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The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume VII. Cavalier and Puritan.

II. The Sacred Poets



Abbey, C. J. Religious Thought in old English Verse. 1892.

Beeching, H. C. Religio Laici. 1902.

Brooke, W. T. Fletcher’s Christ’s Victory and Triumph, and Inedited Sacred Poems of the XVI and XVII centuries. (1889.)

Courthope, W. J. A History of English Poetry, vol. III. 1903.

Dowden, E. Puritan and Anglican: studies in Literature. 1900.

Farr, E. Select Poetry, chiefly sacred, of the reign of James I. 1847.

Gosse, E. Jacobean Poets. 1889.

Grierson, H. J. C. The First Half of the Seventeenth Century. 1906.

Harrison, J. S. Platonism in English Poetry of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. 1903.

Julian, J. A Dictionary of Hymnology. 1892. Revised ed. 1907.

Macdonald, George. England’s Antiphon. 1874.

Morley, Henry. Illustrations of English Religion. 1878.

Palgrave, F. T. The Treasury of Sacred Song. 1889.

Saintsbury, G. A History of English Prosody, vol. II. 1908.

Wendell, Barrett. The Temper of the Seventeenth Century in English Literature. 1906.

Willmott, R. A. Lives of Sacred Poets. First Series. 1834.

Original Editions

Epigrammatum Sacrorum Liber. Cantabrigiae 1634. Editio secunda auctior et emendatior. 1670. Epigrammata Sacra Selecta, cum Anglica versione. 1682.

Steps to the Temple. Sacred Poems, with other Delights of the Muses. (With separate title-page for 2nd part.) 1646. 2nd ed., wherein are added divers pieces not before extant. 1648.

Carmen Deo Nostro, Te Decet Hymnus, Sacred Poems, collected, corrected, augmented. At Paris, 1652. (Edited by the poet’s friend, Thomas Carre. Illustrations by Crashaw.)

A Letter from Mr. Crawshaw to the Countess of Denbigh, Against Irresolution and Delay in matters of Religion. (1653.) (Differs considerably from the poem published in Carmen, 1652. See Grosart, I, 296, and Waller’s ed. p. 375.)

Later Editions

Steps to the Temple, The Delights of the Muses, and Carmen Deo Nostro. 2nd ed. (sic). 1670.

Modern editions: ed. Gilfillan, G., 1857; ed. Turnbull, W. B., 1858; ed. Tutin, J. R., with introduction by Beeching, H. C., 1905.

Complete Works. Ed. Grosart, A. B. Fuller Worthies Library. 2 vols. 1872–3. With supplement. 1887–8.

Poems. The Text edited by Waller, A. R. Cambridge English Classics.

(The whole of the poems, English and Latin, now for the first time collected in one volume. Full critical apparatus.) 1904.

Biography and Criticism

Bargrave, John. Alexander VII and his cardinals. Camden Soc. 1867.

Coleridge, S. T. Letters and Conversations, vol. I, p. 196. 1836.

—— Additional Table Talk, p. 322. Ed. Ashe, T. 1884.

Gosse, E. Seventeenth Century Studies. 1897.

Hazlitt, W. Lectures on the Age of Elizabeth, lect. VI. 1820.

Lamb, C. Specimens of English Dramatic Poets. (Comparison with Ford.)

Pope, A. Correspondence. (Letter to H. Cromwell, 17 Dec. 1710.)

Thompson, F., in Academy, 52–427 and 61–607.

—— Essay on Shelley. 1909.


Castara. 2 parts. (Anonymous.) 1634. 2nd ed. (Adds 3 prose characters and 26 new poems. Author’s name occurs at head of commendatory verses.) 1635. The 3rd ed., Corrected and Augmented. (Adds the 3rd part, with new title-page: Character, “A Holy Man,” and 22 poems, mostly religious.) 1640. Ed. Elton, C. A. Bristol, 1812. Ed. Arber, E. (With collation of different editions.) 1870 and 1895.

The Queene of Arragon. A Tragi-Comedie, 1640. (Revised at the restoration, with Prologue and Epilogue by Samuel Butler (Remains, vol. I, p. 185).) Ed. by Thyer, R. 1759. Rptd. in Dodsley’s Old Plays, ed. Hazlitt, W. C., vol. XIII, with memoir of Habington.

The Historie of Edward the Fourth. (Chiefly compiled from materials collected by his father.) 1640. Rptd., as John Habington’s, in Kennett’s Complete History of England, vol. I, pp. 429 f., 1706.

Observations upon Historie. 1641.

Commendatory verses are to be found in other books, e.g. in 1647 folio of Beaumont and Fletcher; and in Jonsonus Virbius, 1638, there is a poem by W. Abington. See, also, a poem addressed to Habington in Witts Recreations, 1640, and others in MS. in Bodleian library (Malone 18, f. 68).

Latin and Greek

Epicedium Cantabrigiense, in Obitum … Henrici Principis Walliae. 1612. (Contains two Latin poems by Herbert.)

Lacrymae Cantabrigienses, in Obitum … Reginae Annae. 1619. (Contains one Latin poem by Herbert.)

Oratio quâ … Caroli reditum ex Hispaniis celebravit Georgius Herbert. 1623.

Oratio domini Georgii Herbert … habita coram Dominis Legatis. 1623.

A Sermon of Commemoration of the Lady Danvers … by John Donne. Together with other commemorations of her, called Parentalia: by her sonne G: Herbert. 1627. (19 poems in Latin and Greek.)

Musae Responsoriae, ad Andreae Melvini … Anti-Tami-Cami-Categoriam.

(Included, with separate title-page, in Ecclesiastes Solomonis, edited by Duport, James.) 1662.


The Temple, Sacred Poems and Private Ejaculations. Cambridge, 1633. (For the description of an undated copy, with different title-page, see A Catalogue of the Huth Library, p. 678.) 2nd ed. 1633; 3rd, 1634; 4th, 1635; 5th, 1638; 6th, 1641. There are two different issues with “seventh edition” on the title-page; one is undated, and, like all previous editions, was probably printed at Cambridge; the other (London, 1656) includes, for the first time, an elaborate table or index of 30 pages. 8th ed. 1660; 9th, 1667; 10th, 1674, includes Walton’s Life and portrait by White, R.; 11th, 1679; 12th, 1703; 13th, 1709, has portrait by Sturt, J. (White’s pupil). Modern editions, with great frequency, from 1799; besides collected works (see below), the following editions may be noticed: Gilfillan, G., 1853; Grosart A. B. (Aldine ed.), 1876, revised 1891; Gibson, E. C. S., 1899; Waller, A. R. (with A Priest to the Temple), 1902. Also, facsimile reprint of the first edition (Huth library copy), ed. Grosart, A. B., 1876 (not exact); re-issued, with introductory essay by Shorthouse, J. H., 1882; 6th ed., 1903.

Hygiasticon … in three treatises. 1634. (The first by Lessius (1554–1623), and the third “by a famous Italian,” were translated by Ferrar; the second, A Treatise of Temperance and Sobriety, by Ludowick Cornaro (1462–1566), was translated by Herbert; see Mayor’s Two Lives, pp. 51, 332). Rptd. in same year, and again in 1678 as The Temperate Man. Addison discusses Cornaro in The Spectator, 13 Oct. 1711.

The Hundred and Ten Considerations of Signior John Valdesso (Juán de Valdés, 1500–41). Oxford, 1638. Translated from the Italian (first printed ed. 1550) by Ferrar, with a Letter and “Briefe Notes” by Herbert. A garbled edition, unfortunately followed in many rpts., was printed at Cambridge, 1646. Rpt. of 1638 ed. (Chapman, F.), 1905.

Outlandish Proverbs selected by Mr. G. H., in Witts Recreations. 1640. Rptd. separately as Jacula Prudentum, 1651; and a fuller edition, with separate paging and title-page, 1651, in Herbert’s Remains, 1652. Its genuineness discussed in Notes and Queries, ser. II, vol. III, pp. 88 and 130, and in Grosart, vol. III, p. 313.

A Priest to the Temple, or, The Countrey Parson his Character, and Rule of Holy Life. (Forms the bulk of Herbert’s Remains, 1652.) 2nd ed. 1671. Rpts. 1675, etc. Ed. by Beeching, H. C. Oxford, 1898.

Collected Works

Works. With a preface by Pickering, W., and annotations by Coleridge, S. T. 2 vols. 1835. Rpt. 1859. (Includes “A Paradox,” found in the Rawlinson MSS. in the Bodleian library, 17 Latin letters from the orator’s book at Cambridge, Latin poems, Oley’s and Walton’s Lives, etc.)

Works. Ed. Willmott, R. A. 1854.

The Complete Works. Ed. Grosart, A. B. 3 vols. Fuller Worthies Library. 1874. (Prints for the first time from the Williams MSS. six English poems and two sets of Latin poems, and from Playford’s Psalms and Hymns, 1671, some psalms of doubtful authenticity.)

The English Works … newly arranged and annotated … by George Herbert Palmer. 3 vols. 1905. (The first serious attempt to discover the chronological order of the poems and to deal thoroughly with difficulties of interpretation. Contains a portrait from a pencil drawing on vellum by White.)

Biography and Criticism

Addison, Joseph, on False Wit in The Spectator, 7 May 1711.

Benson, E. W. The Praise of George Herbert. An Oration. 1851.

Clutton-Brock, A., in Camb. Mod. Hist. vol. IV, 1906.

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. Biographia Literaria, sections XIX, XX.

—— The Letters of, vol. II, pp. 694 f. 1895.

Cowper, William, The Correspondence of. 1802.

Daniell, J. J. Life of George Herbert. (Anon.) 1893. New ed. (with author’s name). 1898 and 1902. (Contains ecclesiastical documents overlooked by most writers.)

Herbert of Cherbury, Lord. Autobiography. Strawberry Hill, 1764. Ed., Lee, S. L. 1886. Revised. 1900.

Hyde, A. G. George Herbert and his times. 1905.

Mayor, J. E. B. Nicholas Ferrar. Two Lives. 1855.

Oley, Barnabas. A Prefatory View of … the Authour, in Herbert’s Remains. 1652. With new preface. 1671.

Walton, Izaak. The Life of Mr. George Herbert. To which are added some letters. 1670. (A few changes made for the collected Lives of 1674.)

[See, also, an article in The Times, 22 December 1905.]


A Feast of Wormes. Set forth in a poeme of the History of Jonah. 1620.

Hadassa: or The History of Queene Ester. 1621.

Sions Elegies wept by Jeremie the Prophet. 1624.

Job Militant: with Meditations. 1624.

Sions Sonets. Sung by Solomon the King, and peri-phras’d. 1625.

Argalus and Parthenia. 1629.

Divine Poems. [Includes all the above, except Argalus, and has, also, An Alphabet of Elegies.] 1630.

The Historie of Samson. 1631.

Divine Fancies: digested into Epigrammes, meditations, and observations. 1632.

Emblemes. 1635. 2nd ed. 1639; 3rd 1643.

Hieroglyphikes of the life of Man. 1638. From 1639, printed commonly with Emblemes.

Solomons Recantation, entituled Ecclesiastes, paraphrased. With a short relation of the author’s Life and Death [by his widow, Ursula]. 1645. Rptd. 1739.

The Shepheards Oracles: delivered in certain Eglogues. 1646. (One Eclogue was printed off, perhaps as a specimen, in 1644.) Rptd. 1679.

The Virgin Widow. A comedie. 1649.

Prose Works

Observations concerning Princes and States. 1642.

Judgement and Mercy for afflicted Soules. 2 parts. 1646. (The 2nd part had already appeared in 1644 in a pirated edition, as Barnabas and Boanerges: or Wine and Oyle for afflicted Soules. This version was reprinted as well as Ursula Quarles’s.)

The Loyall Convert. (Anon.) Oxford (1644?).

The Whipper Whipt. (Anon. and without printer’s name.) 1644.

The New Distemper. Oxford, 1645.

The Profest Royalist: his Quarrels with the Times: maintained in three Tracts [=the above]. Oxford, 1645.

Collected Works

The Collected works, in Verse and Prose. Ed. Grosart, A.B. 3 vols. Chertsey Worthies Library. 1880.


Roman Forgeries. By a faithful son of the Church of England. 1673.

Christian Ethicks, or divine morality opening the way to Blessedness by the Rules of Vertue and Reason. 1675. (Contains eight poems.)

A serious and patheticall Contemplation of the Mercies of God. 1699. (Anon., but identified by Dobell; “a small 12mo. volume of 146 pages … in a kind of unrhymed verse”; also three rhymed poems.)

The Poetical Works. Now first published from the original manuscripts. Ed. Dobell, B. With a memoir. 1903. 2nd ed. 1906.

Selected poems of Thos. Traherne, Thos. Vaughan, and J. Norris. Ed. Tutin, J. R. Hull, 1905.

Centuries of Meditations. Now first printed from the author’s manuscript. Ed. Dobell, B. 1908.

Poems of Felicity. Ed. from the MS. by Bell, H. I. Oxford, 1910.

This is an important addition to Traherne’s literary remains, considerably more than half the poems in the volume having never been printed before. Bell prints from Burney MS. 392, acquired by the British Museum in 1818 and duly indexed, but overlooked by previous enquirers. It is a small octavo of 133 pages, prepared for the press by the poet’s brother and executor, Philip Traherne, or Traheron, probably soon after Thomas’s death (1674). The first 22 poems in Dobell’s folio (Poems, ed. Dobell, pp. 1–75) re-appear in the Burney MS., though not always in the same order and with interesting variations and corrections of metrical defects and bad rimes; these alterations may, in some cases, be ascribed to Philip, who had poetical pretensions. “News,” which is found in Centuries of Meditations, occurs in the Burney MS. There are also 37 poems, including “The Author to the Critical Peruser,” which are not found in either of Dobell’s two books. Some of the new poems, and two introductory poems by Philip, give fresh illustration of the poet’s attractive character. Bell has collected new information about the Traherne family.

Biography and Criticism

Dobell, B. Athenaeum, 1900, vol. I, pp. 433, 466, and 1903, vol. II, p. 276 (Dobell’s first notifications of his discovery).

Jones, W. L. Quarterly Review, CC, p. 437.

Quiller-Couch, A. T. From a Cornish Window. 1906.

Wood, A. à. Athenae Oxonienses.

Original Editions

Poems, with The tenth Satyre of Juvenal Englished. 1646.

Silex Scintillans: or Sacred Poems and Private Ejaculations. By Henry Vaughan Silurist. 1650. The second Edition, in two Books. 1655. (The unsold sheets of Book I (1650) are used, except for new title-page, and resetting of the four pages containing Isaac’s Marriage, now revised.)

Olor Iscanus. A collection of some Select Poems, and Translations, Formerly written by Mr. Henry Vaughan Silurist. Published by a Friend. 1651. (The preface is dated “Newton by Usk this 17 of Decemb. 1647.” The prose translations are two discourses by Plutarch, one by Maximus Tyrius (these three written originally in Greek, and translated by Vaughan from John Reynolds’s Latin versions), and The Praise and Happinesse of the Countrie Life, translated from the Spanish of Antonio de Guevara, bishop of Carthagena.) Rptd. 1679 (copy in Cardiff library).

The Mount of Olives: or Solitary Devotions. With an excellent Discourse of the blessed State of Man in Glory, written by … Anselm …, now done into English. 1652.

Flores Solitudinis. [Two Latin Discourses by Johan: Euseb: Nierembergius; The World Contemned, by Eucherius, bishop of Lyons; and The Life of Paulinus, bishop of Nola (an original work, the others being translations),] Collected in his Sicknesse and Retirement. 1654.

Hermetical Physick, … by Henry Nollius, Englished. 1655.

Thalia Rediviva: The Pass-Times and Diversions of a Countrey-Muse. With some Learned Remains of the Eminent Eugenius Philalethes ( = Thomas Vaughan). 1678.

Reprints and Editions after Vaughan’s death

Spiritual Songs. 1706. (Mentioned in Chambers’s ed. vol. II, p. lxi, but not traced.)

Silex Scintillans. With Memoir by Lyte, H. F. 1847. (Includes, also, the Pious Thoughts from Thalia Rediviva.) Rpts. 1856, etc. A facsimile of 1650 ed., with introduction by Clare, W. 1885.

Complete Works in Verse and Prose. With introduction, essay and notes. By Grosart, A. B. 4 vols. Fuller Worthies Library. 1870–1. (Includes, also, the Poems of Thomas Vaughan.)

Secular Poems. With notes and bibliography by Tutin, J. R. Hull, 1893.

Poems. Ed. Chambers, E. K. With an introduction by Beeching, H. C. 2 vols. 1896. Rptd. 1905. (The best edition yet issued, with a good bibliography.)

Other modern editions of Poems: Gollancz, I. (Temple Classics), 1896; Ricketts, C. S. (with original designs), 1897; Bettany, W. A. L. (contains the fullest list of parallels between Vaughan and Herbert), 1905.

A complete edition, and a biography, with eight letters of Vaughan, and other fresh documents of biographical interest. Edd. Guiney, L. I. and Morgan, G. E. F. In preparation.

The Mount of Olives, Man in Darkness, and Life of Paulinus. Ed. Guiney, L.I. Oxford, 1902.

Biography and Criticism

Brown, John. Horae Subsecivae, series I. 1858.

Brydges, Sir Egerton, in The Retrospective Review, vol. III, 1822.

Guiney, L. I. A Little English Gallery. New York, 1894.

Johnson, Lionel. Critical Studies (including a chapter on Vaughan). In preparation.

Palgrave, F. T., in Y Cymmrodor, vol. XI, part 2, 1892.

—— Landscape in Poetry, pp. 160–5. 1897.

Shairp, J. C. Sketches in History and Poetry, X. 1887.


Alciats Emblems. Lugduni, 1551. (See Ames’s Antiquities of Printing, ed. Herbert, p. 1570.) Andreœ Alciati Emblematum Libellus, Milan, 1522; Paris, 1534; Venice, 1546; and in later and fuller forms.

Ayres, Philip. Emblemata Amatoria. (In four languages.) 1683.

Bunyan, John. A Book for Boys and Girls. 1686. Rptd. often under title, Divine Emblems. Facsimile rpt., with preface by Brown, John. 1889.

Harvey, Christopher. Schola Cordis … in 47 Emblems. 1647. (Anon., and often printed as Quarles’s.) Fuller Worthies Library. 1874.

Hugo, Herman. Pia Desideria. Antwerp, 1628. Englished by Edmund Arwaker. 1686.

Paradin, Claude, The Heroicall Devises of. Translated out of Latin by P. S. 1591.

Peacham, Henry. Minerva Britanna: or a Garden of Heroycal Devices. 1612.

—— The Mirrour of Majestie. 1618.

Peyton, Thomas. The Glasse of Time. 1620–3. Rptd., New York, 1886.

Whitney, Geffrey. A Choice of Emblemes … gathered out of sundrie writers, Englished and moralized. Chr. Plantyn, Leyden, 1586.

Willet, Andrew. Sacrorum Emblematum Centuria una. (Latin and English.) Cambridge, (1596?).

Wither, George. A Collection of Emblemes, ancient and moderne. 1635.

Books on Emblem-writing

Daniel, Samuel. The Worthy Tract of Paulus Jovius contayning a Discourse of Rare Inventions … called Imprese. London, 1585. (The Ragionamento of Paulo Giovio, bishop of Nocera, was printed at Venice, 1556.)

Green, Henry. Andrea Alciati and his books of emblems. A biographical and bibliographical study. 1872.

—— Shakespeare and the emblem writers. 1870.

—— Whitney’s Choice of Emblemes. A facsimile rpt., with a dissertation, essays and notes. 1866. (A valuable repertory of all information about emblembooks.)

Mignault, Claude. Syntagma de Symbolis. Antwerp, 1581.

Pigot, R. (ed.). Moral Emblems from Jacob Cats and Robert Farlie. 1860.

Wroth, W., art. Emblema in Smith’s Dict. Gk. and Rom. Antiq.

Yates, J. B. Sketch of Books of Emblems. 1849.


Abbot, John. Jesus praefigured; or a Poeme of the Holy Name. 1623.

Austin, John (1613–69). Devotions … in the Antient Way of Offices. Paris, 1668. (Includes hymns.)

Aylett, Robert (1583–1655?). Divine Poems, 1625.

Beaumont, Sir John (1583–1627). Bosworth Field, … with a Taste of the Variety of other Poems. 1629. Rptd. in Fuller Worthies Library, 1869.

Beaumont, Joseph (1616–99). Psyche, or Love’s Mystery … displaying the Intercourse betwixt Christ and the Soul. 1648. Later edd. 1702 and 1749, and Chertsey Worthies Library, 1880. MS. in Peterhouse library.

Collins, Thomas. The Penitent Publican. 1610.

Crane, Ralph. The Workes of Mercy, both Corporeall and Spirituall. 1621. Rptd. c. 1625 under new title, The Pilgrimes New Yeares Gift.

Crossman, Samuel (1624?–84). Sacred Poems. 1664. Rptd. 1863.

Fitzgeffry, Charles (1575?–1638). Sir Francis Drake. 1596. Rptd. 1819.

—— The Blessed Birthday. 1634. Grosart’s Occasional Issues. 1881.

—— Complete Poems. Fuller Worthies Library. 1874.

Grahame, Simion (1570?–1614). The Passionate Sparke of a relenting Minde. 1604. The Anatomie of Humours. 1604 (prose and verse). Both rptd. for the Bannatyne Club, 1830.

Hagthorpe, John. Divine Meditations and Elegies. 1622. Rptd., in part, by Sir E. Brydges as Hagthorpe Revived, 1817.

Harvey, Christopher (1597–1663). The Synagogue, or a Shadow of the Temple. 1640.

Leighton, Sir William (fl. 1603–14). The Teares … of a sorrowfull soule. 1613.

Lever, Christopher. Queen Elizabeth’s Teares. 1607.

—— A Crucifixe. 1607. Fuller Worthies Library. 1870.

Loe, William (d. 1645). Songs of Sion. Hamburg, 1620. Fuller Worthies Library Miscellanies. 1871.

Mason, John (1645?–94). Spiritual Songs, or Songs of Praise. 1683.

More, Henry (1614–87). Psychozoia Platonica. 1642. Included in Philosophicall Poems. 1647. Chertsey Worthies Library. 1878.

Norris, John (1657–1711), of Bemerton. Poems and Discourses. 1684.

—— Miscellanies, consisting of Poems, Essays, & c. 1687.

—— Collected Poems. Fuller Worthies Library. 1871.

Ross, Alexander (1590–1654). Mel Heliconium. 1642.

Rowlands, Samuel. See vol. IV, pp. 598–600 of the present work, and add A Theatre of Divine Recreation, 1605. (Poems chiefly on the Old Testament; the book is now lost; see Percy, Reliques, 1812, vol. III, p. 161.)

Stradling, Sir John (1563–1637). Beati Pacifici: a Divine Poem. 1623.

—— Divine Poems. 1625. Both rptd. in Grosart’s Occasional Issues, 1883.

Sylvester, Joshuah (1563–1618). Lachrimae Lachrimarum. 1612. Chertsey Worthies Library. 1880.

Weever, John (1576–1632). The Mirror of Martyrs. 1601.

—— An Agnus Dei. 1606.

Westmorland, Mildmay Fane 2nd earl of (d. 1665). Otia Sacra. 1648. Grosart’s Occasional Issues. 1879.