The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume IV. Prose and Poetry: Sir Thomas North to Michael Drayton.

V. Early English Comedy



Bale, John. Scriptorum illustrium majoris Britanniae Catalogus. 1548. 2nd ed. 1557–9. New ed. by Poole, R. L., and Bateson, M. 1902.

Brandl’s Quellen.

Brotanek, R. Die Englischen Maskenspiele. Vienna, 1902.

Chambers, E. K. Court Performances before Queen Elizabeth. Mod. Lang. Rev. vol. II, I, 1906.

—— The Mediaeval Stage. 1903. (Vol. II, Appendix X, Texts of Mediaeval Plays and Early Tudor Interludes, contains valuable lists and bibliographies.)

—— Notes on the History of the Revels Office under the Tudors. 1906.


Collins, J. Churton. The Predecessors of Shakespeare. (Essays and Studies.) 1895.



Cunningham, P. Extracts from the Accounts of Revels at Court in the Reigns of Queen Elizabeth and King James. Shakespeare Society. 1842.

Feuillerat, A. Documents relating to the Office of the Revels in the time of Queen Elizabeth. Ed. with Notes and Indexes. Bang’s Materialien, vol. XXI, 1908.

Fleay’s English Drama.

—— Chronicle of Stage.

Gayley, C. M. An Historical View of the Beginnings of English Comedy, being the Introduction to Representative English Comedies from the Beginnings to Shakespeare. New York, 1903.

Greg’s List of Plays.

—— List of Masques.

Hazlitt’s Handbook.

—— A Manual for the Collector and [char] of [char] English Plays. 1892.

Herford’s Literary Relations.

Hunter, J. Chorus Vatum. British Museum MSS., Add. 24487–92.


Manly’s Specimens.

Schelling’s Elizabethan Drama.

Smith, G. Gregory. Elizabethan Critical Essays. Ed. with an Introduction. 2 vols. Oxford, 1904. (For individual essayists see bibliography to Vol. III, Chap. XIV.)

Stationers’ register.

Symonds, J. A. Shakespere’s Predecessors in the English Drama. 1884. New ed. 1900.

Tudor Facsimile Texts.


[In the following bibliographies, only those non-dramatic writings of the authors are mentioned that are closely allied to their comedies. No plays are included among the texts which were originally printed later than 1589. Rpts. in modernised spelling are distinguished by the bracketed abbreviation (mod.s.).

For some details acknowledgment is due to the Bibliographical Essay appended to Schelling’s Elizabethan Drama, vol. II.]


The excellent Comedie of two the moste faithfullest Freendes, Damon and Pithias. Newly Imprinted, as the same was shewed before the Queenes Majestie, by the Children of her Graces Chappell, except the Prologue that is somewhat altered for the proper use of them that hereafter shall have occasion to plaie it, either in Private, or open Audience. Made by Maister Edwards, then beynge Maister of the Children. 1571.

The excellent Cmedie of two the most faithfullest friends, Damon and Pithias … Anno, 1582.

Edition of 1571 facsimiled in Tudor Facsimile Texts. Rptd. in Ancient B. D. vol. I (mod.s.); in Hazlitt’s Dodsley, vol. IV (mod.s.); in The Dramatic Writings of Richard Edwards, Thomas Norton, and Thomas Sackville, ed. Farmer, J. S., 1906 (mod.s.).

Palamon and Arcite. (See bibliography to Vol. VI, Chap. XII.)

Bibliography and Criticism:

Bond, R. Warwick. The Complete Works of John Lyly. Vol. II, pp. 238–241. 1902. (A critical estimate of Damon and Pithias.)

Durand, W. Y. Notes on Edwards. Journal of Germanic Philology, vol. IV, 1901–2.

Wallace, C. W. The Children of the Chapel at Blackfriars. pp. 64–5. 1597–1603. (See also bibliography to Vol. VI, Chap. XI.)


A Hundreth sundrie Flowres bounde up in one small Poesie. Gathered partely (by translation) in the fyne outlandish Gardins of Euripides, Ovid, Petrarke, Ariosto, and others: and partly by invention out of our owne fruitefull Orchardes in Englande: Yelding sundrie sweete savours of Tragical, Comical and Morall Discourses, bothe pleasaunt and profitable to the well smellyng noses of learned Readers.… At London. Imprinted for Richarde Smith. (n.d.) [Contains, in addition to Jocasta and non-dramatic works, Supposes: A Comedie written in the Italian tongue by Ariosto, Englished [char] George [char] of [char] Inne Esquire, and there presented. 1566.]

Supposes is also contained in

(a) The Poises of George Gascoigne Esquire. Corrected, perfected, and augmented by the Author. 1575.

(b) The pleasauntest workes of George Gascoigne Esquyre: Newlye compyled into one Volume, That is to say: His Flowers, Hearbes, Weedes, the Fruites of warre, the Comedie called Supposes [etc.]. 1587. (For a fuller description of these two editions, each issued twice with varying title-pages, see bibliography to Vol. III, Chap. X.)

Supposes is rptd. in Origin of E. D., vol. III; in The Complete Poems of George Gascoigne, vol. I, ed. Hazlitt, W. C., Roxburghe Library, 1869; in Gascoigne’s Supposes and Jocasta, ed. Cunliffe, J. W. (Belles Lettres Series), 1906; and in The Works of George Gascoigne, ed. Cunliffe, J. W. (Cambridge English Classical), vol. I, 1907.

The Glasse of Governement. A tragicall Comedie so entituled bycause therein are handled aswell the rewardes for Vertues, as also the punishment for Vices. Done by George Gascoigne, Esquier. 1575. Blessed are they that feare the Lorde, their children shalbe as the Braunches of Olive trees rounde about their table.… Anno Domini. 1575.

Some copies of the edition have the following colophon: Imprinted At London By H M for Christopher Barker at the signe of the Grassehopper in Paules Churchyarde, Anno Domini. 1575. This is followed in these copies by a list of seven “Faultes escaped in the printe.”

Rptd. in The Complete Poems of George Gascoigne, vol. II, ed. Hazlitt, W. C., 1870. Will be included in The Works of George Gascoigne, vol. II, ed. Cunliffe, J. W., which is in the press.

The Princelye pleasures, at the Courte at Kenelworth.… In the yeare 1575. (See bibliography to Vol. III, Chap. X.)

The tale of Hemetes the heremyte Pronounced before the Q. Majesty at Woodstocke. 1575. Royal MSS., 18 A, XLVIII. A letter by Gascoigne, dated 1 January, 1576, presenting queen Elizabeth with translations into Latin, Italian, and French of the Hermit’s tale of Contarenus and Gandina, “pronounced” before her at Woodstock in September, 1575. In his letter Gascoigne speaks of the original English version, which he also includes, as being the work of another hand than his. Rptd. by Nichols, J., in Progresses of Queen Elizabeth, vol. I., and by Hazlitt in The Complete Poems of George Gascoigne, vol. II (see also bibliography to Vol. III, Chap. X).

The Queenes Majesties Entertainment at Woodstock. Printed for Thomas Cadman. 1585.

The copy recently acquired by the British Museum lacks signature A. It is an account, by a visitor, of the Woodstock festivities and includes the English version of the Hermit’s tale and also a play which forms a sequel to it. This play has been conjecturally attributed to Gascoigne, but it is unlikely that if he wrote it, he should have made no allusion to it when sending the queen his translations of the prose tale.

Rptd., in limited ed., ed. Pollard, A. W., 1910.

Biography, Sources, Criticism, etc.:

Arber, E. Chronicle of the Life, Works, and Times of Gascoigne. 1868.

Ariosto, L. Comedia … intitolata Gli Soppositi. Venet. 1525. Prose version of the comedy, acted 1509 at Ferrara.

—— I Suppositi. Venet. 1542. Revised form of the comedy in verse, acted 1519 at Rome.

Cunliffe, J. W. Introduction to edition of Supposes and Jocasta (see above).

Herford, C. H. Gascoigne’s Glasse of Government in Engl. Stud. vol. IX, pp. 201–9; also in his Literary Relations, pp. 149–164.

Schelling, F. E. The Life and Writings of George Gascoigne. (Publications of the University of Pennsylvania.) 1894.

Whetstone, George. A Remembraunce of the wel imployed life and godly end of George Gaskoyne Esquire. 1577. Rptd. by Arber, E., 1868.

A Pleasant Conceited Historie, called The Taming of A Shrew. As it was sundry times acted by the Right honorable the Earle of Pembrook his servants. Printed at London by Peter Short and are to be sold by Cutbert Burbie, at his shop at the Royall Exchange. 1594. Later editions in 1596 and 1607. Facsimiles of the 1594 edition by Ashbee, E. W., 1576, and Praetorius, C., 1886. Rptd. by Amyot, T. (Shakesp. Soc.), 1844; in Hazlitt-Collier, Shakespeare’s Library, part II, 1875; and by Boas, F. S. (The Shakespeare Library), 1908 (mod.s.). The debt of the underplot in this play and in Shakespeare’s Taming of the Shrew to Gascoigne’s Supposes is discussed by Tolman, A. H., in Publications of the Modern Lang. Ass. of America, vol. V, 4; by Bond, R. W., in the introduction to The Taming of the Shrew (Arden Series); by Boswell-Stone, W. G., in the introduction to The Taming of the Shrew (old-spelling Shakespeare), 1907, and by Boas, F. S., in the introduction to The Taming of a Shrew, 1908.


A mery play Betwene Johan Johan the husbande Tyb his wyfe & Syr Jhn the preest. Imprynted by Wyllyam Rastell, the XII day of February the yere of our lord. M.CCCCC and XXXIII.

Facsimile in Tudor Facsimile Texts, ed. Farmer, J. S., 1907. Rptd., Chiswick Press, 1819 (?); in Brandl’s Quellen; ed. Pollard, A. W., in Gayley’s R. E. C.; ed. Farmer, J. S., in The Dramatic Writings of John Heywood (E. E. D. Publ.), 1905 (mod.s.), and in Two Tudor Shrew Plays (The Museum Dramatists), 1908 (mod.s.).

A mery Play betwene the pardoner and the frere, the curate and neybour Pratte. Imprinted by Wyllyam Rastell the V. day of Apryll the yere of our lorde. M.CCCC.XXXIII.

Facsimile in Tudor Facsimile Texts, ed. Farmer, J. S., 1907. Facsimile reprint, in limited edition, by Smeeton, George, n.d. Rptd. in Four Old Plays; Hazlitt’s Dodsley, vol. I, 1874 (mod.s.); English Miracle Plays, ed. Pollard, A. W. (selections); ed. Farmer, J. S., in The Dramatic Writings of John Heywood, E. E. D. Publ., 1905 (mod.s.), and (with The Foure P. P) in Museum Dramatists, 1906.

The playe called the foure P.P. A newe and a very mery enterlude of A palmer. A pardoner. A potycary. A pedler. Made by John Heewood.… Wyllyam Myddylton. [Between 1543 and 1547.] Another edition: Made by John Heewoode.… Wyllyam Copland. Another edition: John Allde. 1596. Septembris. 14.

Facsimile of Myddleton’s edition in Tudor Facsimile Texts, ed. Farmer, J. S., 1908. Rptd. in Dodsley, 1744, vol. I (mod.s.); Ancient B. D. vol. I, 1810 (mod.s.); Hazlitt’s, Reed’s and Collier’s Dodsley, vol. I (mod.s.); ed. Manly’s Specimens, vol. I; The Dramatic Writings of John Heywood, ed. Farmer (ut supra).

A play of love, A newe and mery enterlude concerning pleasure and payne in love, made by Jho&nbar; Heywood.… Prynted by W. Rastell. M.CCCCC.XXXIIII.

(Unique copy in the Pepys collection at Magdalene college, Cambridge.)

(It is frequently stated that there is an edition of the play printed by Rastell in 1533. This appears to be an error, arising from a mistake of Lowndes, who, in his Bibliographer’s Manual (1859), enters under Heywood’s name The play of Love; or a new and a very mery Enterlude of all maner (of) weathers. London. imprinted by W. Rastell. 1533, and states that there is a copy at St. John’s college, Oxford. Lowndes here confuses two plays; it is the 1533 edition of the Play of the wether (see infra), which is preserved in the St. John’s library but the entry has given currency to the mistaken view that there is also an edition of the Play of love belonging to the same date.)

A Play of Love. [Another edition, of which the unique copy in the Bodleian has lost the title-page.] Printed by John Waley.

Facsimile of Waley’s edition in Tudor Facsimile Texts, 1909. Rptd. in Brandl’s Quellen; The Dramatic Writings of John Heywood, ed. Farmer (ut supra).

(a) The play of the wether. A new and a very mery enterlude of all maner wethers made by Joh&nbar; Heywood.… Printed by w. Rastell. 1533. (The only known perfect copy is in the Pepys collection at Magdalene college, Cambridge. One in St. John’s college, Oxford, wants the last leaf.)

(b) The play of the wether. A newe and very mery enterlude of all maner wethers made by John Heywood. (A unique copy, wanting the last leaf, is in the Cambridge University library.)

(c) The playe of the weather. A newe and a very merye enterlude of all maner wethers made by Jhon Heywoode.… Imprinted at London by Jhon Awdeley, dwelling in litle Britayne streete beyonde Aldersgate. n.d. (Unique copy in British Museum.)

(d) The Play of the Wether. A New and a very mery enterlude of all maner wethers made by John Heywood.… Imprinted at London in Paules Churchyarde, at the Sygne of the Sunne, by Anthonie Kytson. (Unique copy in Bodleian.)

(Pollard, A. W., in Gayley’s R. E. C., pp. 16–17, has shown, from a collation of the texts of (a), (b) and (d) that the unidentified edition in the University library, Cambridge, was printed from Rastell’s, and Kitson’s from this. (c), apparently, is later than (b) and earlier than (d), but is not in a strict line of descent between them and has special characteristics of its own.)

Facsimile of Awdeley’s edition in Tudor Facsimile Texts, 1908, and of Rastell’s edition in Tudor Facsimile Texts, 1909. Rptd. in Brandl’s Quellen; ed. Pollard, A. W., in Gayley’s R. E. C.; The Dramatic Writings of John Heywood, ed. Farmer (ut supra).

Wytty and Wytless. Harleian MSS., 367.

Facsimile in Tudor Facsimile Texts, 1909. (The Preface includes a letter from Herbert, J. A., on the question whether the MS. is in Heywood’s autograph.) Printed in abridged form under the name A Dialogue on Wit and Folly by Fairholt, F. W., in Percy Soc. Publ., 1846; and in The Dramatic Writings of John Heywood, ed. Farmer (ut supra).

[A Dialogue conteining the number in effect of all the proverbes in the English tongue, set forth by J. H.] … Imprinted at London in Fletestrete, in the house of Thomas Berthelet. (The unique copy of this edition in the British Museum lacks everything before sig. C, and cannot be dated with certainty. In the catalogue it is assigned to 1549.)

A Dialogue, cteyninge the number in effecte of all the Proverbes in the Englishe tunge, cpact in a matter concerninge twoo maner of mariages.… Newly oversene and somewhat augmented by the sayde John Heywood.… 1561.

An hundred Epigrammes, Invented and made by John Heywood. Anno Christi. M.D.L. … Imprinted at London in Fletestrete in the Hous of Thomas Berthelet.… 1550.

Two hundred Epigrammes, upon the hundred proverbes, with a thyrde hundred newely added and made by John Heywood. Anno Christi. M.D.L.V.

A fourth hundred of Epygrams, Newly invented and made by John Heywood … Imprinted in the house late Thomas Berthelettes. 1560.

John Heywoodes woorkes. A dialogue conteynyng the number of the effectual proverbes in the Englishe tongue, compact in a matter concernynge two maner of maryages. With one hundred of Epigrammes; and three hundred of Epigrammes upon three hundred proverbs: and a fifth hundred of Epigrams. Whereunto are now newly added a syxt hundred of Epigrams by the sayde John Heywood.… 1562 (Col.). Imprinted at London in Fleetestrete by Thomas Powell.

This volume combined the Proverbes and Epigrammes, and later editions of it appeared in 1566, 1576, 1587 and 1598. The Proverbs are rptd. by Spencer Society, in Spencer Soc. Publ., Manchester, 1867; there are also editions by Sharman, J., 1874; and by Farmer, J. S., 1906 (mod.s.); The Proverbs, Epigrams, and Miscellanies in Early English Dramatists, ed. Farmer, J. S., 1906 (mod.s.).

Biography and Criticism:

Bang, W. Acta-Lovaniensia: John Heywood und sein Kreis. Engl. Stud. vol. XXXVIII, pp. 234–250. Contains important new facts about Heywood’s life, and prints their sources, which are chiefly E. P. Droeshout’s MS. Histoire de la Compagnie de Jésus à Anvers, and legal documents in the archives of Antwerp.

Brandl’s Quellen. Introduction, pp. xlvii–lv.

Calendar of Letters and Papers of the Reign of Henry VIII. Edd. Brewer, J. S. and Gairdner, J. 1862 ff.

Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, of the reigns of Edward VI, Mary and Elizabeth. Vol. I, 1547–80; ed. Lemon, R.; and vol. VII, Addenda, 1566–79, ed. Everett Green, M. A., 1856 ff.

Fairholt, F. W. Some Account of John Heywood and his Interludes. 1846. Prefixed to the Percy Society’s edition of Wit and Folly; contains long selections from Heywood’s other interludes.

Farmer, J. S. Introductions to editions and facsimile rpts., mentioned above.

Greg, W. W. An unknown edition of Heywood’s Play of Love. Herrig’s Archiv, vol. CVI, pp. 141–3, 1899.

Holthausen, F. Zu Heywood’s Wetterspiel. Herrig’s Archiv, vol. CXVI, 1906.

Pitseus, J. Relationum Historicarum de Rebus Anglicis Tomus Primus. Paris, 1619.

Pollard, A. W. Critical Essay prefixed to his edition of Wether and Johan Johan in Gayley’s R. E. C. 1903.

Sharman, J. Introduction to the Proverbs of John Heywood. 1874.

Swoboda, W. John Heywood als Dramatiker. Wiener Beiträge, 1888.

Ward, A. W. John Heywood. Dict. of Nat. Biogr. vol. XXVI, and Eng. Dram. Lit. vol. I, pp. 238–248, 1899.

Young, K. The Influence of French Farce upon the Plays of Heywood. Modern Philology, vol. II, 1904–5. A criticism of Swoboda’s monograph. Contains abstracts of, or quotations from, Pernet qui va au vin; D’un pardonneur, d’un triacleur, et d’une tavernière; Dyalogue du fol et du sage; Erasmus’s Encomium Moriae, and discusses their relation to Heywood’s interludes.


A pretie and Mery new Enterlude: called the Disobedient Child. Compiled by Thomas Ingelend late Student in Cambridge.

Facsimile in Tudor Facsimile Texts. Rptd. by Halliwell, J. O., in Percy Soc. Publ., 1848; in Hazlitt’s Dodsley, vol. II, (mod.s.); in The Dramatic Writings of Richard Wever and Thomas Ingelend, ed. Farmer, J. S., 1905 (mod.s.).

Source and Criticism:

Holthausen, F. Studien zum älteren Englischen Drama. Engl. Stud. vol. XXXI, 1901. Contains a comparison of The Disobedient Child with the Dialogue of Textor on which it is based.

Textor, J. Ravisius. Juvenis, Pater, Uxor. In Dialogi. 1530.

Stymmelius, C. Studentes. Some episodes in The Disobedient Child, not derived from Textor, may be based on this play. See Brandl’s Quellen, vol. LXXIII, contrasted with Malone Society Collections, vol. I, part II, p. 106.


The Commodye of pacient and meeke Grissill, Whearin is declared, the good example, of her pacience towardes her Husband: and lykewise, the due obedience of Children, toward their Parentes. Newly. Compiled by John Phillip. Eight persons maye easely play this Commody. 1. Polliticke Perswasion the Vice. The Epiloge. For one. 2. Preface. Marquis. For another. 3. Fidence. Indigence. The second Paidge or Serving man, The Sonne of Grissill. For another. 4. Reason. Dilligence. Countis Mayd. Pacience. and the Daughters of Grissill. For another. 5. Sobrietie. Countis of Pango. Cmon people. Constancy. 6. Rumor. Jannickle. 7. Jannickells Wife. The first of the Pages. The Nursse. 8. Grissill. The Midwife. Imprinted at London, in Fleetestreat beneath the Conduit, at the signe of Saint John Evangelist by Thomas Colwell. [n.d. but probably licensed 1565–6 and 1568–9.]

Rptd. in Malone Society Reprints, 1909.


Gammer Gurtons Nedle. (See bibliography to Vol. VI, Chap. XII.)


Ezechias. (See bibliography to Vol. VI, Chap. xii.)

Floures for Latine spekynge selected and gathered out of Terence, and the same translated in to Englysshe, together with the exposition and settynge forthe as welle of suche latyne wordes, as were thought nedefull to be annoted, as also of dyvers grammatical rules, very profytable & necessarye for the expedite Knowlege in the latyne tongue: compiled by Nicholas Udall. T. Berthelet. M.D.XXXIII.

The preface is dated 28 Feb. 1534/5. Later editions in 1538, 1544, and 1560; with additions by Higgins, John, from three other comedies of Terence in 1575 and 1581.

Verses and Dities Made at the Coronation of Queen Anne. Royal MS., 18 A, lxiv. Hereafter ensuethe a copie of divers and sundry verses, as well in Latin as in Englishe, devised and made partely by John Leland and partely by Nicholas Uvedale, whereof sum were sette up, and sum other were spoken and pronounced unto the Moste High and Excellent Queene, the Lady … in many goodely and costely pageantes, exhibited and shewed by the Mayre and Citizens of the famous Citie of London … on Whitson yeve, in the 25th yere of the reigne of our … Soveran Lorde.

Rptd. in Nichols, J., Progresses of Queen Elizabeth, vol. I, 1788 (not included in the edition of 1828); in Ballads from Manuscripts, ed. Furnivall, F. J. (Ballad Society), 1870; the English verses are printed in An English Garner, vol. II, ed. Arber, A., 1879 (mod.s.).

Ralph Roister Doister. The unique copy in the Eton college library has no title-page or colophon. The play was entered in the Stationers’ register to Thomas Hacket in 1566/7.

Rptd. in limited edition, ed. Briggs, T., 1818; by Marshall F., 1821; by White, T., in Old English Drama, vol. I, 1830 (mod.s.); in Shakesp. Soc. Publ., ed. Cooper, W. D., 1847; in English Reprints, ed. Arber, E., 1869; in Hazlitt’s Dodsley, vol. III (mod.s.); in Manly’s Specimens, vol. II; in Temple Dramatists, ed. Williams, W. H., and Robins, P. A., 1901 (mod.s.); in Gayley’s R. E. C., ed. Flügel, E., 1903; in The Dramatic Writings of Nicholas Udall (Early English Dramatists), 1906 (mod.s.); and in Museum Dramatists, 1907 (mod.s.), ed. Farmer, J. S.

Biography and Criticism:

Arber, E. A brief note of the Life, Works, and Times of Nicholas Udall, M.A., Teacher, Dramatist, Translator, Preacher, prefixed, with Introduction and Bibliography, to his reprint of Ralph Roister Doister. 1869.

Bang, W. Udall-Studien (darin u. a. seine Floures for Latine Spekynge, die Übersetzung von Erasmi Rot. Apophthegmes, Versuch eines Nachweises, dass Udall die Respublica und die Historie of Jacob and Esau geschrieben hat.) Announced as in preparation for Materialien.

Cooper, W. D. Memoir prefixed to edition of Ralph Roister Doister. 1869.

Flügel, E. Critical Essay prefixed to edition of Ralph Roister Doister in Gayley’s R. E. C.

—Nicholas Udall’s Dialogues and Interludes in An English Miscellany presented to Dr. Furnivall. 1901.

—— Neuenglisches Lesebuch. Vol. I. 1895.

Fowler, T. History of Corpus Christi. (Oxford College Histories.) 1898.

Graf, H. Der Miles Gloriosus in Englischen Drama bis zur Zeit des Bürgerkrieges. Schwerin, 1891.

Hales, J. W. The Date of the First English Comedy. Engl. Stud. vol. XVIII, pp. 408–421, 1893.

Kempe, A. J. The Loseley MSS. MSS. and Documents illustrative of some of the more minute Particulars of English History, Biography and Manners, from the reign of Henry VIII to that of James I, preserved in the Muniment Room of James More Molyneux, Esq., at Loseley House, in Surrey. 1836.

(Feuillerat, A., has prepared for Bang’s Materialien a volume on Documents concerning the Revels at Court, temp. Edward VI and Mary, from the Loseley MSS., which it is proposed to print at an early date.)

Maulsby, D. L. The Relation between Udall’s Roister Doister and the Comedies of Plautus and Terence. Engl. Stud. vol. XXXVIII, 1907.

Maxwell-Lyte, H. C. A History of Eton College, 1440–1898. 3rd ed. 1899.

Nichols, J. P. Progresses of Queen Elizabeth. 1788.

Wallace, M. W. The Birthe of Hercules. 1903.

Williams, W. H. and Robins, P. A. Introduction to edition of Roister Doister in Temple Dramatists. 1901.

Williams, W. H. Ralph Roister Doister. Engl. Stud. vol. XXXVI, pp. 179–186, 1906. [Supplementary notes and illustrations to the above edition.]

Wilson, T. The rule of Reason, conteinyng the Arte of Logique, set forth in Englishe by Thomas Wilson. p. 66 (3rd ed.). 1553.


The Right Excellent And Famous Historye Of Promos and Cassandra: Divided into Commical Discourses. In the Fyrste Parte is showne, The unsufferable Abuse of a lewde Magistrate. The vertuous Behaviours of a Chaste Ladye. The uncontrowled Leaudenes of a favoured Curtisan; And the undeserved Estimation of a pernicious Parasyte. In the Second Parte is discoursed, the perfect Magnanimitye of a noble Kinge, In checking Vice & favouringe Vertue. Wherein is showne, The Ruyne and overthrowe of dishonest Practices: with the Advauncement of upright Dealing. The Worke of George Whetstones Gent.… Imprinted … by Richarde Jhones, and are to be solde over agaynst Saint Sepulchres Church without Newgate. August 20, 1578.

Rptd. in Six Old Plays, vol. I; in Hazlitt-Collier, Shakespeare’s Library, vol. VI, 1875.

Source, Criticism, etc.:

Cinthio, G. B. De gli hecatommithi di M. Giovan battista Gyraldi Cinthio nobile ferrarese parte prima, etc. 1565. Later editions in 1566, 1574, 1580, etc.

Whetstone, G. An Heptameron of Civil Discourses. Containing the Christmasse Exercise of Sundrie well Courted Gentlemen and Gentlewomen.… Printed by Richard Jones, 3 Feb., 1582.

In the Fourth Dayes Exercise is contained in prose from The rare Historie of Promos and Cassandra reported by Isabella, already treated by Whetstone in his play. This prose version is rptd. in Collier, J. P., Shakespeare’s Library, vol. II, 1843, and Hazlitt-Collier, vol. III, 1875.

Calisto and Melebea
(Generally so called from the names of the hero and heroine)

A new cmodye in englsyh in maner Of an enterlude ryght elygant & full of craft of rethoryk wherein is shewd & dsycrybyd as well the bewte & good propertes of women as theyr vycys & evyll cdicis with a morall cclusion & exhortacyon to vertew.… Johs rastell me imprimi fecit. n.d.

Facsimile in Tudor Facsimile Texts. Rptd. in Hazlitt’s Dodsley, vol. I, (mod.s.); Six Anonymous Plays, first series, ed. Farmer, J. S., 1905 (mod.s.); and in Malone Society Reprints. [char]

Source and Criticism:

Rojas, Fernando de. Celestina. 1499. Enlarged edition, 1502. The play is based on only the first four Acts of this dramatic novel. J. Mabbe’s translation of the novel, The Spanish Bawd represented in Celestina, or the Tragicke-Comedy of Calisto and Melibea (1632), is rptd. in Tudor Translations, ed. Kelly, J. Fitzmaurice, 1894. Mabbe’s version has also been edited, 1908, by Warren, H. Allen, who shows, Appendix III, that Calisto and Melebea is based on the original Spanish.

Rosenbach, A. W. S. The Influence of the Celestina in the Early English Drama. Shakesp. Jahrb. vol. XXXIX, 1903.

Gentylnes and Nobylyte

Of Gentylnes & Nobylyte: a dyaloge betwen the marchaunt, the Knyght & the plowman disputyng who is a verey gentylman & who is a noble man and how men shuld come to auctoryte, compilid in maner of an enterlude with divers toys & gestis addyd thereto to make mery pastyme and disport.… Johannes Rastell fieri fecit. n.d.

Facsimile in Tudor Facsimile Texts, 1908. Rptd. in limited edition by Burn, J. H., 1829; in Early English Dramatists (together with Heywood’s The Spider and the Fly), ed. Farmer, J. S., 1908.

The Play of Lucrece

Black letter fragment in Bagford collection at British Museum. Harl. 5919 fol. 20, no. 98, probably from the press of John Rastell.

Facsimile in appendix to edition of Youth, by Bang, W. and McKerrow, R. B., in Bang’s Materialien, vol. XII (1905). Rpt. in Malone Society’s Collections, vol. I, part II, pp. 137–142. Halliwell-Phillipps (Outlines of the Life of Shakespeare), referring, apparently, to the play, of which the above fragment alone is now known, says: “The most ancient English secular drama which is known to exist was written about the year 1490 by the Rev. Henry Medwall, chaplain to Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury, and afterwards printed by Rastell under the title of—a godely interlude of Fulgeus, Cenatoure of Rome, Lucres his Doughter, Gayus Flaminius and Publius Cornelius, of the Disputacyon of Noblenes.” See, also, Chambers, vol. II, p. 458.


A new Enterlude called Thersytes. This Enterlude Folowynge Dothe Declare howe that the greatest boesters are not the greatest doers.… Imprinted at London by John Tysdale. n.d.

Facsimiles by Ashbee, H. S. (1876) and in Tudor Facsimile Texts. Rptd. in Two Interludes, Roxburghe Club, ed. Haslewood, J., 1820; Four Old Plays; Hazlitt’s Dodsley, vol. I (mod.s.); English Miracle Plays, ed. Pollard, A. W. (selections), 5th ed., 1909; Six Anonymous Plays, ed. Farmer, J. S., 1905, (mod.s.).

Source and Criticism:

Textor, J. Ravisius. Dialogi. 1530.

Holthausen, F. Studien zum älteren Englischen Drama. Engl. Stud. vol. XXXI, 1901. Contains a comparison of Thersites with the Dialogus by Textor on which it is based.

Pollard, A. W. John Heywood: A Critical Essay, pp. 12–14, in Gayley’s R. E. C. In favour of Heywood’s authorship of Thersites.

Tom Tyler

Tom Tyler and his Wife. An Excellent Old Play, As it was Printed and Acted about a hundred Years ago. Together, with an exact Catalogue of all the playes that were ever yet printed. The second impression. Francis Kirkman. 1661.

Rptd. in Mod. Lang. Assoc. Publ., vol. XVI, ed. Schelling, F. E., 1900; ed. Farmer, J. S., in Two Tudor Shrew Plays, 1906 (mod.s.); and in Six Anonymous Plays, 2nd series, 1906 (mod.s.).

(For editions of the original play see Authorities and Sources below.)

Joannis Palsgravi Londoniensis Ecphrasis Anglica in Comoediam Acolasti. The Comedye of Acolastus translated into oure englysshe tongue, after such maner as chylderne are taught in the grammer schole, fyrst worde for worde, as the latyne lyeth, and afterwarde accordynge to the sense and meanyng of the latin sentences: by shewing what they do value and countervayle in our tongue, with admonitions set forth in the margyn, so often as any such phrase, that is to say, kynd of spekyng used of the latyns, whiche we use not in our tonge, but by other wordes, expresse the sayd latyn maners of speakinge, and also Adages, metaphores, sentences, or other fygures poeticall or rhetorical do require, for the more perfyte instructynge of the lerners, and to leade theym more easilye to see how the exposytion gothe.… Interpreted by John Palsgrave. Anno M.D.XL.


Terens in englysh. The translacyon out of Latin into englysh of the furst comedy of tyrens callyd Andria. n.d. The Latin and the English are in parallel columns.

Andria the first Comoedie of Terence, in English. A furtherance for the attainment unto the right knowledge, & true proprietie, of the Latin Tong. And also a commodious meane of help, to such as have forgotten Latin, for their speedy recovering of habilitie, to understand, write, and speake the same. Carefully translated out of Latin, by Maurice Kyffin. 1588.

An edition, by Bertrang, A., of Terenz’ Andria in den Englischen Ubersetzungen des 15 und 16 Jahrhunderts is announced as in preparation for Bang’s Materialien.

The Disobedient Child
(See under Thomas Ingelend, supra.)

The Glasse of Governement
(See under George Gascoigne, supra.)

The Historie of Jacob and Esau

A newe mery and wittie Comedie or Enterlude, newely imprinted, treating upon the Historie of Jacob and Esau, taken out of the XXVII. Chap. of the first booke of Moses. entituled Genesis. 1568.

Facsimile in Tudor Facsimile Texts, 1908. Rptd. in Hazlitt’s Dodsley, vol. II (mod.s.); Six Anonymous Plays, 2nd series, ed. Farmer, J. S., 1906 (mod.s.).


Stopes, C. C. The Interlude; or Comedie of Jacob and Esau. The Athenaeum, 28 April, 1900.

[Mrs. Stopes attributes the play to William Hunnis.]

Jacke Jugeler

A new Enterlude for Chyldren to playe, named Jacke Jugeler, both wytte, and very playsent. Newly Imprentid. n.d.

Facsimile by Ashbee, E. W., 1876, and in Tudor Facsimile Texts. Rptd. in Two Interludes, Roxburghe Club, ed. Haslewood, J., 1820; in Four Old Plays; Fuller Worthies’ Library Miscellanies, vol. IV, ed. Grosart, A. B., 1873; Hazlitt’s Dodsley, vol. II, (mod.s.); Anonymous Plays, 3rd series, ed. Farmer, J. S. (mod.s.). An edition by Williams, W. H., is announced as in preparation for Bang’s Materialien.


Unique manuscript, partially mutilated, in the Duke of Devonshire’s library at Chatsworth. Dated Die 20 Novembris, Anno 1577. (See, further, Chap. V, p. 123, note.)

Printed in Brandl’s Quellen; Six Anonymous Plays, 2nd series, ed. Farmer, J. S., 1906.


Brandl’s Quellen. Introduction, pp. lxxv–lxxxvii.

Kittredge, G. L. Misogonus and Laurence Johnson. Journal of Germanic Philology, vol. III, 1901.

Nice Wanton

A Preaty Interlude, called Nice Wanton. Anno Domini M.D.L.X. Imprinted at London, in Paules Churche yearde at the Sygne of the Swane by John Kyng.

A Pretty Enterlude, called Nice Wanton. Imprinted at London, at the Long Shop, adjoining unto St. Mildred’s Church, in the Pultrie, by John Allde. n.d.

Facsimiles of both editions in Tudor Facsimile Texts. Rptd. in Hazlitt’s Dodsley, vol. I (mod.s.), and in Manly’s Specimens, vol. I.

The Prodigal Son

A black letter fragment (two halves of a folio leaf) of an interlude, to which this name has been given, is in the Cambridge Univ. library.

Rptd. with facsimile of the leaf, verso, in Malone Society’s Collections, vol. I, part I, pp. 27–30, 1897. In the Society’s Collections, vol. I, part II, pp. 106–7, 1908, the fragment is identified as part of a play founded, like Ingelend’s The Disobedient Child, on Textor’s dialogue Juvenis, Pater, Uxor.

Ralph Roister Doister
(See under Nicholas Udall, supra.)

Authorities and Sources:

Bahlmann, P. Die lateinischen Dramen von Wimpheling’s Stylpho bis zur Mitte des sechzehnten Jahrhunderts: 1840–1550. Münster, 1893.

—— Die Erneuerer des Antiken Dramas und ihre ersten dramatischen Versuche: 1314–1478. Münster, 1896.

Bolte, J. Lateinische Litteraturdenkmäler des XV und XVI Jahrhunderts. Berlin, 1891 ff.

Brandl’s Quellen. Introduction, pp. lxx–lxxv.

Brylinger, N. Comoediae et Tragoediae aliquot ex Novo et Vetere Testamento desumptae. 1540.

Cloetta, W. Beiträge zur Litteraturgeschichte des Mittelalters und den Renaissance. Halle-a-S., 1890–2.

Creizenach. Vol. III.

Fisher, G. W. Annals of Shrewsbury School. 1899.

Gnaphaeus, G. Acolastus. De Filio Prodigo comoedia, Acolasti titulo inscripta. Antwerp, 1529.

Other editions in 1530, 1534, 1536, 1545, 1554. Rptd. in Lateinische Litteraturdenkmäler, ed. Bolte, J., 1891.

Herford’s Literary Relations. Chap. III.

Leach, A. F. Some English Plays and Players. Furnivall Miscellany. 1901.

Macropedius, G. Asotus Evangelicus, seu evangelica de filio prodigo parabola … comice descripta. Bois le Duc, 1537.

—— Comicarum fabularum G. Macropedii duae, Rebelles videlicet et Aluta. 1540. Rptd. in Lateinische Litteraturdenkmäler, no. 13, ed. Bolte, J., 1891.

Maulsby, D. L. The relation between Udall’s Roister Doister and the comedies of Plautus and Terence. Engl. Stud. vol. XXXVIII, part II, 1907.

Maxwell-Lyte, H. C. History of Eton College, 1440–1898. 3rd ed. 1899.

Roeder, A. Menechmi und Amphitruo in englischen Drama. 1904.

Sargeaunt, J. Annals of Westminster School. 1898.

Scott, E. J. L. Accounts of the Westminster Play, 1564 and 1616. The Athenaeum, 14 February, 1903. [Heautontimoroumenos and Miles Gloriosus.]

Stymmelius, C. Studentes, comedia de vita studiosorum nunc primum in lucem edita authore M. C. Stummelio, F. Frankfurt, 1550.

Wallace, M. W. The Birthe of Hercules. 1903. An edition of an anonymous MS. translation of the Amphitruo (c. 1610), with an introduction on Roman comedy in England.

Watson, Foster. The English Grammar Schools to 1660. Their Curriculum and Practice. 1898.

Wilson, H. B. The History of Merchant-Taylors’ School from its foundation to the present time. 1812–4.

Wilson, J. D. Euphuism and The Prodigal Son. The Library, October, 1909.

Woodruff, C. E. and Cape, H. J. Schola Regia Cantuariensis: a history of Canterbury School, commonly called the King’s School. 1908.


The Bugbears

Lansdowne MSS., 807, ff. 55–77. [The MS., which is written in five different hands, is imperfect, as the title-page, the greater part of fol. 61 and the last leaf are missing. The title, The Buggbears, has been added later, by a sixth hand. At the end of the text there is the entry: Soli deo honor et gloria Johannus Jeffere scribebat hoc.]

Printed in Herrig’s Archiv, vol. XCVIII, pp. 301–322, and vol. XCIX, pp. 25–58; ed. Grabau, C., 1897.


Grabau, C. Quellenuntersuchung, Herrig’s Archiv, vol. XCIX, pp. 311–326.

Grazzini, A. F. La Spiritata. 1561. (See also text, Chap, V, p. 129.) (An edition of The Buggbears (together with Supposes and Misogonus), by Bond, R. W., under the title, Early Plays from the Italian, will shortly be published by the Oxford University Press.)

Common Conditions

[A Pleasant Comedie called Common Conditions.] The unique copy in the Chatsworth library contains only the pages from sig. B I to F IV. The title-page and beginning and end of the play are thus missing. The title is, however, obtained from the headline to the pages. The play is entered in the Stationers’ register on 26 July, 1576.

Transcript by Malone, E., in the Bodleian library. Rptd. in Brandl’s Quellen. See Introduction, pp. cxii–cxviii.

The Rare Triumphs of Love and Fortune

The Rare Triumphs of Love and Fortune. Plaide before the Queenes most excellent Majestie: wherein are many fine Conceites with great delight. At London. Printed by E. A. for Edward White.… 1589.

Rptd. from the unique copy in the Bridgewater house library in Five Old Plays (mod.s.), and thence in Hazlitt’s Dodsley, vol. VI, with Collier’s General Introduction. Identical with A Historie of Love and ffortune shewed before her majestie at Wyndesor on the sondaie at night next before newe yeares daie Enacted by the Earle of Derbies servauntes (Revels’ Accounts, 1582–3).

Sir Clyomon and Sir Clamydes

The Historie of the two valiant Knights, Sir Clyomon Knight of the Golden Sheeld, sonne to the King of Denmarke: And Clamydes the White Knight, sonne to the King of Suavia. As it hath been sundry times Acted by her Majesties Players. Thomas Creede. 1599.

Rptd. in The Dramatic Works of George Peele, ed. Dyce, A., 1829–39 (mod.s.), reissued with R. Greene’s works, 1861, and in The works of George Peele, ed. Bullen, A. H., 1898 (mod.s.). [Dyce ascribed the play to Peele merely because his name was written in an old handwriting on the title-page of one of the extant copies. Bullen thinks that the play was written by “some such person as Richard Edwards.”]


Fleay’s English Drama. Vol. II, pp. 295–7.

Kellner, L. Sir Clyomon and Sir Clamydes. Ein romantisches Schauspiel des 16. Jahrhunderts. Engl. Stud. vol. XIII, pp. 187–227, 1889.

Kittredge, G. L. Notes on Elizabethan Plays. Journal of Germanic Philology, vol. II, pp. 8–9, 1898. [Kittredge ascribes this play to Thomas Preston.]

Morley H. Vol. IX, pp. 238–245. [Includes a summary of the plot of the play.]

General Authorities:

Cunliffe, J. W. The Influence of Italian on Early Elizabethan Drama. Mod. Philology, vol. IV, pp. 597–605, 1907.

Murray, J. R. The Influence of Italian upon English Literature during the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. 1886.

Schücking, L. L. Studien über die stofflichen Beziehungen der englischen Komoedie zur italienischen bis Lilly. Halle, 1901.