 1907.

Ten Brink, B. In Paul’s Grundriss, II, 538–545.


Blackburn, F. A. JGPh. III, 1–13 (text, translation, etc. of The Husband’s Message.)

Grein, C. W. M. Kurzegefasste angelsächsische Grammatik, p. 10. Cassel, 1880.

Hicketier, F. Anglia, XI, 363–8.

Roeder, F. Die Familie bei den Angelsachsen, pp. 112–126. Halle, 1899.

Trautmann. M. Anglia, XVI, 207–225.