The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume VI. The Drama to 1642, Part Two.

XIII. Masque and Pastoral



The titles of early editions of masques, pageants and entertainments are given in Greg’s List of Masques; and, less fully, in Fleay’s English Drama. The chief works on the masque have been mentioned already in the bibliography to Chap. I (Ben Jonson). See, also, bibliography to Chap. X (The Elizabethan Theatre). In chronological order, they are: Soergel, A., 1882; Evans, H. A. 1897; Brotanek, R., 1902; and Reyher, A., 1909. Reyher’s monograph, the most elaborate treatise on the English masque that has yet appeared, is a contribution to English literary history not less remarkable than Castelain’s Ben Jonson: l’Homme et l’Œuvre. Reyher, in his Bibliographie des ballets de 1603 é 1640, collects under each masque exact references to all contemporary notices in the state papers, audit office accounts, Nichols’s Progresses and other places. His Index Bibliographique is very full; to it should be added the bibliography in Schelling’s Elizabethan Drama, vol. II, pp. 520–3. The fullest account of Jonson’s masques, with the exception of that scattered up and down Les Masques Anglais, is Castelain’s chap. IX, which has the advantage over Reyher of treating Ben Jonson’s work consecutively.

Of English works, see in Ward list of Jonson’s masques (vol. II, pp. 393–7); Schelling, chap. XV, on the English Masque furnishes a full and suggestive review of the whole field. It cannot be said that Fleay’s conjectures and suggestions have yet received from scholars all the study they merit. Many rare masques are reprinted in Nichols, J., The Progresses &c. of Queen Elizabeth, 1823, and The Progresses &c. of King James, 1828. In the former is a full account of Sidney’s Lady of May.

For earlier entertainments, see bibliography to Vol. V, Chap. v. (Early English Comedy), ante.

Francis Beaumont

The Masque of the Inner Temple and Grayes Inne: Grayes Inne and the Inner Temple, presented before his Majestie, the Queenes Majestie, the Prince, Count Palatine and the Lady Elizabeth their Highnesses, in the Banquetting house at White-hall on Saturday the twentieth day of Februarie, 1612.

Another issue adds By Francis Beaumont, Gent. It was rptd. in the 1647 folio of the plays and in all following editions.

Thomas Campion

The Discription of a Ma[char], Presented before the Kinges Majestie at White-Hall, on Twelfth Night last, in honour of the Lord Hayes, and his Bride, Daughter and Heire to the Honourable the Lord Dennye, their Marriage, having been the same Day at Court solemnized. To this by occasion other small Poems are adjoyned. Invented and set forth by Thomas Campion Doctor of Phisicke. 1607.

A Relation of the late royall Entertainment given by the Right Honorable the Lord Knowles, at Cawsome-House neere Redding: to our most Gracious Queene, Queene Anne, in her Progresse toward the Bathe, upon the seven and eight and twentie dayes of Aprill. 1613. Whereunto is annexed the Description, Speeches, and Songs of the Lords Maske, presented in the Banquetting-house on the Mariage night of the High and Mightie, Count Palatine, and the Royally descended the Ladie Elizabeth. Written by Thomas Campion. 1613.

The Description of a Maske: Presented in the Banqueting roome at White-hall, on Saint Stephens night last, At the Mariage of the Right Honourable the Earle of Somerset: And the right noble the Lady Frances Howard. Written by Thomas Campion. Whereunto are annexed divers choyse Ayres composed for this Maske that may be sung with a single voyce to the Lute or Base-Viall. 1614.

This is known as the Squires’ Masque. The masques are rptd. in the modern editions of Campion’s works by Bullen, A. H., 1889, and by Vivian, P., 1909.

Thomas Carew

Coelum Britanicum. A Masque at White-Hall in the Banquetting-house, on Shrove-Tuesday-night, the 18. of February, 1633. 1634. Included in the Poems, 1640, and subsequent editions.

George Chapman

The memorable Masque of the two honourable Houses or Innes of Court; the Middle Temple, and Lyncolnes Inne. As it was performed before the King at Whitehall on Shrove-Monday at night; being the 15. of Febr. 1613. See bibliography to Chap. II, Sec. I A (ii), ante.

Samuel Daniel

The true description of a Royall Masque. Presented at Hampton Court, upon Sunday night, being the eight of January. 1604. And Personated by the Queenes most Excellent Majestie, attended by Eleven Ladies of Honour. 1604. (This edition of the Vision was unauthorised.)

The Vision of the 12. Goddesses, presented in a Maske the 8. of January, at Hampton Court: By the Queenes most excellent Majestie, and her Ladies. 1604. Daniel’s name is at the end of the dedicatory epistle. Daniel’s second masque is part of The Order and Solemnitie of the Creation of the High & mightie Prince Henrie, Eldest Sonne to our sacred Soveraigne, Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornewall, Earle of Chester, &c.… Whereunto is annexed the Royall Maske, presented by the Queene and her Ladies, on Wednesday at night following. 1610.

This second masque has a separate title-page: Tethys Festival: or the Queenes Wake. Celebrated at Whitehall, the fifth day of June 1610. Devised by Samuel Daniel, one of the Groomes of her Majesties most Honourable privie Chamber. 1610.

Daniel’s first masque was rptd. with introduction and notes by Law, E., 1880.

Sir William D’Avenant

Salmacida Spolia. A Masque. Presented by the King and Queenes Majesties at White-hall, On Tuesday the 21. day of January 1639.

Benjamin Jonson

For Ben Jonson’s Masques and Entertainments consult the bibliography to Chap. I; adding to it the modern reprint Masques and Entertainments, by Ben Jonson, edited by Henry Morley, 1890 (The Carisbrooke Library, no. IX).

John Milton

For Milton’s Arcades and Comus, consult bibliography in Vol. VII, post. Verity, A. W., Milton’s Arcades and Comus, 1891, contains an excellent essay on the English Masque.

James Shirley

(The Triumph of Peace. A Masque.) See bibliography to Chap. VIII, Sec. II A (ii), ante.

English Masques, with an introduction by Evans, H. A., 1897, contains ten of Jonson’s masques, Daniel’s Vision, Campion’s Lords’ Masque, Beaumont’s Masque, The Masque of Flowers, Shirley’s Triumph of Peace and D’Avenant’s Salmacida Spolia.

General Authorities

Pastoral poetry has been thoroughly treated in Greg, W. W., Pastoral Poetry and Pastoral Drama, a Literary Inquiry with Special Reference to the Pre-Restoration Stage in England, 1906. To Greg’s bibliography, add that in Schelling’s Elizabethan Drama, vol. II, pp. 523–6 (1908); Schelling’s chap. XVI notices all surviving pastoral plays of any consequence. Greg’s List of Plays includes Pastoral Plays. The bibliographies appended to Jeanette Marks’s English Pastoral Drama are useful. Courthope, Ward and Fleay’s English Drama treat pastoral very fully.

Chambers, E. K. English Pastorals. 1895.

Feuillerat, A. John Lyly. Contribution é l’histoire de la Renaissance en Angleterre. Cambridge, 1910. (pp. 320 ff.)

Laidler, Josephine. History of pastoral drama in England until 1700. In Engl. Stud. vol. XXXV, part 2. 1905.

Smith, Homer. Pastoral Influence in English Drama. 1897.

Winsheid, Katharina. Die englische Hirtendichtung von 1597–1625. Ein Beitrag zur Gesch. der engl. Hirtendichtung. Halle, 1895.

The first English translations of Tasso’s Aminta are:

The Countesse of Pembrokes Yvychurch. Conteining the affectionate life, and unfortunate death of Phillis and Amyntas: That in a Pastorall; This in a Funerall: both in English Hexameters. By Abraham Fraunce. 1591.

The Lamentations of Amintas for the death of Phillis. Paraphrastically translated out of Latine into English Hexameters, by Abraham Fraunce. Newly Corrected. 1596.

Fraunce makes use of Thomas Watson’s Latin version of Tasso’s play. There is no other English version until Torquato Tasso’s Aminta Englisht. To this is added Ariadne’s Complaint in imitation of Angvillara; Written by the Translator of Tasso’s Aminta, 1628. This translation is now given, not to John, but to Henry Reynolds. There is no other till John Dancer’s in 1660. The first English translations of Guarini’s Il Pastor Fido are:

Il Pastor Fido: Or The faithfull Shepheard. Translated out of Italian into English. 1602. Another ed. 1633.

This contains a prefatory Sonnet by Daniel. It was the work of a kinsman of Sir Edward Dymocke.

Il Pastor Fido, The faithfull Shepherd. A Pastoral. Written in Italian by Baptista Guarini, a Knight of Italie. And now Newly Translated out of the Original. 1647.

This version was by Richard Fanshawe. For Peele and Lyly, consult the bibliography to Chap. VI of Vol. V.

The Maydes Metamorphosis. As it hath bene sundrie times Acted by the Children of Powles. 1600. Rptd. in Bullen’s Old English Plays, 1882, vol. I, and in Bond’s Lyly

Samuel Daniel

The Queenes Arcadia. A Pastorall Tragecomedie presented to her Majestie and her Ladies, by the Universitie of Oxford in Christs Church in August last, 1605. 1606.

Hymens Triumph. A Pastoral Tragicomaedie. Presented at the Queenes Court in the Strand at her Majesties magnificent intertainment of the Kings most excellent Majestie, being at the Nuptials of the LordRoxborough. By Samuel Daniel. 1615. See, also, bibliography of Daniel’s works in Vol. IV, p. 540, ante.

John Fletcher

The Faithfull Shepherdesse. This first edition is undated, it was c. 1610.

The Faithfull Shepheardesse. The Second Edition, newly corrected. 1629.

The third edition, “with Addition,” was in 1634, after the play had been acted before the king and queen on Twelfth Night, 1633. Again, 1656, 1665. It was not in the 1647 folio; but appeared in the 1679 folio and in all subsequent editions.

Rptd. in the Temple Dramatists, 1897, with introduction by Moorman, F. W.

Axon, W. E. A. Milton’s Comus and Fletcher’s Faithful Shepherdess compared. Manchester Quarterly, no. III, July, 1882.

Thomas Goffe

The Careles Shepherdess. A Tragi-Comedy Acted before the King & Queene, And at Salisbury-Court, with great Applause. 1656. The play was acted about 1629.

Benjamin Jonson

In The Workes of Benjamin Jonson. The Second Volume, 1640, which was edited by Sir Kenelm Digby, occurs: The Sad Shepherd. Or, A Tale of Robin-Hood. Written by Ben: Jonson. 1641.

The best modern edition and fullest discussions of the play are by Greg, W. W., in Bang’s Materialien, vol. XI, 1905, and in his Pastoral Poetry, etc., cited above. The play was edited with notes and a continuation by Waldron, F. G., 1783.

Joseph Rutter

The Shepheards Holy-Day. A Pastorall Tragi-Comaedie. Acted Before Both their Majesties At White-hall, by the Queenes Servants. With An Elegie On The Death of the most noble Lady, the Lady Venetia Digby.… Written by J. R. 1635.

For Fletcher, see bibliography to Chap. V; for Jonson, Chap. I; for Randolph, Chap. IX, ante.