The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).>br>Volume I. From the Beginnings to the Cycles of Romance.

IV. Old English Christian Poetry


Texts and full bibliographies will be found in Grein, Wülker and Körting. See the bibliography to Chapters I and III, ante, for standard works dealing also with the contents of the present chapter, and for abbreviations.


MSS. and Sources

AZARIAS, in Exeter Book, ff. 53a–55b. [The Exeter Book is a MS. preserved in Exeter cathedral library, the gift of bishop Leofric about 1071. Its title in Old English is “Mycel Englisc boc be gehwilcum [char]ingum on leo[char]-wisan geworht” (“A large English book, on all sorts of things, wrought in verse”). To it are we indebted for much of what is known concerning Old English literature. It was published under the editorship of B. Thorpe, in 1842 (Codex Exoniensis, text and translation), and the first volume of a new edition in the Early English Text Society’s publications has appeared, edited by I. Gollancz, containing the first eight poems in the MS. The contents of the MS. are as follows: Crist, Guthlac, Azarias, The Phoenix, Juliana, The Wanderer, The Gifts of Men, A Father’s Instruction, The Seafarer, The Spirit of Men, Widsith, The Fates (or Fortunes) of Men, Gnomic Verses, The Wonders of Creation, The Riming Song, The Panther, The Whale, The Partridge, The Address of the Soul to the Body, Deor, Riddles 1–60, The Wife’s Complaint, The Last Judgment, A Prayer, Christ’s Descent into Hell, Alms, Pharaoh, Paternoster (fragment) and other fragments of maxims, hymns, etc., Riddle 61 and another version of Riddle 31, The Husband’s Message, The Ruin, Riddles 62–89.]

GENESIS, EXODUS, DANIEL, CRIST and SATAN, in Bodl. Juinus XI. Old Saxon fragments in Vatican Library, Palatinus Latinus N. 1447.

HYMN, in Cambridge University Library, Kk, 5, 16, fol. 128. (See Facsimiles of Ancient MSS., IX, edd. Bond and Thompson, 1879). Printed in Wanley, Catalogus historico-criticus, 1705. See also Bede, Eccles. Hist., E. E. T. S. ed. Miller, 1890, and ed. Holder, A., Freiburg, u. Tübingen, 1882.

Authorities (For books on the Ruthwell Cross, see bibliography to Chapter II.)

Acta Sanctorum, II February.

Balg, H. Der Dichter Caedmon un seine Werke. Bonn, 1882.

Bouterwek, K. W. Caedmon’s des Angelsächsen biblische Dichtungen. 2 pts. Elberfeld, 1851 and Gütersloh, 1854.

—— De Caedmone poeta Anglo-Saxonum vetustissimo. Elberfeld, 1845.

—— Ueber Caedmon, den ältesten ags. Dichter, und desselbrn metrische Paraphrase der heiligen Schrift. Elberfeld, 1845.

Cramer, J. Quelle, Verfasser und Text des ae. Gedichts Christi Hellenfahrt. Anglia, XIX, 135 ff.

Dietrich, F. Emendations. ZDA. X, 310–367.

Ebert, A. Genesis and Exodus. Anglia, v, 409, 410.

Ellis, H. Introduction to reproductions of drawings in “Caedmon” MS. Archaeologia, XXIV.

Ettmüller, L. Handbuch der deutschen Litteraturgeschichte. Leipzig, 1847.

Götzinger, E. Ueber die Dichtungen des Angelsachsen Caedmon und deren Verfasser. Göttingen, 1860.

Graz, F. Die Metrik der sog. Caedmon’schen Dicht. Berlin, 1894.

Grein, C. Zur Textkritik der angelsächsischen Dichter. Germania, X, 417 ff.

Groschopp, F. Das angelsächsische Gedicht “Crist und Satan.” Anglia, VI, 248–276.

Groth, E. Komposition der Altengl. Exodus. Göttingen, 1883.

Hammerich, F. De Episk-Kristelige Old Kvad. Copenhagen, 1873. Trans. by Michelsen, Gütersloh, 1874, 1888, Aelteste Christliche Epik. pp. 23–35.

Hofer, O. Ueber die Entstehung des ags. Gedichtes Daniel. Anglia, XII, 158.

Holtmann. On Genesis. Germania, I, 470.

Hönncker, F. Studien zur ags. Genesis. Anglia, VII, 469; VIII, 41.

Hunt, T. W. Exodus and Daniel. Boston.

Junius, F. Caedmonis monachi Paraphrasis Poetica Genesios ac praecipuarum sacrae paginae Historiarum, abhinc annos M.LXX. Anglo-Saxonice conscripta, et nunc primum edita a Francisco Junio, F. F. Amstelodami, 1655, Oxford, 1752.

Junius, F. Observationes in Willerami Abbatis, Franciscan Paraphrasin, Cantici Canticorum. Amsterdam, 1655.

Kühn, A. Ueber die ags. gedichte von Christ u. Satan. Jena, 1883.

Lawrence, J. Codex Junius XI. Anglia, XII, 598.

Muerkens, G. On Exodus. Bonner Beitr. z. Anglistik, II, 1899.

Napier, A. S. MLN. 1889.

Paul, H. Grundriss d. German. Phil. 2nd ed. 3 vols. Strassburg, 1901.

Paul-Braune. Beitr. z. gesch. d. deutsch Spr. u. Litt.

Rieger, M. ZDPh. VII, 6. On Crist and Satan.

Schipper, J. Zum Codex Exoniensis. Germania, XIX, 331–4.

Sievers, E. Der Heliand und die angelsächsische Genesis. Halle a/S, 1875.

—— Genesis, Exodus, Daniel, Crist and Satan. ZDA. XV, 456 ff.

—— In P. u. B.’s Beitr. X, XX.

Skene, W. F. Celtic Scotland. 3 vols. Edinburgh, 1876 ff.

Stoddard, F. H. The Caedmon poems in MS. Junius XI. Anglia, X. 156.

Strobl, J. Zur sog. Caedmonschen Exodus. Germania, XX, 292–305.

Ten Brink, B. Early English Literature, and Appendix. [See also p. 49, Vol. I. English trans., 1904, for early works on the theme of Christ and Satan.]

Thorpe, B. Caedmon’s Metrical Paraphrase of Parts of the Holy Scriptures, in Anglo-Saxon; with an English translation. Soc. of Antiquaries, 1832.

Wüker, R. Caedmon’s Hymn. P. u. B.’s Beitr. III, 348–357; Anglia, II, IV, etc.

Zangemeister, K. and Braune, W. (Genesis, etc.). Neue Heidelberger Jahrbücher, IV, 205.

Ziegler, H. Der poetische Sprachgebrauch in d. Caedmon’schen Dichtungen. Münster, 1883.

Zupitza, J. Caedmon’s Hymn. ZDA. XXII, 210–223.


MSS. and Sources


FATES OF THE APOSTLES, ANDREAS, ELENE, DREAM OF THE ROOD, in Vercelli Book. [The Vercelli Book is a MS. preserved in the Capitular library, Vercelli, N. Italy, where it was discovered in 1822 by F. Blume. It contains Homilies, Andreas, Fates of the Apostles, Address of the Soul to the Body, Falseness of Men, Dream of the Rood, Elene, prose life of Guthlac, and was written, probably, in the eleventh century. A heliotype reproduction of the verse was produced by Wülker in 1894, Leipzig. See J. M. Kemble’s Poetry of the Codex Vercellensis, with an English trans., 2 pts., Aelfric Soc. 1843, 1856, and Wülker in Anglia, v.]


Acta Sanctorum, II April (Guthlac), 3 May (Elene).

Baehrens, A. Poetae Latini Minores (Riddles, etc.). Leipzig, 1879 ff.

Blackburn, F. A. Is the “Christ” of Cynewulf a single poem? Anglia, XIX, 89.

Bourauel, J. Zur Quellen- und Verfasserfrage von Andreas, Crist u. Fata. BBA. XI. 1901.

Bradley, H. (Riddles.) Academy, XXXIII, 197.

Brooke, Stopford A. Early English Literature, 1892. [Contains excellent trans. of Riddles, etc.]

Charitius, F. Ueber die angelächsischen Gedichte vom heiligen Guthlac. Anglia, II, 265–308.

Cook, A. S. The Crist of Cynewulf. Boston, 1900.

—— The Dream of the Rood. Oxford, 1905. [An excellent edition, with a thorough discussion of the evidence of authorship, etc.]

Cooper’s Report on Rymer’s Foedera, Appendix B (B. Thorpe), pp. 47–92. (Fates of the Apostles, Andreas, Dream of the Rood.) 1836.

Dietrich, F. Commentatio de Kynewulfi poetae aetate. Marburg, 1859.

—— Cynewulf’s Crist. ZDA. IX, 193–214.

—— Die Rätsel des Exeterbuches. ZDA. XI, 448, XII, 232.

—— Ebert’s Jahrbuch f. romanische und englische Literatur. Berlin, 1859. 1, 241–246.

Ebert, A. Der angelsächsische Physiologus. Anglia, VI, 241–247.

—— Der Traum vom heiligen Kreuz, Berichte der kgl. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, 18 Mai, 1884, 81 ff.

—— Die Rätselpoesie der Angelsachsen, Berichte der k. sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, April, 1877, pp. 30–56.

Forstmann, H. Zur Guthlac-Legende. BBA. XII. 1902.

Fritzsche, A. Das angelsächsische Gedicht Andreas und der Dichter Cynewulf. Anglia, II, 441–496.

Gäbler, Herm. Ueber die Autorschaft der angelsächsischen Gedichtes vom

Phoenix. Anglia, III, 488–526.

Garnett, J. M. Translations, etc. Boston, 1901.

Glöde, O. Cynewulf’s Elene, etc. Rostock, 1885. See also Anglia, IX.

Gollancz, I. Cynewulf’s Crist. 1892. See also same vol. for Guthlac, Gnomic verses, etc.

Grein, C. W. M. Der Vogel Phönix. Rinteln, 1854.

—— Dichtungen der Angelsä. chsen. 2 vols. Göttingen, 1857 ff.

—— Kurzgefasste angelsächsische Grammatik, pp. 11–15. 1880.

—— Zu den Rätseln des Exeterbuchs. Germania, X, 307–310.

—— Zur Textkritik der angeslächsischen Dichter. Germania, X, 420 ff.

Grimm, Jakob. Andreas and Elene. Kassel, 1840.

[A valuable edition.]

Grundtvig, N. F. S. Phenix-Fuglen. Copenhagen, 1840. See also Archaeologia, XXX.

Holt, L. H. Elene. (Translated.) Yale Studies in English. 1904.

Holthausen, F. Elene. Heidelberg, 1905.

Kent, C. W. Teutonic Antiquities in Andreas and Elene. Leipzig, 1887.

—— Elene. Boston, 1889.

Klipstein, L. F. Analecta Anglo-Saxonica. 2 vols. New York, 1849.

Krapp, G. P. Andreas and Fates of the Apostles. Boston, 1906. [An excellent edition.]

Land, J. P. N. Art. in Enc-Brit. on “Physiologus.”

Lauchert, F. Geschichte des Physiologus. Strassburg, 1890.

Lefevre, P. Das altenglische Gedicht vom Guthlac. Anglia, VI, 181–240.

Leo, H. Quae de se ipso Cynevulfus, sive Cenevulfus, sive Coenevulfus, poeta Anglo-Saxonicus tradiderit. Halle, 1857.

Mann, M. F. Zur Bibliographie des Physiologus. Anglia, Beiblatt, X, 274, XII, 13, XIII, 18. See also Jellinek, A. L., Anglia, Beiblatt, XIII, 236.

Mather, F. J. The Cynewulf Question from a metrical point of view. MLN. 1892. PP. 193 ff.

Müller, Ed. Die Rätsel des Exeterbuches. Programm. Cöthen, 1861.

Müller, S. Die Thierornamentik im Norden. Hamburg, 1881.

Napier, A. Academy, Sept. 8, 1888, and ZDA. XXXIII, pp. 60 ff. (on “Fata Apostolorum”).

Prehn, A. Komposition und Quellen der Rätsel des Exeterbuches, Neuphilologische Studien, Heft. 3. Paderborn, 1883.

Ramhorst, F Andreas. Leipzig, 1886.

Reeves, W. Culdees of the British Isles. Dublin, 1864.

Rieger, M. Über Cynewulf. Zacher’s ZDPh. 1, 133, etc.

Root, R.K. Andreas (trans.). Yale Studies in English. 1899.

Sarrazin, G. Beowulf and Kynewulf. Anglia, IX, pp. 515 ff. See also Anglia, Beiblatt, VI, 205, Anglia, XII, 375.

—— Beowulfstudien, pp, 109 ff. Berlin, 1888.

Schipper, J. Zum Codex Exoniensis. Germania, XIX, 329 f.

Sievers, E. Zu Cynewulf. Anglia, XIII, 1 ff.

—— In P. u. B.’s Beitr. X.

Stevens, W. O. The Cross in the Life and Literature of the Anglo-Saxons. 1904. Yale Studies in English.

Strunk, W. Juliana. Belles Lettres Series. Boston, 1905.

Swaen, A. E. H. Notes on Cynewulf’s Elene. Anglia, XVII, 123.

Sweet, H. Oldest English Texts. E.E.T.S. 1885.

Tatwin’s Riddles. See Wright, Anglo-Norman Poets, Rolls Series, III.

Ten Brink, B. Discussion of Zupitza’s edition of Elene. ZDA. XXIII (N.F. XI) 53–70.

—— Early English Literature, see above.

Trautmann, M. Der Andreas doch von Cynewulf. Anglia, Beiblatt, VI, 17 ff., and later vols.

—— Kynewulf der Bischof und Dichter. Bonn, 1898.

Warren, F. E. The Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic Church. Oxford, 1881.

Windisch, W. O. E. Der Heliand und seine Quellen. Leipzig, 1868.

Wülker, R. Der Dichter Cynewulf und das Andreasgedicht, Berichter der kgl. sächs. Gesellschaft der Wissenschasft, 14 Nov. 1888, PP. 209 ff.

ülker, R. Ueber den Dichter Cynewulf. Anglia, 1, 483–507. See also many later contributions to Anglia.

Zupitza, J. Cynewulf’s Elene. 2nd ed. Berlin, 1883. See also, on Andreas, ZDA. XXX (N.F. XVIII), 175.


MSS. and Sources

GNOMIC POETRY, etc., in Brit. Mus. Cott. Tib. B. I and Exeter Book.

SALOMON AND SATURN. A, in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 422; B, C.C.C.C., 41. Cf. Old English prose version BM. Cott. Vitell. A. XV, and Adrian and Ritheus in Cott. Jul. A. 2, edited, respectively, by Thorpe (Analecta) and Kemble; also Wright, T. in Altdeut. Blät., 1837–40.


Atkinson, R. The Passions and the Homilies from the Leabhar Breac (Address of Soul to Body). Dublin, 1887.

Batiouchkof, T. Romania, XX. (Soul and Body Legand.)

Botkine, L. La Chanson des Runes. Havre, 1879.

Duff, E. G. Dialogus, or Communing between the Wise King Salomon and Marcolphus. 1892.

Grein, Chr. Das Reimlied des Exeterbuches. Germania, X, 305–7.

Grimm, J. Heidelberger Jahrücher, 1809. Heft. 45. [Discussion of v. d. Hagen.]

v. d. Hagen, F. H. In Einleitung zur Ausgabe der Salomon und Morolf; v. d. Hagen und Büschings deutsche Gedichte des Mittelalters. Vol. I. Berlin, 1808.

Hickes, G. Lingarum Septentrionalium Thesaurus. Oxford, 1705. For Rune Song, etc.

Hofmann, C. Ueber Jourdain de Blaivies, Appollonius von Tyrus, Salomo und Markulf. Sitzungsberichte der Münchener Akademie, phil. hist. Klasse. 1870.

Kemble, J. The Dialogue of Salomon and Saturnus. Aelfric Society, 1848.

Kleinert, G. Ueber den Streit zwischen Leib und Seele. Halle, 1880.

MacCallum, M. W. Solomon in Europe, and Anglo-Saxon Jocoseria, in Studies in Low German and High German Lit. 1884. [An excellent piece of work.]

Rieger, M. Addresses of Soul and Body. Germania, III, 398, 399.

—— ZDPh. 1, 331–4.

Schaumberg, W. Untersuchungen über das deutsche Spruchgedicht; Salomo und Morolf. P. u. B.’s Beiter. 11, 1–63.

Schipper, J. Salomon and Saturn. A Comparison of MS. A. with MS. B. Germania, XXII, 50–70.

Sievers, E. Collationen Angelesäch. Gedichte. ZDA. XV, 466.

Strobl, J. ZDA. XXXI, 54–64.

Sweet, H. Salomon and Saturn. Collation of MS A. Anglia, 1, 150–4.

Varnhagen, H. Addresses of Soul and Body. Anglia, 11, 225 ff.

Vogt, F. Die deutschen Dichtungen von Salomon und Markolf. 1, liii-lv.

Wright, T. Poems of Walter Mapes. Camden Soc. See Appendix for literature of Address of Soul to Body.

Zupitza, J. On Salomon, etc. Anglia, III, 527.

—— Anglia, 1, 285, and ZDA. XXXI, 45.

(See also works of a general nature under Cynewulf, above.)