The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).>br>Volume I. From the Beginnings to the Cycles of Romance.

XIV. Metrical Romances, 1200–1500: II


(See also bibliography to the Arthurian chapter.)


See Körting’s Grundriss; Schofield’s English Literature from the Norman Conquest to Chaucer, which devotes more attention to lais and romances than any preceding work in English and has a very useful bibliography; and also A Summary of the Literatures of Modern Europe (England, France, Germany, Italy, Spain) from the Origins to 1400, by Marian Edwardes, one of the most useful books of its kind in English, 1907.

Auchinleck MS., The. A famous MS. (14th cent.), given to the Advocates’ Library, Edinburgh, by Alexander Boswell of Auchinleck, the father of Johnson’s Boswell. See Morley’s English Writers, III, 281; Kölbing, E., Engl. Stud. VII, and Schofield, W. H., Eng. Lit., p. 15. It contains several Middle English poems and romances, Owayne Miles, the Harrowing of Hell and the Seven Deadly Sins, the Wench that Loved a King, tales like A Penniworth of Witte, the Lai le Freine, Thrush and Nightingale, Body and Soul debates, political satires, etc., etc. See below under separate romances.

Benfey, T. (ed.). Orient u. Occident. 3 vols. Göttingen, 1862 ff.

Billings, Anna H. Guide to the Middle English Metrical Romances. Yale Studies in English. New York, 1901. [A very useful work.]

Brandl, A. Mittelenglische Litteratur in Paul’s Grundriss. Strassburg. 1893.

Campbell. Popular Tales of the West Highlands. 4 vols. Edinburgh. Child, F. J. English and Scottish Popular Ballads. 5 vols. Boston, 1882 ff. Deutschbein, M. Studien zur Sagengeschichte Englands (Horn, Havelok, Tristan, Beves, Guy). Cöthen, 1906.

Ellis, G. Specimens of Early English Metrical Romances, to which is prefixed an historical introduction on the rise and progress of romantic composition in France and England. Revised by Halliwell, J. O. 1848. Contains analyses of the following: Peter Alphonsus, Marie’s Lays, Merlin, Morte Arthur, Guy of W., Sir Bevis, Richard C. de L., Roland and Ferragus, Sir Otuel, Sir Ferumbras, the Seven Wise Masters, Florice and Blauncheflour, Robert of Cysille, Sir Isumbras, Sir Triamour, Ipomydon, Sir Eglamour, Lay le Fraine, Sir Eger, Sir Grahame and Sir Graysteel, Sir Degorè, Roswal and Lillian, and Amys and Amylion.

Gautier, L. Les Èpopeès françaises. Paris, 1878–82.

—— Bible. des Chansons de Geste. Paris, 1897. Hales, J. W. Folia Litteraria (contains papers, inter alia, on Old English Metrical Romances, Havelok, Eger and Grime.). Halliwell, J. O. Thornton Romances: Percival, Isumbras, Eglamour, Degravant. Camden Soc. 1844. Hartshorne, C. H. Ancient Metrical Tales. 1829. Athelston, King Edward and the Shepherd, Floris, William the Werwolf, etc. Ker, W. P. Epic and Romance. 1897. Laing, D. Select Remains of the Ancient Popular Poetry of Scotland, 1822, re-edited with additions by Small, 1885.

—— Early Scottish Metrical Tales, 1826, 1889. Madden, F. Sir Gawayne, etc. Bannatyne Club, 1839. Paris, G. Histoire poetique de Charlemagne. 1865, ed. Meyer 1905.

—— La Litt. fr. au moyen &lcirc;ge. Paris, 1905.

—— Poèmes et Légendes du moyen âge. Paris, 1900.

—— La Poésie du moyen âge. 2 vols. Paris, 1885–95.

Percy Folio Manuscript. Ed. Hales, J. W., and Furnivall, F. J. 3 vols. 1867 ff.

Potter, M. A. Sohrab and Rustem. The Epic theme of a Combat between Father and Son. 1902.

Ritson, J. Ancient English Metrical Romanceës. 3 vols. 1802. The Wedding of Sir Gawain: Ywaine and Gawin: Launfal: Lybeaus Disconus: The Geste of King Horn: The Kyng of Tars, and the Soudan of Damas: Emare: Sir Orpheo: Chronicle of Engleland: Le bone Florence of Rome: The Erle of Tolous: The Squyer of Lowe Degre: The Knight of Curtesy, and the Fair Lady of Faguell: (Appendix) Horn Childe and Maiden Rimnild.

Robson, J. Three Early English Metrical Romances. Camden Society, No. XVIII. 1842. From the Ireland MS., Anturs of Arther, Sir Amadace, The Avowynge of King Arther, Sir Gawan, Sir Kaye and Sir Bawdewyn of Bretan.

Saintsbury, G. The Flourishing of Romance and the Rise of Allegory. Edinburgh, 1897.

Schofield, W. H. English Literature from the Norman Conquest to Chaucer. 1906.

Snell, F. J. The Fourteenth Century. Periods of European Lit. Edinburgh, 1899.

Suchier, H. and Birch-Hirschfeld, A. Gesch. der franz. Litt. Leipzig, 1900.

Stengel, E. Die altfranz. Rolandslied. Leipzig, 1900.

Thoms, W. J. A Collection of Early Prose Romances. 1828. Ed. Morley, H. Last reprint 1907. Contains. inter alia, the stories of Robert the Devil, Guy of Warwick and the Knight of the Swan.

Utterson, R. Select Pieces of Early Popular Poetry, from copies in the Black Letter. 2 vols. 1817. Syr Tryamoure, Syr Isenbras, SyrDegore, Syr Gowghter.

Ward, H. L. D. Catalogue of Romances, MSS. in the British Museum. 2 vols. 1883, 1893.

Warton, T. History of British Poetry. Vol. I, Diss. I. On the Origin of Romantic Fiction in Europe.

Weber, H. Metrical Romances. 3 vols. Edinburgh, 1810. Kyng Alisaunder, Sir Cleges, Lay le Freine, Richard Coer de Lion, Ipomydon, Amis and Amiloun, The Sevyn Sages, Octovian Imperator, Sir Amadas, The Hunting of the Hare.

Weston, J. L. The Romance Cycle of Charlemagne. 1901. [The other numbers of Nutt’s series, Popular Studies in Mythology, Romance and Folk-Lore, may also be consulted with much advantage.]


Alexander. For a summary of the growth of the saga of Alexander, and especially of the work of Lambert li Tort (the Crooked) of Chateaudun, and Alexandre de Bernay or de Paris, see Ten Brink, Hist. of Eng. Lit., Eng. trans. I. The first form of the Alexander legend is found in the Greek Pseudo-Kallisthenes, to which reference has already been made (see p. 149). Its Latin forms, by means of Julius Valerious and the archpriest Leo, found their way to the west, and Lambert’s and Alexandre de Bernay’s work constitute the great redaction of the story for western readers and imitators. See Li romans d’Alixandre, par Lambert liTors et Alexandre de Bernay, ed. Michelant, H., Stuttgart, 1846. In England, the adaptation by Thomas or Eustace of Kent (Roman de toute chevalerie) lead the way to the alliterative romance of King Alisaunder. For this last, our immediate concern, see MSS Laud, Lincoln’s Inn and Auch. frag. and Weber’s collection. See also the alliterative romance of Alexander and Dindimus, E.E.T.S. Extra Series XXXI, ed. Skeat, W. W.; Wars of Alexander, Roxburghe Club, 1849, ed. Stevenson; E.E.T.S. Extra Series, XLVII, ed. Skeat; The Buik of the most noble and vail[char]eand Conquerour, Alexander the Great, Bannatyne Club, 1834. Cf. Weber I, pp. LXXIII, LXXXVII, Ward, Catalogue of Romances, I, p. 149, and the Scots Buik of King Alexander

by Sir Gilbert Hay in the Taymouth MS. See also, on the cycle as a whole, Budge, E. A. Wallis, History of Alexander the Great, Cambridge, 1889, and Life and Exploits of Alexander the Great, 1896; Meyer, P., Alexandre le Grand dans la litt. fr. du moyen âge, 2 vols., Paris, 1886; Herrmann, A., on Sir Gilbert Hay’s MS., Berlin, 1898; Trautmann, Über Verfasser und Entstehungszeit einiger allit. Gedichte, Halle, 1876.

Amis and Amiloun. MS., Auch., etc. Ed. Weber. Kölbing, Heilbronn, 1884.

Arthur. c. 1440. Ed. Furnivall, F. J. E.E.T.S. II.

Arthour and Merlin. (Auch. MS.) Ed. Turnbull. Abbotsford Club, 1838, and Kölbing, 1890. See also Percy folio MS; Bülbring, K. D., in Engl. Stud. XVI; Robert de Boron’s Merlin, ed. Paris, G. and Ulrich, J., 1886, Soc. Anc. Tex. Fr. [Kölbing’s edition should be consulted for a discussion as to sources and authorship. He is inclined to the view of a single author for this romance and the romances of King Alisaunder and Richard Coeur de Lion. See also below under Lovelich, and also the bibliography to the chapter on the Arthurian Legend, for Merlin.]

Arthure at the Terne Wathelyne, Awntyrs of. Robson, see above; Laing. 1822 Amours, Scot. Text Soc., 1892; Pinkerton, 1792; Madden, 1839. See, on the metre, Luick, K., in Anglia, XII.

Arthur, Avowing of King. Madden (Sir Gawayne), 1839. Robson.

Athelston. A story of ordeal by fire. MS., Caius, Cambridge. Hartshorne. Wright and Halliwell’s Reliquiae Antiquae. 1845. Zupitza, in Eng. Stud. XIII, XIV.

Barlaam and Josaphat. See Jacobs, J., Barlaam and Josaphat, English Lives of Buddha, 1896; the Anglo-Norman version of Chardri, ed. Koch, J., Heilbronn, 1879; Paris, Gaston, Poèmes et Légendes du moyen âge, Paris, 1900; Kuhn, E. W. A., B. u. J. bibl. litgesch. Stud., Munich, 1894; Horstmann, C., Altengl. Legenden, 1875 ff.; Gui de Cambrai’s B. und J., edd. Meyer, P. and Zotenburg, H., Stuttgart, 1864.

Benoît de Sainte More. For the Roman de Troie, which has its value not only in its telling of the legend, and in its poetry as poetry, but also as a record of contemporary French life, see Joly, A., B. de S. M. et le Roman de Troie, ou les Métamorphoses d’Homère et de l’épopée grécolatine au moyen âge, 2 vols., Paris, 1870–1; new edition in preparation, Soc. des anciens textes fran¸ais.

Baryn, Tale of. See Chalmers, Eng. Poets, I; Chaucer Soc. ed. Furnivall and Stone, 1884.

Charlemagne Romances. In addition to those mentioned under separate headings, see E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. XXXVI, 7, Lyf of Charles the Grete, ed. Herrtage, S. J.; XL, XLI, XLIII and L, Huon of Burdeux, ed. Lee, S. L.; XLIV, XLV, The Four Sons of Aymon, ed. Richardson, O.

Chevelere Assigne. Ed. Utterson, Roxburghe Club, 1820, and Lord Aldenham. E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. VI. A prose analysis of the tale of the Knight of the Swan will be found in Thoms.

Clariodus. Maitland Club. 1830.

Dares Phrygius. See under Joseph of Exeter.

Dictys Cretensis. See under Joseph of Exeter.

Eger and Grine. Percy Folio MS. (See Hales, J. W., Folia Literaria, 1893.) The History of Sir Eger, Sir Graham, and Sir Gray-steel. Printed 1687. Aberdeen, 1711. Laing, 1826.

Emare. MS. Brit. Mus. Ed. Ritson, and Gough, A. B. Old and Middle English Texts. 1901. Cf. Trivet’s chronicle; Gough, A. B., The Constance Saga, Berlin, 1902; Cox, M. R., On Cinderella, 1893; and H. Suchier’s edition (1884) of P. de Beaumanoir’s Manekine. An edition in the E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser., ed. Miss E. Rickert, is “at press.”

Florence of Rome, Le Bone. Ritson. Vietor, 1893, 1899.

Florice and Blauncheflour. MS, Auch., etc. Ed. Hartshorne. Laing, Abbotsford Club, 1857; Lumby, J. R. and McKnight, G. H., E.E.T.S. XIV; Hausknecht, E., Berlin, 1885, in Samml. Engl. Denkmäler, v. [Contains a valuable introduction.] For the cognate French tale, Berthe aux grands pieds, see ed. Scheler, A., 1874.

Gamelyn, Tale of. Ed. Skeat, W. W. 2nd ed., 1893. See also Lindner, F., Eng. Stud. II.

Generides. Furnivall, F. J. Roxburghe Club, 1865. See also Generydes, c. 1440. Ed. Aldis Wright. E.E.T.S.LV, LXX, and Zupitza in Anglia, I.

Gologrus and Gawayne. Chepman and Myllar, 1508, reprinted by Laing, D. 1827; Madden, Bannatyne Club, 1839; Trautmann in Anglia, II; Amours, Scot. Text Soc. 1892; Pinkerton, 1792.

Guy of Warwick (MSS Auch. and Caius, etc.). Ed. Turnbull, Abbotsford Club, 1840, and Zupitza, J., E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. XLII, XLIX, LIX. For the Anglo-Norman version see ed. Schönemann, C. P. C., Leipzig, 1842. See also Percy Folio MS., ed. Furnivall and Hales, for Guye and Amarant, etc.; Thoms, W. J. Early English Prose Romances (for prose analysis); and Puttenham’s Arte of Poesie. See Körting, P. III, for further details of MSS., and Zupitza’s edition of the second or fifteenth century version in E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. XXV, XXVI, for a discussion of the versions.

Havelok the Dane (Laud MS., 108). Ed. Madden (English and French), Roxburghe Club, 1828; Skeat, W. W. E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. IV; Holthausen, Heidelburg, 1901; Skeat, W. W. Oxford, 1902. For the French Le lai d’Aveloc, and for discussions as to the relative ages of the versions, see Kupferschmidt, M. Die Haveloksage bei Gaimar. Rom. Stud. IV; Skeat’s edition; Hupe, H., in Anglia, XIII. See also Gollancz’s Hamlet in Iceland, 1898, and, for metre, Saintsbury, G., History of English Prosody, I, 1906; Hales, J. W., Folia Literaria; Zupitza, in Anglia, VII, and in ZDA. XIX, may also be mentioned.

Horn, King. MSS, Cambridge Gg. 4.27.2, Harl. 2253, Laud 108. Ed. Ritson; Michel, Paris, 1845; Bannatyne Club, 1845; Lumby, J. R. and McKnight, G. H., E.E.T.S. XIV; Mätzner, 1867; Morris and Skeat, Specimens, I; Horstmann, in Herrig’s Archiv. 50; Hall, J., 1901; and the Ballads in Child’s edition (Hind Horn, etc.). See Luick, K., in Paul’s Grundriss, on metre. For various theories concerning the origin of the different versions see Hartenstein, O., Studien zur Hornsage, Heidelberg, 1902, a useful work; Schofield, MLA. XVIII; Hall’s edition mentioned above; Wissmann, Th., in Quel. u. Forsch. XVI; and in Anglia, IV. See also under Horn Child below.

Horn Child and Maiden Rimnild. MS., Auch. Ed. Ritson. Michel, Bannatyne Club, 1845; Hall, 1901; Caro in Eng. Stud. XII; cf. the Anglo-Norman Horn et Rimenhild, ed. Brede, E. and Stengel, E., Aus. u. Abh. Rom. Phil. VIII, Marburg, 1883.

Ipomedon. See under Rotelande.

Iwain and Gawain. MS., Brit. Mus. Ritson; ed. Schleich, G., 1887, Oppeln and Leipzig, 1887. See Brown, A. C. L., in Harvard Studies and Notes,

VIII; Schofield, W. H., English Literature from the Norman Conquest to Chaucer, pp. 230 ff.

John the Reeve. Percy Folio Ms. Small, in Laing’s Select Remains, new edition. 1885.

Joseph of Arimathie. MS., Oxford, Vernon. Skeat. E.E.T.S. 44, together with Wynkyn de Worde’s and Pynson’s Lives of Joseph. [One of the romances of the alliternative revival.

Joseph of Exeter (Josephus Iscanus) (fl. 1190), one of the ablest of medieval Latin poets, who accompanied archbishop Baldwin to the Holy Land. Joseph’s De Bello Trojana would appear to have been based on Latin versions of Greek words by writers known by the names of Dares Phygius and Dictys Cretensis. His poem is in six books and exists in several MSS. It was printed at Basel, 1558, and the first book has been edited by Jusserand, J. J. Paris, 1877. For Dictys and Dares, see eds. by Meister, F., in Teubner library, Liepzig, 1872–3; and Körting, G., Dictys u. Dares. Ein Beitrag z. Gesch. der Troja-sage in ihrem Ubergange aus der antiken in die romantische Form. Halle, 1874. See also below under Troy. Joseph of Exeter was also the author of a poem on the third Crusade, Antiocheis, the greater portion of which is lost (see Warton, Hist. Eng. Poetry, I), and ante, Chap. x.

Knight of Curtesy and the Fair Lady of Faguell. Copland. Ritson, Hazlitt, W. C. 1866.

Lai le Freine. See under Marie de France.

Lancelot of the Laik. c. 1500. MS., Camb. Univ. Lib. Ed. Stevenson, Maitland Club, 1839; Skeat, W. W. E.E.T.S. 6. See Weston, J. L. Legend of Sir Lancelot du Lac. Studies upon its origin, development, and position in the Arthurian Cycle, 1901.

Libeaus Desconus, the Fair Unknown. See Ritson; Kölbing in Engl. Stud. I; Kaluza in Kölbing’s Altenglische Bibliothek, Leipzing, 1890; Percy Fol. MS.; Schofield, Harvard Studies and Notes, IV; Paris, G., in Romania, XV; Weston, J. L., Arthurian Romances, v; Horstmann, C., Altenglische Legenden, 1875. [There is a fine French version by Renaud de Beaujeu, and the authorities quoted above should be referred to for the relation between French and English version.

Lovelich, Henry. Holy Grail, History of. c. 1450. Ed. Furnivall, F. J. Roxburghe Club, 1861–3. E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. XX, XXIV, XXVIII, XXX, XCV (The Legend of the Holy Grail, ed. Kempe, Dorothy).

—— Merlin. Ed. Kock, E. A., E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. XCIII, XCIV.

Marie de France. The narrative lais of Marie de France were, apparently, produced in England in the twelfth century, in the days of Henry II, to whom they are dedicated. They are contained chiefly in Harl. MS., 978, and consist of short verse tales, taken from Celtic tradition. She used the legends of the Purgatory of St. Patrick; Lanval (cf. the English Sir Launfal of T. Chestre); Guingamor (cf. Bran); Laustic; Chevrefeuille (cf. Tristram and Iseult), etc. See Petit de Julleville’s Hist. de la Langue et de la Litt. fr., vols. I, II; Warncke, K., in Suchier’s Bibliotheca Normannica, vol. III; Hervieux, Fabulistes Latins, 1883, 1884; Bedier, J., in Revue des deux Mondes, Oct. 1891; Warton, Hist. Eng. Poetry, Price’s Note on Dissert. I; Ten Brink, Eng. Lit., vol. I; Schofield, harvard Studies, v; Weston, J. L. (trans.), Arthurian Romances unrepresented in Malory (Guingamor, Lanval, Tyolet, Le Bisclaveret), 1900; Rickert, E. (trans.), 1901; and the adaptations of Arthur O’Shaughnessy, 1872. For the English forms of Breton lais, see especially the very beautiful Lai le Freine, in the Auchinleck MS., and also the tale of Sir Degarre. The Lai le Freine, the story of the girl exposed in the ash tree, will be found in the collections of Ellis and Weber mentioned above. See also Varnhagen, H., in Anglia, III, and cf. the tale of patient Griselda, in its many forms. Marie de France should also be remembered for her Ysopet, or book of fables, based on earlier English (the so-called Alfred’s Aesop) and Latin collections. See Warncke, K., as above, vol. VI, and Jacobs, J., Fables of Aesop, 1889.

Melayne, Sege of. MS., Brit. Mus. Ed. Herrtage, S. J., E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. XXXV. See B[char]lbring, K. D., Engl. Stud. XIII.

Melusine (Jean d’Arras). Unique MS., Brit. Mus. Prose romance. Ed. Donald, A. K., E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. LXVIII.

Mort Arthur (stanza form). MS., Harl. 2252. Ed. Roxburghe Club, 1819; Furnivall, F. J. 1864; Bruce, J. D., E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. LXXXVIII.

Morte Arthure (alliterative). c. 1440. MS., Thornton in Lincoln Cathedral. Ed. Halliwell, 1847; Perry and Brock, E., E.E.T.S. VIII; Banks, M. M., 1900. See also Branscheid, P., Die Quellen des Morte Arthure, Anglia, VIII, Anz.; Luick, K., in Anglia, XI, and the bibliography to Huchoun, vol. II of present work.

Octavian (two versions). Weber. Sarrazin, in Altengl. Bibl. Heilbronn, 1885, pp. 1–63, 64–167. Ed. Halliwell. Percy Soc. 1844.

Otuel. Rowland and Vernagu. MS., Auch. Ed. Maidment, J., Abbotsford Club, 1836, and Herrtage. E.E.T.S. XXXIX, EX. Ser

Partenay, Romans of. Ed. Skeat, W. W. E.E.T.S. XXII. See also Melusine. Partonope of Blois (two versions). Ed. Buckley, Roxburghe Club, 1862; Nichols, 1873. Anglia, XII. Cf. Kölbing, E. Beit. zur vergl. Gesch. der Romant. Poesie u. Prosa des Mittelalters. Breslau, 1876.

Protesilaus. See under Rotelande. Rauf Coilyer, The Tail of. Lekprevik, R., St. Andrews, 1572; Laing, 1822; Herrtage, S. J., E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. XXXIX; Amours, M., Scot. Text Soc. 1892. See the chapter on Early Scots Lit., vol. II of present work. Richard Coeur de Lion. MSS., Caius, Auch. Frag., etc. Printed by Wynkyn de Worde, 1509–28. See Weber. Engl. Stud. VIII, XV, XVI; Needler, G. H., Richard Coeur de Lion in Literature. Leipzig, 1890; and Archer, T. A., crusade of Richard I., Eng. Hist fr. contemp. Writers, 1889. [The character of Richard Coeur de Lion, as portrayed in the romance, is happily compared by Ten Brink to John Bull.] Roberd of Cisyle. Ed. Horstmann, 1878; Halliwell, Nugae Poeticae, 1844; Hazlitt, W.C., Early Pop. Poetry of Engl., 4 vols., 1864. Roland. Lansdowne MS. Ed. Herrtage. E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. XXXV. Roswall and Lillian. Edinburgh, 1663; Newcastle, 1775; Lasing, 1822–6. See Lengert, O., in Eng. Stud. XVI, XVII.

Rotelande, Hue de (fl. 1185), Anglo-Norman, of Credenhill, near Hereford. Author of Hippomedon (MS., Brit. Mus. and Bodl.), and Protesilaus (MS., Bibl. Nat. Paris). See edd. Kölbing, E., Breslau, 1889; Weber; Mussafia, A., Sitzungsb. Kaisr. Acad. Wiss., Vienna, 1890. Three English versions are extant in Ms. See Körting, p. 122.

Rowland, Duke, and Sir Otuel of Spayne. MS., Brit. Mus. Ed. Herrtage. E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. XXXV.

Seven Sages of Rome. MSS., Auch. and Camb. Dd. I. 17, etc. Ed. Weber;

Wright, T., Percy Soc., 1845. See also The Seven Sages in Scottish Metre, by John Rolland, Bannatyne Club, Edinburgh, 1837; Paris, G. Deux rédactions du Roman des Sept Sages de Rome, Paris, 1876; Campbell, K., Albion Series, Boston, 1907; Domenico Comparetti. Researches respecting the Book of Sindibad, Folklore Soc., 1882; and W. A. Clouston’s B. of S., Glascow, 1884.

Sir Amadas. Weber. Robson, Stephens, Copenhagen, 1860. For Amadas and Ydoine, see Paris, G., in Furnivall Memorial vol., 1901, and Hippeau, Paris, 1863; and cf. the reference in Cursor Mundi.

Sir Beves of Hamtoun. MS., Auch., etc. Ed. Turnbull, Maitland Club, 1838, and Kölbing, E. E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. XLVI, XLVIII, LXV. [There are many continental texts.] See Kölbing, E., Die Allit. in Sir B. of H. Eng. Stud. XIX; and Stimming, A. Boeve de Haumtone. Halle, 1899.

Sir Cleges. See bibliography to Arthurian Chapter, ante, under Chrétien de Troyes. Sir Degarre. MSS., Auch., Camb. f. II. 38 frag., douce frag. Percy. Ed. Laing, Abbotsford Club, 1849; Wynkyn de Worde, Copland, c. 1550. Utterson, percy Fol. MS. (Sir Degree). Sir Degrevant. Ed. Halliwell, J. O. Thornton Romances. Camden Soc. 1844. Sir Eglamour. MSS., Brit. Mus. and Cambr. Thornton Romances. Ed. Halliwell, J. O. Camden Soc., 1844. Percy Folio MS. Schleich, G., 1906 (Palaestra, 53) also in Herrig’s Archiv, XCII. [A story of the son and mother marriage type, similar to Degarre.] Sir Ferumbras. Ed. Herrtage, S. J. E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. XXXIV. For Fierabras, see Kröber and Servois. Paris, 1860.

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Ed. Madden, Bannatyne Club, 1839; Morris. E.E.T.S. IV. See also Madden and Percy Folio MS., for The Jeaste of Sir Gawayne, Gawain and the Carle of Carlisle, Turke and Gowin; and see bibliography to chap. XV.

Sir Gawen and Dame Ragnell, The Weddynge of. Percy. Ritson. Madden Percy Folio Ms. Child, Ballads. Sir Gowther. MSS., Advoc. Edin., and B.M. Ed. Utterson, and Breul, K. Oppeln, 1886. Contains a bibliography of the Robert the Devil legend. See Kaluza, M., in Engl. Stud. XII. A prose version of the Robert the Devil story will be found in Thomas. Devil story will be found in Thomas.

Sir Isumbras. Utterson, Halliwell. Thornton Romances. Camden Soc. 30. 1844; Schleich, 1901 (Palaestra 15); Gerould, G. H. MLA. XX; Zupitza, in Anglia, I; Herrig’s Archiv, LXXXVIII, XC; and Kölbing, E., in Engl. Stud. III. Cf. the mention of the legend in Cursor Mundi.

Sir Launfal. Ellis, in Way’s Fabliaux, 1800; Ritson; Halliwell. Illus, of the Fairy Myth of a Midsummer Night’s Dream. Shakespeare Soc., 1845; Erling, 1883; Kaluza, in Engl. Stud. XVIII; Schofield, W. H. MLA.XV, The Lays of Graelent and Lanval. For Landavall, see MS., Rawlinson, C. 86; Kittredge, G. L., Am. Jrnl. Phil. X, 1889; Zimmermann, R., Königsberg, 1900. For Sir Lambewell, see Percy Fol. MS. See also under Marie de France.

Sir Perceval of Galles. Ed. Halliwell. Thornton Romances, Camden Soc. 1844; Morris, William, 1895.

Sir Orfeo. MS., Harl., ed. Ritson. MS., Auch., ed. Laing. 1822. Zielke, O. Breslau, 1880. See also Kittredge, G. L., Am. Jrnl. Phil. VII; Child; I.

Sir Tristrem, MS., Aurh. Sir Walter Scott, Edinburgh, 1804. Kölbing, E. Die Nordische u. Englische Version der Tristan-sage. 2 vols. Heil Bronn, 1878, 1882; McNeill. Scot. Text Soc., 1886; Warton, Hist. Eng. Poet., Vol. I, p. 95.

Sir Triamour. Utterson. Ed. Halliwell, Percy Soc., 1846. Percy Folio MS. Sowdone of Babylone, and Ferumbras his sone. Roxburghe Club, 1854.

Ed. Hausknecth, E. E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. XXXVIII.

Squire of Low Degree, The. Copland. Ritson. Hazlitt, W. C. Mead, W. E. Boston, 1904.

Tars, King of. MSS., Auch., Vernon., BM. Add. 22,283. Ed. Ritson. See Krause, in Engl. Stud. XI, and Holthausen, F., in Anglia, XV.

Thomas of Erceldoune, 1220–97. Scott, Border Ministrelsy; Jamieson, 1806; Laing, 1822; Halliwell, Shakespeare Soc., 1845; child. Romances and Prophecies of. Ed. Murray, J. A. H., E.E.T.S. LXI; Brandl, A., Berlin, 1880. For foreign versions of the Tristram story see bibliography to Arthurian chapter, and see also under Sir Tristrem above.

Titus and Vespasian. MS., Add. 10036. See Ward, Catal. vol. I.

Tolous, Erl of, and the Emperes of Almayn. Ritson. Lüdtke, G. Berlin, 1881.

Torrent of Portugal. Unique MS. in Chetham Lib. Ed. Halliwell, 1842. Adam, E. E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. LI. See also Zupitza, J., in Engl. Stud. XV.

Troy, Gest Hystoriall of the Destruction of. Ed. Donaldson, D. and Panton, G.A. E.E.T.S. XXXIX, LVI. (MS., Hunterian Coll. Glasgow.) In alliterative verse. See Luick, K., Anglia, XI. This is one of the many works that have been ascribed to Huchoun. See Vol. II of present work. For the Latin of Guido delle Colonne, see the Strassburg vol. of 1494; for the French, see Joly, A. Beno[char]t de Sainte-More et le Roman de Troie, 2 vols. Paris, 1870–71. Cf. the Latin poem of Joseph of Exeter (Josephus Iscanus); Sommer’s edition of Caxton’s Recuyell of the Histories of Troye, 1894; Berger, H. Lydgate’s Troy Book, E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. XCVII, CI; the Troy Book from the unique laud MS., Bodl., Ed. Wülfing, J. E., E.E.T.S. CXXI, CXXII; Troy Book, in Barbour’s Legenden-Sammlung. Horstmann, 1881. For the French Roman de Thèbes, see ed. Constants, L., Paris, 2 vols., 1890; and for Eneas, see ed. Salvedra De Grave. J., Halle, 1891.

Troye, Seege of. Zietsch, A. In Herrig’s Archiv, LXXII. Wager, C. A. New York, 1899. See also Zietsch, A., Über Quelle u. Spr. des mittelengl. Gedichts S. of Tr., Göttingen, 1884, and other dissertations. mentioned in Körting, p. 130.

Waldef. For this Anglo-Norman romance, based on an Old English form, see Schofield, Hist. Eng. Lit. From the Norman Conqueror to Chaucer, and his Story of Horn and Rimenhild, MLA. XVIII.

William of Palerne, or William and the Werwolf. MS., King’s Coll., Cambridge, 13. Ed. Madden, Roxburghe Club, 1832, and Skeat, E.E.T.S. I, Ex. Ser. A romance belonging to the alliterative revival. See Trautmann, M., Altengl. allit. Gedichte, Halle, 1876; Kaluza, M., Engl. Stud. IV. See alsoNicholson, Academy, 1088, 1893; Kittredge, G. L., Harvard Studies and Notes, VIII; Paris, G., in Romania, v; Smith, K. F., MLA. IX; and cf. the Werwolf lai of Bisclaveret, by Marie de Frances.

Ypotis. Horstmann, C. Altenglische Legenden. 1881.

W.P.K. & A.R.W.