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The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume VII. Cavalier and Puritan.

VIII. Historical and Political Writings



No authoritative bibliography exists of the historical and political writings of the period treated in these chapters (in which compositions dating from the reign of Elizabeth are only in special instances and for special reasons included), except what is to be found in part II, chapter VII, of the late S. R. Gardiner and J. Bass Mullinger’s Introduction to the Study of English History, 3rd ed., 1894. The chief extant collections of tracts are enumerated in Section VII, under the heading Political Pamphlets, etc. With respect to the pamphlet and other political literature of the civil war and adjacent period, as in other respects, the contributions of C. H. Firth to the Dictionary of National Biography are of unique value.

A word may be added as to an interesting publication which, although unfortunately uncompleted, covers, from its special point of view, the whole of the period treated in these chapters. Index Expurgatorius Anglicanus, published 1872–8, anonymously and without a title-page, and extending to five parts and 294 numbers on 290 pages, is a carefully compiled catalogue raisonné of works prohibited in England by royal proclamation, or suppressed by order of the Star chamber or High Commission court, or of the House of Commons or (more rarely) of the House of Lords. The collection, so far as it was issued, extends over the years from 1523 to 1681. The earliest book noted is Simon Fyshe’s Supplicacyon for the Beggers, the next is Tyndale’s translation of the New Testament (1525). As a matter of course, the Index in the later Tudor period includes works bearing on the succession and on the treatment of the Catholics, e.g. cardinal Allen’s Modest Answer to the English Persecutors (condemned 1585). The Marprelate tracts are, naturally, conspicuous; among works of literary significance, Halle’s Union of the two noble and illustre famelies of Lancastre, and Yorke, comes first; bishop Hall’s Virgidemiarum follows (1597 and 1598), with (1598) a volume containing All Ovid’s Elegies by C. M. (Christopher Marlowe) and Epigrams by J. D. (Sir John Davies). To the reign of James I belong Wither’s Abuses Stript and Whipt (1613) and Ralegh’s History of the World (1614), as well as the plays Eastward Hoe (1605) and A Game at Chesse (1624). Sir Robert Cotton’s Henry III (1627) and D’Avenant’s and Inigo Jones’s masque Britannia Triumphans (1637) were prohibited in the following reign. Among publications of direct significance for the political history of the times may be mentioned Cowell’s Interpreter (1607); A true relation of the unjust, cruel and barbarous proceeding against the English at Amboyna (1624); Montagu’s Appello Caesarem (1625); Roger Mainwaring’s two Sermons on Religion and Allegiance (1627); Prynne’s Histriomastix (1633); the contributions to the episcopal controversy of Bastwick (1635–7) and Burton (1636); and Baxter’s Holy Commonwealth (1659). Altogether, the Index notes 21 books, plays or pamphlets published under James I, 120 under Charles I and 41 under the commonwealth and protectorates. But it must not, of course, be supposed that the prohibition of pamphlets stands in any direct ratio to their production; for, the more anarchy, the more pamphlets. The year 1648 (when the army sent up its remonstrance to parliament) may be taken as an example, or, again, the masterless period of 1658–9. In the former, there appear to have been relatively few suppressions by authority, and, in the latter, none at all.

A. English

Birch, Thomas. The Court and Times of Charles the First; illustrated by authentic and confidential letters, from various public and private collections; including Memoirs of the Mission in England of the Capuchin Friars in the service of Queen Henrietta Maria. 2 vols. 1848.

—— The Court and Times of James the First; being a series of Historical and Confidential Letters. Transcribed from the Originals in the British Museum, State Paper Office and Private Collections. 2 vols. 1849.

Cabala, sive Scrinia Sacra. Mysteries of State and Government in Letters of illustrious Persons and great Agents; in the Reigns of Henry the Eighth, Queen Elizabeth, King James and the late King Charls. In two Parts, in which the Secrets of Empire, and Publique manage of Affairs are contained. With many remarkable Passages nowhere else Published. 1654. (The second title is less comprehensive.)

Professes to give impartially all the materials of the secret history of the last years of James, and the earliest of Charles, and especially those concerning the actions of Buckingham, the “Subtleties of Spain,” and the “Practises of our Home-Roman Catholics, and of some of those who were called Puritans then.” Among the papers of interest new to the public were Bacon’s Considerations concerning the Queen’s Service in Ireland (undated) and a large number of letters from him and others to Buckingham. The whole is a curious medley of foreign, home, Irish, and even university affairs.

Calendar of State Papers. Domestic Series, of the Reigns of Edward VI, Mary, Elizabeth and James I. Vols. III–VI (Elizabeth, 1591–1603); VIII–XI (James I, 1603–25); XII (Addenda, 1580–1625). Ed. Everett Green, M. A. 1856–72.

—— of the Reign of Charles I. Vols. I–XII (1625–38). Ed. Bruce, J. 1858–69. XIII (1638–9). Edd. Bruce, J. and Hamilton, W. D. 1871. XIV–XXII (1639–49). Ed. Hamilton, W. D. 1873–93. Addenda (1625–49). Edd. Hamilton, W. D. and Lomas, S. C. 1897. This additional volume includes several letters from Buckingham (including a love letter supposed to be the queen), from Conway, Sir Thomas Roe and others.

Calendar of State Papers. Domestic Series, of the Commonwealth and Protectorate (1649–60). Ed. Everett Green, M. A. 15 vols. 1875–86.

Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series. America and West Indies (1574–1660). Ed. Sainsbury, W. N. 1860.

Calendar of the Proceedings of the Committee for Compounding etc. (1643–60). Ed. Everett Green, M. A. 5 parts. 1889.

Calendar of the Proceedings of the Committee for the Advance of Money (1642–56). Ed. Everett Green, M. A. 3 parts. 1888.

Clarendon, Edward Hyde, Earl of. Calendar of the Clarendon State Papers preserved in the Bodleian Library. Vol. I, to January, 1649. Edd. Ogle, O. and Bliss, W. H. Oxford, 1872. Vol. II, from the death of Charles I to the end of 1654. Ed. Macray, W. D. Oxford, 1869. (Contains, inter alia, the newsletters sent to Sir Edward Nicholas at the Hague.) Vol. III, 1655–7. Ed. Macray, W. D. Oxford, 1876.

This volume contains, pp. 79 ff., Letter from a true and lawful member of Parliament and one faithfully engaged with it from the beginninge of the warr to the end, to one of the Lords of his Highnesse Councell, upon occasyon of the late Declaration shewinge the reasons of the proceedings for securinge the peace of the Commonwealth, publ. on the 31st of October, 1655 (1656).

—— State Papers collected by Edward, Earl of Clarendon, commencing from the yeare 1621. Containing the Materials from which his History of the Great Rebellion was composed and the Authorities on which the truth of his Relation is founded. 3 vols. Oxford, 1767–86.

This is a selection only, omitting private and personal matters.

Cromwell, Oliver. Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell. Ed. Carlyle, Thomas. 2 vols. 1845. New ed. by Lomas, S. C., with an introduction by Firth, C. H. 2 vols. 1904.

Letters and Papers relating to the First Dutch War, 1652–4. Ed. Gardiner, S. R. Vols. I and II. Ptd. for the Navy Records Society. 1899–1900. Contains Orders of the Council of State, news from ports etc.

Manchester and Cromwell. Quarrel, the, between the Earl of Manchester and Oliver Cromwell: an Episode of the English Civil War. Unpublished documents relating thereto, collected by the late John Bruce, with fragments of a historical preface. Annotated and completed by Masson, David. Camden Soc. Publ. N. S. XII. 1875.

A notable episode in the history of the struggle between presbyterianism and independency, and of the establishment of the New Model. Cromwell’s statement in the House of Commons is very businesslike.

Milton, John. Letters of State Written by Mr John Milton, To most of the Sovereign Princes and Republicks of Europe. From the year 1649. Till the Year 1659. 1694.

Nalson, John. An Impartial Collection of the Great Affairs of State. From the beginning of the Scotch Rebellion In the Year MDCXXXIX. To the Murther of King Charles I. Wherein The first Occasions, and the whole Series of the late Troubles in England, Scotland and Ireland, Are faithfully Represented. 2 vols. 1682.

John Nalson (1638?–86), whose royalist pamphlets belong to the latter part of the reign of Charles II, only carried his Impartial Collection to January 1642. It is mentioned here as avowedly designed to be an antidote to Rushworth; but the additional documents which Nalson was allowed to copy at the State Paper Office, did not enable him to supersede his predecessor.

Nicholas, Sir Edward. The Nicholas Papers. Correspondence of Sir Edward Nicholas, Secretary of State. Ed. Warner, G. F. 3 vols. Camden Soc. Publ. N. S. XL, L, LVII. 1886–97.

Rushworth, John. Historical Collections of Private Passages of State. Weighty Matters in Law. Remarkable Proceedings in Five Parliaments. Beginning The Sixteenth Year of King James, Anno 1618.… 8 vols. 1659–80. (Vol. VIII contains The Tryall of Thomas Earl of Strafford, 1641.) Another edition, Historical Collections of Private Passages of State, Weighty Matters in Law, Remarkable Proceedings in Five Parliaments. Part I, 1618–29. Part II, 1629–40. Part III, 1640–4. Part IV, 1645–9. 7 vols. 1659–1701. Another edition. 6 vols. 1703–8.

Strafford, Thomas Wentworth, Earl of. The Earl of Strafford’s Letters and Despatches, with an Essay towards his life by Sir G. Radcliffe. Ed. Knowler, W. 2 vols. 1739. These extend over the years 1611–40.

Thurloe, J. A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Esq.; Secretary, First, to the Council of State, And afterwards to The Two Protectors, Oliver and Richard Cromwell. To which is prefixed, The Life of Mr Thurloe. By Thomas Birch. 7 vols. 1742.

B. Scottish

(Balcanqual, or Balcanquhall, Dr.) A large Declaration concerning the late Tumults in Scotland from their first Originalls: together with a particular Deduction of the seditious Practices of the prime Leaders of the Covenanters: Collected òut of their owne foule Acts and Writings: By which it doth plainly appeare, that Religion was onely pretended by those Leaders, but nothing lesse intended by them. By the King. 1639.

A “Historical Deduction,” ordered by the king and printed by his majesty’s printer for Scotland, against the Covenant of 1638, which is here rehearsed at length and unequivocally denounced.

Clarke Papers, the. Ed. Firth, C. H. 3 vols.

This selection is an important source for the history of the English government of Scotland under the commonwealth and the protectorate.

Hamilton Papers, the: being Selections from Original Letters in the possession of the Duke of Hamilton and Brandon (1616–51), relating to the years 1638–40. Ed. Gardiner, S. R. Camden Soc. Publ. N. S. XXVII. 1880.

Though the letters of Charles I, as already ptd. by Burnet in his Memoirs of the Dukes of Hamilton, are omitted, Hamilton’s own correspondence is given completely, together with Sir Robert Murray’s letters from Newcastle during the king’s confinement and the correspondence of Lauderdale.

James VI (I). Correspondence of King James VI of Scotland with Sir Robert Cecil and others in England, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth; with an Appendix containing papers illustrative of transactions between King James and Robert Earl of Essex. (Principally from the papers of the marquis of Salisbury at Hatfield.) Ed. Bruce, J. Camden Soc. Publ. LXXVII. 1861.

Parts I, II and III contain the king’s correspondence with Cecil, lord Henry Howard and the earl of Northumberland respectively. The introduction is admirable.

Melros State Papers. State Papers and Miscellaneous Correspondence of Thomas, Earl of Melros (1563–1637). 2 vols. Edd. Maidment, J. and Hope, J. Abbotsford Club Publ. Edinburgh, 1837.

These discuss, in the broadest Scots, Scottish affairs after the accession of James to the English throne, including his visit to “Halirud House” in 1617.

C. Irish

Calendar of State Papers relating to Ireland of the Reign of James I, preserved in the Public Record Office and elsewhere. Edd. Russell, C. W. and Prendergast, J. P. 5 vols. 1872–80.

Calendar of the Carew Papers preserved in the Lambeth Library. Edd. Brewer, J. S. and Bullen, W. 6 vols. 1867–73. (Vols. III–VI deal with the period from 1589–1624.)

The basis of the detailed account of the Irish rebellion, 1599 to 1602, published after Carew’s death in Pacata Hibernia. See Sec. VI, C.

Cromwell, Henry (1628–74). Correspondence, Lansdowne MSS., British Museum.

(These still await publication.)

Ormonde, Duke of. Carte, T. A Collection of Original Letters and Papers, concerning the Affairs of England, from the year 1641 to 1660. Found among the Duke of Ormonde’s Papers. 2 vols. 1739.

—— The MSS. of the Marquis of Ormonde, K.P., preserved at the Castle, Kilkenny. Ed. Gilbert, Sir John T., Hist. MSS. Comm., 14th Report, Appendix, part VII. 2 vols. 1895–9.

—— Calendar of MSS. of the Marquess of Ormonde, K.P., preserved at Kilkenny Castle. Hist. MSS. Comm., N.S. 5 vols. 1902–8 (vols. I and II).

These transcripts from the papers of the first duke of Ormonde (1610–88) at Kilkenny, together with the papers in Carte’s collection at the Bodleian, are described by Falkiner, C. Litton, An Illustrious Cavalier, in Essays relating to Ireland (1909) as amounting to “something like a continuous series of papers” concerning Irish public affairs from the outbreak of the Irish rebellion of 1641 to the close of the reign of Charles I. “Few statesmen,” he says, “have taken more pains to preserve their correspondence.” Among Ormonde’s correspondents during the exile of Charles II and his court were Hyde (Clarendon), Nicholas, lord Byron and cardinal de Retz.

Sydney Letters. Letters and Memorials of State, In the Reigns of Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth, King James, King Charles the First, Part of the Reign of King Charles the Second, and Oliver’s Usurpation. Written and Collected by Sir Henry Sydney, Sir Philip Sydney, his brother Sir Robert Sydney, second Earl of Leicester and Philip Lord Viscount Lisle. Ed. Collins, Arthur. 2 vols. 1746.

The main interest is Elizabethan and Irish; the reign of James I is not reached till the middle of vol. II.

Public documents concerning the history of Ireland are also to be found in Hibernica, and in Bellings’s History of the Irish Confederation, etc. (see Sec. VI, C).


Birch, Thomas. An Historical View of the Negotiations between the Courts of England, France and Brussels, from the year 1592 to 1617. Extracted chiefly from the MS. State Papers of Sir Thomas Edmondes, Knt., Embassador in France, and at Brussels, and Treasurer of the Household to the Kings James I and Charles I and of Anthony Bacon, Esq., Brother to the Lord Chancellor Bacon. To which is added Carew’s Relation (see below). 1749.

Bulstrode, Sir Richard (1610–1711). Original Letters Written to the Earl of Arlington by Sir Richard Bulstrode, Envoy at the Court of Brussels from King Charles II, & c. With an Account of the Author’s Life and Family. Ed. Bysshe, E. 1712.

Carew, Sir George (afterwards Earl of Totnes). A relation of the State of France, with the Characters of Henry IV and the Principal Persons of that Court. Drawn up by Sir George Carew, upon his Return from his Embassy there in 1609, and addressed to King James I. Ptd. in Birch, T., (see above).

—— (1565–1629). Letters from George Lord Carew to Sir Thomas Roe, Ambassador to the Court of the Great Mogul, 1615–1617. Ed. Maclean, J. Camden Soc. Publ., LXXVI. 1860.

Carleton, Sir Dudley, Viscount Dorchester. State Letters, during his Embassy at the Hague, A.D. 1627. Now first edited by T[homas] P[hillips]. 1841.

Carleton was Wotton’s successor at Venice. His mission to the Hague in 1627 was to invest the prince of Orange with the garter, but his secret instructions were concerned with the Anglo-French quarrel.

—— The Speech of Sir Dudley Carlton Lord Embassadour for the King in the Estates Generall of the united Provinces touching Arminius. Exhibited the 6. of October 1617. 1618.

Advises that the truth as to Arminianism, if not determinable otherwise, should be settled “by votes” at a synod. This was done at Dort.

Chamberlain, John. Letters written by John Chamberlain during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Ed. from the originals by Williams, Sarah. Camden Soc. Publ. LXXIX. 1861.

Chamberlain was a Cambridge man, usually resident in London.

Digges, Sir Dudley. The Compleat Ambassador: or two Treaties of the Intended Marriage of Qu: Elizabeth of Glorious Memory; Comprised in Letters of Negotiation of Sir Francis Walsingham, her Resident in France. Together with the Answers of the Lord Burgleigh, the Earl of Leicester, Sir Tho: Smith and others. Wherein, as in a clear Mirror, may be seen the Faces of the two Courts of England and France, as they then stood; with many remarkable passages of State, not at all mentioned in any History. 1655.

Howell, James. See Sec. III.

Overbury, Sir Thomas (1581–1613). His Observations, in his Travels upon the State of the Seventeen Provinces, 1609; ptd. 1626; upon the State of the Archduke’s [sic] Country, 1609; on the State of France, 1609.

This and similar summaries can hardly be called state papers, and are neither despatches nor newsletters proper; but they partake of the nature of all these kinds, and resemble some of the most sustained efforts of modern journalism. Overbury’s observations on the State of France are remarkable: he speaks of France as “the greatest united force of Christendom,” mentioning, among her weak points, the want of a sufficient infantry, which he attributes to the enfeeblement of the peasant class.

Roe, Sir Thomas (1581?–1644). Letters and negotiations concerning the embassy of Sir Thomas Roe to Constantinople. Ed. Carte, T. Vol. I. 1740.

No second volume appeared. The queen of Bohemia’s faithful “fatt Thom” went on a mission to the Great Mogul, 1615–7; see Carew, Sir George. His Constantinople embassy lasted from 1621 to 1628.

Thirty Years’ War. Letters and other Documents illustrating the relations between England and Germany at the commencement of the Thirty Years’ War. (I) From the Outbreak of the Revolution in Bohemia to the Election of the Emperor Ferdinand II. (2) From the election of the Emp. Ferdinand II to the close of the Conferences at Mühlhausen. Ed. Gardiner, S. R. Camden Soc. Publ. XC and XCVIII. 1875 and 1878.

The former series chiefly treats of Doncaster’s hopeless mission for the settlement of the Bohemian troubles in 1619; the latter of James I’s vacillations as to his son-in-law’s acceptance of the Bohemian crown.

Winwood, Sir Ralph (1563?–1617). Memorials of Affairs of State in the Reigns of Q. Elizabeth and K. James I. Collected (chiefly) from the Original Papers Of the Right Honourable Sir Ralph Winwood, Kt. Sometime one of the Principal Secretaries of State. Ed. Sawyer, E. 3 vols. 1725.

The whole Winwood Collection is calendared in the Hist. MSS. Comm. on the MSS. of the Duke of Buccleuch, vol. I, 1899. Sir Ralph Winwood had been secretary of embassy and acting resident at Paris. The Memorials include the negotiations of other agents abroad.

Smith, L. P. The Life and Letters of Sir Henry Wotton. 2 vols. Oxford, 1907.

Wotton, Sir Henry. Letters and Dispatches from Sir Henry Wotton to James the First and his Ministers in the years 1617–20. Roxburghe Club. Publ. 1850.

See, also, Vol. IV, bibliography to chap. IX, p. 552.

Later newsletters are those written by Sir William Dugdale and Stephen Charlton to Sir Richard Levison and by James Waynright to Richard Bradshaw; while in the Clarke Papers (see Sec. I, B) are to be found reports sent to the headquarters of the army in Scotland from its agents in England during the latter part of Oliver’s protectorate. See Firth, C. H., Preface to vol. I of The Last Years of the Protectorate, 1656–8 (1909).


Bacon, Francis (Viscount St. Alban). Letters and Life of Francis Bacon, including all his Occasional Works, namely, Letters, Speeches, Tracts, State Papers, Memorials, Devices, etc. Ed. Spedding, James. 7 vols. 1861–4. (Vols. VIII–XIV of The Works of Francis Bacon, 1857–74.) (Besides the particular letters by Bacon mentioned in the text may be noted the Letter of Advice to Buckingham on becoming Favourite (1616) in vol. VI, and many others to the same address and to that of the king (including Bacon’s letter on his fall) in vols. VI and VII.)

Bromley, Sir George. A Collection of Original Royal Letters written by King Charles the First and Second, King James the Second, and the King of Bohemia; together with Original Letters written by Prince Rupert, Charles Louis Count Palatine, the Duchess of Hanover, and several other distinguished Persons; from 1619 to 1665. 1787.

Sir George Bromley was the descendant of a sometime envoy to the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and of a natural daughter of prince Rupert.

Cecil, Sir Robert (1563?–1612). Letters from Sir Robert Cecil to Sir George Carew. Ed. Maclean, J. Camden Soc. Publ. LXXXVIII. 1864.

Written during the tenure of the presidency of Munster by Carew.

Charles I. Letters of King Charles the First to Queen Henrietta Maria. Ed. Bruce, J. Camden Soc. Publ. 1861.

This interesting correspondence belongs to the year 1646, when the king, left to himself, made to the parliament highly important concessions, which the queen passionately denounced.

—— The Private Correspondence between King Charles I and his Secretary of State, Sir Edward Nicholas, whilst His Majesty was in Scotland, 1641, and at other times during the Civil War; also between Sir Edward Hyde, afterwards Earl of Clarendon, and Sir Richard Browne, ambassador to the Court of France, in the time of Charles II and the Usurpation. In vol. IV of Diary of John Evelyn, etc. Edd. Bray, W. and Wheatley, H. B. 1879.

Clarendon, Edward Hyde, Earl of. Private Correspondence with Sir Richard Browne, Ambassador to the Court of France. In vol. IV of Diary of John Evelyn, etc.

Ellis, Sir H. Original Letters illustrative of English history. Ser. I, 3 vols. Ser. II, 4 vols. Ser. III, 4 vols. 2nd ed. 1825–46.

—— Original Letters of eminent literary men of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. Camden Soc. Publ. 1843.

Fairfax Correspondence, the. Memoirs of the Reign of Charles the First. Ed. Johnson, J. G. W. 2 vols. 1848. (Narrative interspersed with Letters, to 1642.) Continued in Memorials of the Civil War: comprising the Correspondence of the Fairfax Family. Ed. Bell, R. 2 vols. 1849. (To 1660, with some letters belonging to later years).

Forde, Thomas. Faenestra in Pectore. Or, Familiar Letters. 1660.

Halliwell[-Phillipps], J. O. Letters of the Kings of England, now first collected from the Originals in Royal Archives etc. Ed. Halliwell, J. O. 2 vols. 1846. (Vol. II contains many letters from James I and Charles I to Buckingham, queen Henrietta Maria and others.)

Hatton Correspondence. Correspondence of the Family of Hatton, being chiefly letters addressed to Christopher, first Viscount Hatton, A.D. 1601–1704. Ed. Thompson, E. M. 2 vols. Camden Soc. Publ. N. S. XXII–XXIII. 1878. [The whole Finch-Hatton Correspondence is in MS. in the British Museum.]

Henrietta Maria, Queen. Letters of. Ed. Everett Green, M. A. 1857.

Howell, James. Epistolae Ho-Elianae. Familiar Letters Domestic and Forren; Divided into Six Sections, Partly Historicall, Politicall, Philosophicall, Upon Emergent Occasions: By J. H. Esq;: One of the Clerks of His Majesties most Honourable Privy Councell. 1645. Ed. Jacobs, J. 2 vols. 1890.

—— Letter to the Earle of Pembrooke concerning the Times, and the sad condition both of Prince and People. 1647.

For other publications by Howell see Sec. V, A and Sec. VII, B, 2.

Loveday, Robert (fl. 1655). Letters Domestick and Forrein, occasionally distributed in Subjects Philosophicall Historicall Morall. 1659.

The author, who translated La Calprenède’s Cléopâtre, was an agreeable writer, versed in French and Italian. He very seldom refers to the civil war, though he lived in the midst of it at Nottingham.

Scoones, W. B. Four Centuries of English Letters, sec. II (1600–1700). 1880.

Strafford, Thomas Wentworth, Earl of. Private Letters from the Earl of Strafford to his third Wife. Ed. Milnes, R. M. (Lord Houghton) in Philobiblon Society’s Miscellanies, vol. I. 1854.

Verney Letters. Letters and Papers of the Verney Family down to the end of the year 1639. Printed from the original MSS. Ed. Bruce, J. Camden Soc. Publ. LIII. 1853.

—— Memoirs of the Verney Family. 1642–96. Edd. Verney, Lady F. P. and Verney, Lady M. M. 4 vols. 1892–9.

Wills. A Selection of the Wills of Eminent Persons, preserved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, 1495–1695. Edd. Nichols, J. G. and Bruce, J. Camden Soc. Publ. 1863. (Includes the wills of Elizabeth of Bohemia, speaker Lenthall, John Hampden, and others.)


No reference is here made to sermons and other religious discourses, which were specially numerous in the latter part of the period. The political speeches increase in both quality and importance as the authority of parliament gradually becomes paramount. During the earlier years of the seventeenth century, the Journal Book of the House of Commons (which, in the Elizabethan age, had, for the most part, been in better order than that of the Lords) continued to preserve reports of speeches delivered there, though in a very condensed form; but in the Lords no speeches (except the king’s) were entered in the Journals, though a rough record was kept for reference by the peers themselves. In the time of the Long parliament, feeling was still strong in both Houses against allowing any full record of speeches. Rushworth was prevented from expanding entries in the Journals, and members of the House of Commons (as in the cases of Sir Edward Deering and Lord Digby) were actually expelled for taking notes.

The following is a list, in chronological order, of reports of parliamentary proceedings preserved to us. Of the Parliamentary History, vol. I (1806) covers the ground from 1066 to 1624; vol. II deals with 1625, and the subsequent volumes advance even less expeditiously. Rushworth’s Historical Collections (1659–80) —see Sec. I, A—which begin with the year 1618, contain an account of parliamentary proceedings during the sessions covered.

D’Ewes, Sir Simonds. A Compleat Journal of the Votes, Speeches and Debates, both of the House of Lords and House of Commons, throughout the whole Reign of Elizabeth of Glorious Memory. 2nd ed. 1693.

This is taken from the Journal Books of both Houses and other sources, and resembles a modern parliamentary summary.

Townshend, Hayward (fl. 1601). Historical Collections; or, An exact Account of the Proceedings of the Four last Parliaments of Q. Elizabeth of Famous Memory. Wherein is contained The Compleat Journals Both of the Lords and Commons, Taken from the Original Records of Their Houses, As also The more particular Behaviours of the Worthy Members during all the last notable Sessions. 1680.

Includes speeches by Robert Cecil, Bacon and Ralegh, who, on one occasion, is described as blushing at the mention of “Monopolies of Cards.”

Parliamentary Debates in 1610. Ed. from the notes of a member of the house of Commons by Gardiner, S. R. Camden Soc. Publ. 1862.

Proceedings and Debates in the House of Commons in 1620 and 1621, collected by a Member of that House [Sir E. Nicholas]. 2 vols. Oxford, 1766.

Notes of the Debates in the House of Lords, officially taken by Henry Elsing, Clerk of the Parliaments A.D. 1621. Ed. Gardiner, S. R. Camden Soc. Publ. 1870.

Notes of the Debates in the House of Lords, officially taken by Henry Elsing, Clerk of the Parliaments A.D. 1624 and 1626. Ed. Gardiner, S. R. Camden Soc. Publ. N. S. XXIV. Westminster, 1879.

Contains notes of the last parliament of James and the first of Charles—including the impeachments of Middlesex, Buckingham and Bacon, and the charges against Bristol. The Petition of Right debates, 1628, remain unprinted.

Debates in the House of Commons 1625. Ed. Gardiner, S. R. Camden Soc. Publ. 1873.

In these debates, which turn on the ambitious designs of Buckingham, Eliot already comes to the front.

Verney, Sir Ralph. Notes of Proceedings in the Long Parliament, temp. Charles I. Printed from original pencil memoranda taken in the House by Sir Ralph Verney, Knight. Ed. Bruce, J. Camden Soc. Publ. XXXI. 1845. (Sir Ralph Verney was member for Aylesbury.)

Burton, Thomas. Diary. Vols. I–IV. Ed. by Rutt, T. 1828.

Thomas Burton sat in the House of Commons for Westmorland, 1656–9; his note-books are of value for the end of the protectorate, though Carlyle complains of his “dim inanity.”

The practice of entering in the Journals of the House of Lords protests, accompanied by a statement of reasons, which dates from the time of the Long parliament (1641), is fully elucidated, and the protests are printed from the Journal of the Lords, in

Rogers, James E. Thorold. A Complete Collection of the Protests of the Lords. With Historical Introductions. 3 vols. Oxford, 1875.

Of particular speeches dating from this period it would answer no purpose to attempt anything like a complete list. James I and Charles I, and, again, Charles II (with his back to the fire) addressed the House of Lords with a freedom and frequency unknown to later times; but it was not till after the restoration that it seems to have become customary to publish at the opening, prorogation or dissolution of parliament, or on other important occasions, speeches delivered from the throne which, although still, in a measure, informal, were intended to convey carefully prepared announcements of policy. Such speeches, delivered by Charles II on 13 September 1660, 29 December 1660, and 8 May 1661, were published with companion speeches by lord chancellor Clarendon. As to the speeches of Oliver Cromwell, cf. Sec. I, A. Among the speeches by eminent ministers and members of parliament, those of Bacon claim precedence. (See Letters and Life etc., by Spedding, J., 7 vols., 1861–4; of which vols. III and IV contain many of Bacon’s parliamentary speeches; vol. V his charge as attorney general against Somerset in the Overbury case; and vol. VI his speech on assuming office as lord chancellor.) From the great days of the Long parliament are preserved deliverances of critical moment, such as Falkland’s great speech on episcopacy (1641), showing the parting of the waters, and Pym’s against Laud (of the same year), which, with several speeches against Strafford, marks the first great sweep of the revolutionary movement. Any list of extant speeches would have to include several by Hyde (Clarendon), in both phases of his political life, and examples of the oratory of Prynne (with whom everything was interminable) and of Prynne’s adversaries, sectaries whose ideas of liberty were very divergent from his own. Sir Dudley Digges put on record

A Conference desired by the Lords and had by a Committee of both Houses, concerning the Rights and Privileges of the Subjects. Discoursed by Sir Dudley Digges, Sir Edward Littleton, Knight, now Lord Keeper, Master Seldon, Sir Edward Cooke. With the Objections by Sir Robert Heath, Knight, then Attorney Generall, and the Answer. 3°Apr. 3 Car. 1628. 1642.

The question at issue is that of illegal imprisonment, redress by demand of Habeas Corpus failing.

Sir Simonds d’Ewes preserved, together with The Greeke Postscripts of the Epistles to Timothy and Titus cleared in Parliament. And an occasionall Speech touching the Bill of Acapitation, or Poll-Money, 1641, rptd. in Harleian Miscellany, ed. Park, T., vol. IX, 1812:

Two speeches: the first touching the antiquity of Cambridge, the other concerning the Priviledge of Parliament, in Causes Civill and Criminall. 1642.

Finally, though the genuineness of dying speeches is at all times open to doubt, the last words of Charles I in the Life and Death of Charles the First, with his Tryal, Sentences and Dying Words seem to have been reported very soon after the catastrophe. Still, like these, archbishop Laud’s Speech or Funerall Sermon preacht by himself on the Scaffold on Tower-Hill (10 January 1644) may be less trustworthy than are some of the speeches delivered by him in the Star chamber against Bastwick, Burton and Prynne, and ptd. in The Second Volume of the Remains of Archbishop Laud (Written by Himself). Collected by Henry Wharton and published by Edmund Wharton, 1700, as a supplement to the Diary (1694). The speech which Sir Henry Vane was prevented from delivering, but which was included in The Tryal of Sir Henry Vane, Kt at the King’s Bench, Westminster June 2d and 6h 1662 (1662) has every internal sign of genuineness. But it falls in date, though not in spirit, outside the period covered by these chapters.

A. English and General

For a bibliography of the Tudor chroniclers see ante, Vol. III, pp. 596–601. In John Speed, who had the assistance of the eminent antiquaries Sir Henry Cotton (especially in his account of the reign of Henry VIII), Spelman and others, some critics have recognised the earliest of English historians as well as one of the trustiest of annalists. A great impulse was, no doubt, given to the study of English history by the author of Britannia (1586), William Camden, whose Annals of the Reign of Elizabeth Selden couples with Bacon’s Henry VIII as distinguished from all other attempts at writing contemporary English history. For a list of the works comprised in vols. I and II of bishop White Kennett’s History of England to the death of William III, 1706, see Gardiner, S. R. and Mullinger, J. B., Introduction to English History (3rd ed.), p. 217 note 5; vol. III was Kennett’s own composition.

Bacon, Francis (Viscount St Alban). The Historie of the Reigne of King Henry the Seventh. 1622. Rptd. in Bacon’s Literary and Professional Works, edd. Spedding, J. and Ellis, R. L., vol. I, 1858.

Of the History of the reign of Henry VIII, which Bacon was recommended to write by Charles prince of Wales, only a page or two were written. See L. and P. Works, u.s. pp. 267–8. A rather larger fragment, not devoid of grandeur, remains of The Beginning of the History of Great Britain, written a little before 1610; see ibid. pp. 271 ff. Of much historical interest are:

Advertisement touching on Holy Warre, written in 1622, ptd. by Rawley, W., in Certain Miscellany Works of (Bacon), 1629, and rptd. in L. and P. Works, u.s. vol. II, pp. 8 ff.; and the fragment Of the True Greatness of the Kingdom of Britain, ptd. 1634, rptd. L. and P. Works, vol. II, pp. 37 ff. The former, in dialogue form, advocates a war against the Turks; the latter advocates the policy of employing in war energies otherwise likely to spend themselves in domestic quarrels.

Bedell, William, Bishop of Kilmore (1571–1642). A True Relation, of the Life and Death of William Bedell, Lord Bishop of Kilmore in Ireland. Ed. Jones, T. Wharton. Camden Soc. Publ. 1872. (Previously publ. without notes by Mayor, J. E. B., 1871.)

Bedell, William. Speculum Episcoporum; or The Apostolique Bishop, being a brieffe Account of the Lyfe and Death of that Reverend Father in God, D. William Bedell etc. (By his son-in-law, Alexander Clogy.) Edd. Wilkins, W. W., 1862, and, with A True Relation, Letters, etc. under the title Two Biographies of William Bedell, Shuckburgh, E. S., Cambridge, 1902.

Bedell was, as Sir Henry Wotton’s chaplain at Venice, associated with his protestant schemes. He died in 1642, as a victim of the Irish rebellion. Later lives of him were published by Burnet (1685) and by Mason, H. J. Monck (1843).

Bolton, Edmund (1575?–1633?). Hypercritica; or A Rule of Judgment for writing, or reading our History’s. (Occasioned by a Censorian Epistle, prefixed to Sir Henry Savile’s Edition of some of our oldest Historians in Latin (1618).) First publ. by Hall, A., in Nicolai Triveti Annalium Continuatio, 1722. Rptd. by Haslewood, J., in Ancient Critical Essays upon English Poets and Poësy, vol. II, 1815.

—— (Philanactophil). Nero Cæsar, or Monarchie Depraved. 1624. The 2nd ed. (1627) contains as an Appendix “An Historical Parallel, or, A demonstration of the notable oddes, for the more use of life, betweene reading large Histories, and briefe ones, how excellent soever, as those of Lucius Florus.”

This work recapitulates the affairs of Britain from the time of Julius Caesar to that of Nero, taking occasion to show that Stonehenge (more commonly called Stonage) is a monument to Boadicea.

Buc, or Buck, [Sir] George (d. 1623). The History of the Life and Reigne of Richard The Third. Composed in five Bookes. 1646.

Rptd. in Kennett, u.s. vol. I, 1705. The “George Buck Esquire” mentioned on the title-page as the author of this work, which anticipates in lucid style Horace Walpole’s defence of Richard, is thought by Ritson to be identical with Sir George Buc or Buck, author of The Third Universitie of England. Or A Treatise of the Foundations of all the Colledges, Auncient Schooles of Priviledge, and of Houses of Learning and Liberall Arts, within and about the most famous Cittie of London. 1615 appended to Stow’s Annales, ed. Howe, E., 1615.

Camden, Willaim. See ante, Vol. III, pp. 596–7.

Charles I. Memoirs of the Two last Years of the Reign of that unparallell’d Prince, of ever Blessed Memory, King Charles I. By Sir Thomas Herbert, Major Huntington, Col. Edw. Cohe, and Mr Hen. Firebrace. With the Character of that Blessed Martyr, by The Reverend Mr John Diodati, Mr Alexander Henderson, and the Author of the Princely Pelican. To which is added, The Death-Bed Repentance of Mr Lenthal, Speaker of the Long-Parliament; Extracted out of a Letter written from Oxford, Sept. 1662. 1702. Re-ed. by N[icol], G., 1813.

—— The Reign of Charles I. 1656. (Annalistic.)

Clarendon, Edward Hyde, Earl of. The History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England, together with an Historical View of the Affairs of Ireland. Now for the first time carefully printed from the original MS. preserved in the Bodleian Library. To which are subjoined the Notes of Bishop Warburton. 7 vols. Oxford, 1849.

-The Miscellaneous Works of … being a Collection of Several Valuable Tracts, Published from His Lordship’s Original MSS. 2nd ed. 1751. Contains:

Contemplations and Reflections upon the Psalms of David. Concluded.

Montpelier, 1670. A Discussion, by Way of Vindication of my self from the Charge of High-Treason, with which I was charged by the House of Commons, November, 1667. Montpelier, 1668. (Embodied in Life.)

Essays Divine and Moral.

Of Human Nature; Of Pride [on funerals]; Of Anger; Of Patience in Adversity; Of Friendship [lofty, but temperate]; Of Counsel and Conversation; Of Promises [a notable essay]; Of Liberty [attack, of an orthodox kind, on Hobbes]; Of Industry; Of Sickness [fine]; Of Repentance; Of Conscience [also polemical]; Of an Active and Contemplative Life, and when and Why the One ought to be preferred before the other; Of War; Of Peace [both these are humane in spirit]; Of Sacrilege [caustic on the misuse of fast days; reasonable as to secularisation]; Of the Reverence due to Antiquity [practical and cheerful]; Against the multiplying Controversies, by insisting upon Particulars that are not necessary to the Point in Debate [against “re-union” conferences as useless]; A Dialogue between A. an old Courtier, B. an old Lawyer, C. an old Soldier, D. an old Country Gentleman, and E. an old Alderman, of the Want of Respect due to Age; A Dialogue between the same Persons and a Bishop, concerning Education (dated Montpelier, 1668).

See also: Boyle, G. D., Characters and Episodes of the Great Rebellion. Selected from the History and Autobiography of Edward Earl of Clarendon, Oxford, 1889; Lewis, Lady Theresa, Lives of the Friends and Contemporaries of Lord Chancellor Clarendon: illustrations of Portraits in his Gallery, 3 vols. 1852.

Among critical estimates of Clarendon as a historian may be mentioned:

Firth, C. H. Edward Earl of Clarendon, as Statesman, Historian and Chancellor of the University, delivered as a lecture at Oxford on the occasion of the Tercentenary of Clarendon’s birth (18 February, 1909). Oxford, 1909.

Ranke, L. von. History of England in the Seventeenth Century. Eng. trans. vol. VI, Criticism of the Historians, pp. 1–29: Clarendon. Oxford, 1875.

Stephen, Sir J. F. Horae Sabbaticae. 2 vols. 1892.

Compare, also: Atterbury, Francis, Bp. of Rochester, The late B. of R.’s Vindication of Bp. Smallridge, Dr. Aldrich and Himself, from the Reflections of Oldmixon relating to the Publication of Lord Clarendon’s History, 1731 (O., in the preface to his History of England, had asserted that Clarendon’s MS. was altered in some important places by Smith, Edward, of Christ Church); and Buff, A., Die Politik Karls I in den ersten Wochen nach seiner Flucht von London und Lord Clarendon’s Darstellung dieser Zeit, Giessen, 1868 (intended to show Clarendon’s untrustworthiness).

See, also, under Whitelocke, Bulstrode, below.

As to Clarendon’s speeches, see text; as to the Clarendon State Papers, see Sec. I, A.

Daniel, Samuel (1562–1619). The Collection of the History of England. To Stephen, 1612, reissued 1613; to Edward III, 1617; With a Continuation of the History, unto the reign of Henry the Seventh. By John Trussell. 1685.

Trussell (d. 1642) was author of Touchstone of Tradition, an account of Winchester antiquities, written c. 1642 and preserved among Lord Mostyn’s MSS. See Hist. MSS. Comm., 4th Report, 1874, p. 355.

Forde, Thomas. Virtus Rediviva: or, a Panegyrick On the late K. Charls the I. 1660.

Points of comparison are found with all the best people in the world’s history, and of contrast with some of the bad.

Gerard, John (1564–1637). During the Persecution. Autobiography of Father John Gerard of the Society of Jesus. Translated from the Narratio P. Johannis Gerardi de rebus a se in Anglia gestis; by Kingdon, G. R., S.J. Quarterly Series, vol. LVI. 1886.

—— The Condition of Catholics under James I. Father Gerard’s Narrative of the Gunpowder Plot. Ed. with his life, by Morris, J. 1871.

Godwin, Francis (Bishop of Hereford) (1562–1633). Annals of the Reign of Queen Mary. Trans. by [Hughes], J., from Bishop Godwin’s Rerum Anglicarum Hen. VIII, Edw. VI et Maria regn. 1616. Ptd. in Kennett, u.s. vol. II.

Habington, Thomas (1560–1647). Historie of Edward IV of England. Completed by his son William [author of Castara]. 1640. Rptd. in Kennett, u. s. vol. 1.

Hayward, Sir John. See bibliography to Vol. III, p. 598.

Herbert of Cherbury, Edward, Lord. The Life of, written by himself. First ptd. 1764. New ed. 1827. Ed. Lee, S. 1886 and [1906].

—— Expeditio in Ream insulam, Authore Edwardo Domino Herbert, Barone de Cherbury in Anglia, et Castri Insulæ de Kerry in Hibernia, et Pare utriusque Regni MDCXXX. Ed. Baldwin, J. 1656. Original English version, first ptd. by the Earl of Powis for the Philobiblon Soc. 1860.

—— The Life and Reign of King Henry the Eighth. Together with which is briefly represented A General History of the Times. 1649. Rptd. in Kennett, u.s. vol. II, 1706.

—— On the Royal Supremacy in the Church. (Written in 1635, and extant in two MS. copies, one in the Record Office, the other in Queen’s College, Oxford.)

Heylyn, Peter. Aerius Redivivus, or The History of Presbyterianism. 1670.

—— A Help to English History containing A Succession of all the Kings of England, the English Saxons and the Britans; the Kings and Princes of Wales, the Kings and Lords of Man, the Isle of Wight. As also Of all the Dukes, Marquesses, Earls, and Bishops thereof, With The Description of the places from whence they had their titles; continued with a supplement, and enlarged with the names and ranks of the Viscounts and Barons to the year 1652. 1652.

—— Cyprianus Anglicanus, or The History of the Life and Death of Archbishop Laud. 1668.

—— Ecclesia Restaurata; Or, the History of the Reformation of the Church of England: Containing The Beginning, Progress, and Successes of it; the Counsels, by which it was conducted; the Rules of Piety, and Prudence, upon which it was Founded, the several Steps, by which it was promoted, or retarded, in the Change of Times: from The first Preparations to it by King Henry the Eight, untill the Legal Settling and Establishment of it under Queen Elizabeth: 1661. Ed. Robertson, J. C. Ecclesiastical History Soc. 1849.

—— Ecclesia Vindicata, or the Church of England justified: 1, in the manner of her reformation; 2, in officiating by a publick liturgie; 3, in prescribing a set form of prayer; 4, in her right and patrimony of titles; 5, in retaining the episcopal government, and therewith; 6, the canonical ordination of priests and deacons. 2 pts. 1657.

—— Observations on Mr Hamon L’Estrange’s Life of Charles I. 1656.

In answer to attacks on the party. L’Estrange’s rejoinder was rebutted by Heylyn in Extra Vapulans, in the same year.

—— Respondet Petrus. 1658.

Controversies with Nicholas Bernard and Sir William Sanderson.

—— (Theophilus Churchman). The Historie of Episcopacie. By Theophilus Churchman. 2 pts. 1642.

In 1681, a collection of historical and political tracts by Heylyn was published under the title K[char]. For a bibliography see Wood’s Athenae Oxonienses, 3rd ed., ed. Bliss, P., 1813–20, vol. III, pp. 557–567. For an account of his life and writings see Creighton in D. of N. B. vol. XXVI.

Hobbes, Thomas. Behemoth: The History of the Causes of the Civil Wars of England, and of the Counsels and Artifices by which they were carried on, from the year 1640, to the year 1660. 1679. Rptd. in part II of Maseres, F., Select Tracts, 1815.

Howell, James. A Discours of the Empire and of The Election of A King of the Romans. The greatest Business of Christendom now in Agitation … 1658. A historico-political disquisition; predicts the election of Leopold.

—— Lustra Ludovici, or The Life of the late Victorius King of France, Louis the XIII (and of his Cardinall de Richelieu). 1646.

Dedicated to Prince Charles “at his court in Caesaria by vulgar contraction called Jersey.” A lucid narrative, interpersed with characterisation and anecdote, and including a translation of a very clever skit on Richelieu’s Weltpolitik.

Howell also translated Alessandro Giraffi’s History of the late Revolution in Naples, 2 parts, 1664–5.

Knolles, Richard. See ante, Vol. IV, pp. 103, 524.

L’Estrange, Hamon (1605–60). Annals of the Reign of King Charles I. (See Walker, Sir Edward.)

Lilly, William. Monarchy, or no Monarchy, in England. Part II of this is entitled: Several Observations on the Life and Death of Charles, late King of England. July, 1651. Part II rptd. in Maseres, F., Select Tracts, part 1, 1815. (See Walker, Sir Edward.)

May, Thomas. The History of the Parliament in England: which began November the Third, 1640, with a short and necessary view of some precedent yeares. Written by Thomas May, Secretary to the Parliament. Published by Authority. 1647. Ed. Maseres, F. 1812. New ed. Oxford, 1854.

A Breviary of the History of the Parliament of England clearly and on the whole impartially summarising the causes and progress of the first civil war, and briefly relating those of the second, is dated 1650, the year of May’s death, and supposed to be from his hand; but the earliest extant copy seems to be one ptd. in 1655.

—— Lucan’s Pharsalia. See ante, Vol. IV, p. 502.

—— The Reigne Of King Henry the Second, Written in Seaven Bookes. By his Majesties Command. 1633. Appended to the poem is The Description of King Henry the Second, with a short survey of the changes in his Reigne.

—— The Victorius Reigne of King Edward the Third. Written in Seven Bookes. By his Majesty’s Command. 1635.

Monson, Sir William (1569–1643). The Naval Tracts of his Six Books. Vols. I and II (Book 1). Ed. Oppenheim, M. 1902.

A yearly account of English and Spanish fleets during the Elizabethan wars.

Moryson, Fynes. Itinerary. Parts I to III. 1617. Part II and a small portion of part III deal with Moryson’s experiences as secretary to Mountjoy in Ireland, 1600–6. This was rptd. under the title of History of Ireland, from the years 1599 to 1603 … to which is added a Description of Ireland, 2 vols., Dublin, 1735. Part IV ptd. under the title Shakespeare’s Europe: Unpublished Chapters of Fynes Moryson’s Itinerary. Being a Survey of the Condition of Europe at the end of the Sixteenth Century, ed., with introduction, Hughes, C., 1903. The whole work has been rptd. in 4 vols., Glasgow, 1907–8.

Osborne, Francis. Historical Memoires on the reigns of Queen Elizabeth, and King James. 2 parts. 1658. Part II rptd. by Scott, Sir Walter, in Secret History of the Court of James the First, vol. 1, Edinburgh, 1811.

Prynne, William. The first part of an Historical Collection of the Ancient Parliaments of England. From the year of our Lord 673, till the end of King John’s Reign, Anno 1216. 1649. (See, also, Sec. VII, B.)

Sanderson, Sir William (c. 1586–1676). A Complete History of the Life and Reign of Charles I; from his Cradle to his Grave. 1658.

Devotes much space to answering L’Estrange’s History of Charles I and Heylyn’s Observations on it, thus causing in its turn Sanderson’s controversy with Heylyn. (See Firth, C. H., art. Sanderson in D. of N. B. vol. L.)

—— A Compleat History of the Lives and Reigns of Mary, Queen of Scotland and her son James. 1656.

This involved the author in a controversy with Carew Ralegh.

—— Aulicus Coquinariae, or A Vindication in Answer to a Pamphlet entitled The Court and Character of James I. 1650. (This has been sometimes attributed to Heylyn. See Welldon, Sir A., Sec. VI, A.)

Sikes, George. The Life and Death of Sir Henry Vane, Kt, or, A short Narrative of the main Passages of his Earthly Pilgrimage; together with a true Account of his purely Christian, Peaceable, Spiritual, Gospel-Principles, Doctrine, Life and Way of Worshipping God, for which he Suffered Contradiction and Reproach from all sorts of Sinners, and at last, a Violent Death, June 14. Anno, 1662. To which is added, His last Exhortation to his Children, the day before his Death. 1662.

Described by the author as treating mostly of “the principles and courses of Sir H. Vane’s hidden life.”

Vane, Sir Henry. (1613–62.) The Tryal of Sir Henry Vane, Kt, at the Kings Bench, Westminster, June the 2d. and 6th. 1662. Together With what he intended to have Spoken the Day of his Sentence, (June II.) for Arrest of Judgment, (had he not been interrupted and over-ruled by the Court) and his Bill of Exceptions. With other Occasional Speeches, & c. Also his Speech and Prayer, & c, on the Scaffold. 1662.

Walker, Sir Edward. (1612–77.) Historical Discourses upon Several Occasions. 1705.

Includes papers on the Inconvenience of the frequent promotions to Titles of Honour Since the accession of James I, on W. Lilly’s Observations on the Life and Death of King Charles I (1651), and against Hamon L’Estrange’s Annals of the Reign of King Charles I. With these Discourses were printed Perfect Copies of the Newport negotiations, and documents and proceedings connected with them—valuable material.

Wellwood, or Welwood, James (1652–1727). Memoirs of the Most Material Transactions in England for The Last Hundred Years, Preceding the Revolution in 1688. 1700.

Whitelocke, Bulstrode. Memorials of the English Affairs from the beginning of the Reign of Charles the First to the happy Restoration of King Charles the Second. 1682. Rptd., 4 vols., Oxford, 1853.

Oldmixon, J. Clarendon and Whitlocke compared. 1727.

—— Memorials of the English Affairs, From the Suppos’d Expedition of Brute to this Island, to the End of the Reign of King James the First. With some Account of Whitlocke’s Life and Writings by W. Penn. 1709.

Wilson, Arthur. The History of Great Britain, being the life and reign of King James the First. 1653. Rptd. in Kennett, u.s. vol. II, 1706. For this work, which is hostile to James, Wilson’s patron Essex had lent him some of his father’s and Southampton’s papers. The basis of the work is said to be Five Years of King James, 1643, by a puritan partisan of Essex (possibly Wilson himself). The History was answered by Sanderson (q.v.) and censured by Heylyn in Examen Historicum (1659) as utterly libellous. See Lee, S., art. Greville, Fulke (to whom the book was misattributed) in D. of N. B. vol. XXIII. As to Wilson, cf. Sec. VI, A.

B. Scottish

Booke, the, of the Universall Kirk of Scotland: wherein the Headis and Conclusions devysit be the Ministers and commissionaris of the particular kirks thereof, are specially expressed and contained. Ed. Peterkin, A. Edinburgh, 1839.

Calderwood, David (1575–1650). The True History of the Church of Scotland, From the beginning of the Reformation, unto the end of the Reigne of King James VI. Written … at the Appointment of the General Assembly, 1678. Ed. from the original MS. preserved in the British Museum, by Thomson, T. 8 vols. Wodrow Soc. Publ. Edinburgh, 1842–9.

Spotswood, or Spottiswoode, John (Archbishop of St. Andrews) (1565–1637). The History of the Church of Scotland, Beginning the Year of our Lord 203, and continued to the end of the Reign of King James the VI of ever blessed Memory. Wherein are described, The Progress of Christianity; The Persecutions and Interruptions of it; The Foundation of Churches; The Erecting of Bishopricks; The Building and Endowing Monasteries, and other Religious Places; The Succession of Bishops in their Sees; The Reformation of Religion, and the frequent Disturbances of that Nation, by Wars, Conspiracies, Tumults, Schisms. 1655. 4th ed., with a large Appendix, 1677. Re-ed., with biographical sketch and notes, by Russell, M. Spottiswoode Soc. Publ. 3 vols. 1851.

C. Irish

Bellings, Richard (d. 1677). History of the Irish Confederation and the War in Ireland, 1641–3: containing a narrative of affairs in Ireland from 1641 to the conclusion of the Treaty for cessation of hostilities between England and the Irish, in 1643. With correspondence and documents of the Confederation and of the Administrators of the English Government in Ireland, contemporary personal statements, memoirs, etc. Now for the first time publ. from original MSS. Ed. Gilbert, J. T. 7 vols. Dublin, 1882–91.

Carew, George, Lord (afterwards Earl of Totnes). Pacata Hibernia, Ireland appeased and reduced: or, an Historie of the Late Warres of Ireland Especially within the Province of Mounster under the Government of Sir George Carew, Knight. 1633. Ed. O’Grady, Standish. 2 vols. 1896.

Clarendon, Edward Hyde, Earl of. See Sec. V, A.

Davies, Sir John (1529–1626). A Discoverie of the True Causes why Ireland was never entirely Subdued, nor brought under Obedience to the Crowne of England, untill the Beginning of his Majesty’s happy Raigne. 1612, with a Dedication to the King. Rptd. 1613.

Regan, Morice. History of Ireland. Translated by Sir George Carew. 1770.

The MS. of the History of Morice Regan, who fl. 1170, was considered to be about a century later in date.

Spenser, Edmund. A Veue of the Present State of Ireland. 1596. Frequently rptd. from the text of Sir James Ware; in Globe ed. of the works of Spenser from Additional MS. 22022, the oldest of the three MSS. in the British Museum; in A. B. Grosart’s Spenser, vol. IX (1824), the text followed is that of the Lambeth MS. J [char]: 10, 4to, vol. XCII, which the editor (see Memorial Introduction in vol. 1 of his edition, p. 216) gives reason for holding preferable in authenticity to the British Museum MSS. Cf. Falkiner, C. Litton, Essays Relating to Ireland: Biographical, Historical and Topographical, 1909.

Spenser, Edmund. Discourse of Civill Life, containing the Ethike Part of Morall Philosophie. 1606.

A. English and General

Ashburnham, John (1603–71). A Narrative of his Attendance on King Charles the First from Oxford to the Scotch Army, and from Hampton Court to the Isle of Wight: Never before printed. To which is prefixed a Vindication of his Character and Conduct, from the Misrepresentations of Lord Clarendon, by his lineal descendant and present representative. 2 vols. 1830.

Ashburnham (formerly of Peterhouse), groom of the chamber to Charles I, was accused of having received £40,000 from the parliament or the army, or both, but not allowed to attend the Newport negotiations as the king’s commissioner. The Vindication occupies the whole of vol. 1.

Berkeley, Sir John (d. 1678). Memoirs: containing an Account of his Negotiation with Lieutenant-General Cromwell, Commissary-General Ireton, and other Officers of the Army for restoring King Charles the First to the Exercise of the Government of England. First publ. 1699, as an Appendix to Ashburnham’s Narrative. 2nd ed. 1702. Rptd. in Harleian Miscellany, ed. Park, T., vol. IX, pp. 466–88, 1812, and Maseres, F., Select Tracts relating to the Civil Wars, pt. 1, 1815.

Berkeley, as a favourite of queen Henrietta Maria, by her desire entered into a futile negotiation with Cromwell and other officers of the army as to the restoration of Charles I’s royal authority. The transaction is, in some respects, differently told by Clarendon, who, of course, disliked Berkeley.

Carey, Robert, Earl of Monmouth (1560?–1639). Memoirs, written by himself, and now first published. 1759. Ed. Powell, G. H. King’s Classics. 1905.

Coningsby, Sir Thomas (d. 1625). Journal of the Siege of Rouen in 1591. Ed. Nichols, J. G. Camden Soc. Publ. 1847.

D’Ewes, Sir Simonds. The Autobiography and Correspondence of Sir Simonds D’Ewes, Bart., during the Reigns of James I and Charles I. Ed. Halliwell [-Phillipps], J. O. 2 vols. 1845.

Digby, Sir Kenelm. Journal of a Voyage into the Mediterranean by Sir Kenelm Digby, A.D. 1628. Ed. Bruce, J. Camden Soc. Publ. XCVI. 1868.

At Scandaroon on 11 June, Digby’s two ships gallantly defeated a number of French and Venetian vessels. Digby beguiled the voyage out by reading Spenser. See his Observations on the Ninth Canto of the Second Book of Spenser’s Faerie Queene, 1644. He also wrote Observations upon Religio Medici, 1645; frequently rptd. with Sir Thomas Browne’s book.

—— Private Memoirs of Sir Kenelm Digby, Gentleman of the Bedchamber to King Charles the First. Written by himself. Now first published from the original Manuscript, with an introductory Memoir. [By Nicholas, A. N.] 1827.

Exchange, the. The Famous and Wonderful Recovery of a Ship of Bristol called the Exchange, from the Turkish Pirates of Argier. 1622. Rptd. in Stuart Tracts.

This narrative, with an Elizabethan combination of piety, ferocity and business, shows how John Rawlins, the pilot, and others, after slaughtering about forty Turks and Moors, brought the ship home safe to Plymouth in February 1622.

Fairfax, Thomas, Lord (1612–71). Short Memorials of Thomas, Lord Fairfax. Written by himself. 1699. Published by Bryan Fairfax. With short Memorials of Some Things to be cleared during my Command in the Army.

A clear account of military matters belonging to the years 1642–4 and 1645–8 respectively, and a truthful portrait of Fairfax himself—sincere, modest, but incapable of asserting his personal authority at critical times.

(Fiennes, Nathaniel) (1608–69). Anglia Rediviva; England’s Recovery: being the History of the Motions, Actions and Successions of the Army under the immediate Conduct of His Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfax, Captain-General of all the Parliament’s forces in England. Compiled for the public good by Joshua Sprigg. 1647. New ed. Oxford, 1854.

This work, which, though bearing the name of Fairfax’s chaplain, was, according to Walker, really written by Colonel Fiennes, goes up to the reduction of Oxford in 1646. It is an unctuous apologia for Fairfax and a passionate defence of the army, profuse in its praise of the action of both.

Fleetwood, George (1605–67). Letter to his Father, giving an account of the Battle of Lutzen and the Death of Gustavus Adolphus. Ed. Egerton, Sir Philip de Malpas Gray, in Camden Miscellany, Camden. Soc. Publ. XXXIX. 1847.

Goodman, Godfrey (bishop of Gloucester) (1583–1656). The Court of James the First: to which are added Letters illustrative of the Personal History of the most distinguished characters in the Court of that Monarch and his predecessors. Now first publ. from the original MS. by Brewer, J. S. 2 vols. 1839.

The author, after suffering imprisonment for supposed papistical opinions, two years before his death (1655) dedicated a theological work to Cromwell. Though not altogether favourable to the foreign policy of James I, and opposed to his claim of absolute ecclesiastical supremacy, he treats the king sympathetically and with warm approval of his maintenance of a close connection between church and state.

Newcome, R. A Memoir of Gabriel Goodman, Dean of Westminster, and Godfrey Goodman, Bishop of Gloucester, nephew to the above. Ruthin, 1825.

Halkett, Lady, The Autobiography of. Ed. Nichols, J. G. Camden Soc. Publ. 1875.

Reaches from 1622–55, though the authoress survived the restoration for nearly thirty years, and is largely concerned with the love affairs of the writer, who, as Ann Murray, daughter of the preceptor and secretary of Charles I (afterwards provost of Eton) was attached to colonel Barnfield, a prominent royalist agent, but in the end was happily married to Sir James Halkett. A simple and sincere narrative, followed by religious meditations.

Hall, Joseph (bishop of Norwich) (1574–1656). Hard Measures. Written by himself upon his Impeachment of High Crimes for Defending the Church of England. 1647. Rptd. 1710. Concerning the imprisonment of the bishops in December 1641 and their subsequent troubles.

Herbert, Sir Thomas (1606–82), groom of the chamber to his majesty. Memoirs of the two last years of the reign of King Charles I. To which is added, A particular Account of the Funeral of the King, in a letter from Sir Thomas Herbert to Sir William Dugdale. 3rd ed. 1815.

After returning from his travels, Herbert accompanied his relative, Philip earl of Pembroke, to Newcastle in the service of the parliament, but there attached himself to the king. His account of the confinement, trial, death and funeral of Charles I is full of interest.

—— A Relation of some yeares travaile, begunne anno 1626. Into Afrique and the greater Asia, especially the Territories of the Persian Monarchie: and some parts of the Orientall Indies, and Iles adjacent. Of their Religion, Language, Habit, Discent, Ceremonies, and other matters concerning them. 1634. Rptd. by Harris, J., in Navigantium atque Itinerantium Bibliotheca, vol. 1, 1705; and by Moore, J. H., in A new and complete Collection of voyages and travels, vol. II, 1785.

Holles, Denzil, Lord (1599–1680). Memoirs from 1641 to 1648. 1699. Rptd. by Maseres, F., in Select Tracts relating to the Civil Wars, vol. 1, 1815.

These memoirs, written in Normandy, after Holles’s expulsion from the House of Commons by the army in August 1647, show forth his spleen in vehement accusations against the dominant party and its leader Cromwell, although the writer maintains that nothing comes by chance and that the ways of God are unsearchable. At the time of his death, Holles was engaged in a controversy on the right of bishops to sit in parliament, of which after his death in 1680, part was published in:

—— His Remains; being a Second Letter to a Friend, concerning the Judicature of the Bishops in Parliament, in the Vindication of what he wrote in his First; and in Answer to a Book … The Rights of the Bishops to judge in Capital Cases in Parliament, cleared etc. With part of his Intended Answer to a Second Tractate on the Bishops Right to Vote in Parliament etc. 1682.

Hutchinson, Lucy. Memoirs of the Life of Colonel Hutchinson, Governor of Nottingham Castle and town, with original anecdotes of many of his contemporaries, and a summary review of public affairs. Publ. from the original MS. To which is prefixed the Life of Mrs Hutchinson written by herself, a fragment. 1806. Re-ed. with additions by Huskinson, E., 1839; for Bohn’s Standard Library, 1846; by Firth, C. H., 2 vols., 1885 and 1906; by Child, H. (Dryden House Memoirs), 1904; and by Hayes, Helen Kendrick [1909].

—— On the Principles of the Christian Religion. Ed. Hutchinson, Julius, 1817.

Mrs. Hutchinson’s MS. translation of the first six books of Lucretius is in the Brit. Museum; her translation of part of the Aeneid is in the possession of another descendant of her husband’s family.

James I. Secret History of the Reign of King James I. Written not later than 1615, and ptd. with the autobiography of Sir Simonds d’Ewes (q.v).

Dark account of the Overbury scandals, and Villiers’s rise into power.

Laud, archbishop. The History of the Troubles and Tryal of … William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury. Wrote by himself, during his Imprisonment in the Tower. To which is prefixed The Diary of his own Life, faithfully and entirely Published from the original copy. With Preface by Wharton, H. 1695.

Ludlow, Edmund, The Memoirs of. Vevey, 1698. Ed. Firth, C. H. 2 vols. 1894.

These memoirs were probably first edited by Littlebury, Isaac, who suppressed passages reflecting on Sir A. A. Cooper, afterwards earl of Shaftesbury. The appendix to Firth’s edition contains, among other documentary evidence, letters by Ludlow concerning his services in Ireland (1651–4) and his command at home (June 1659 to January 1660). His exile after the restoration virtually lasted for more than thirty years; but his Memoirs, probably written between 1663 and 1673, came to an end with the year 1672.

For tracts against the Memoirs see ante, p. 256.

Manningham, John, of the Middle Temple, and of Bradbourne, Kent, Barrister-at-Law, the Diary of, 1602–3. Ed. from the original MS. by Bruce, J. Camden Soc. Publ. XCIX. 1868.

Monro, colonel Robert. Monro his Expedition with the worthy Scots Regiment (called M’Keyes Regiment) levied in August 1626.… Discharged in severall Duties and Observations of service; first under the magnanimous King of Denmark; during his warres against the Emperour; afterward under the Invincible King of Swede, during his lifetime; and since, under the Directour-Generall, the Rex-chancellor Oxensterne and his Generalls. Collected and gathered together at spare-houres, by Colonel Robert Monro … for the use of all worthie Cavaliers favouring the laudable profession of Armes. To which is annexed the Abridgement of Exercise, and divers practical Observations, for the younger Officer his Consideration; ending with the Souldiers Meditations going on service. 1637.

Monroe, major-general Robert (d. 1680). A Full Relation of the Late Expedition Of the Right Honourable, the Lord Monroe, Major-generall of all the Protestant Forces in the Province of Uulster. With their severall marches and skirmishes with the bloody Irish Rebels and what Towns and Castles they have taken. Published by Authority. 1644.

—— A Letter of great Consequence; Sent by the Honorable, Robert Lord Monro, out of the Kingdom of Ireland, to the Honorable, The Committee for the Irish affairs in England, Concerning the state of the Rebellion there. Together with the relation of a dangerous Plot, laid with the consent of the Queen for the Revival of Religion and overthrow of the three Kingdoms, found among the papers taken on the Earl of Antrim. Ordered by the Commons in Parliament, That this Letter be forthwith printed and published: H: Elsynge, Cler. Parl. D. Com. 1643.

—— A True Relation Of the proceedings of the Scottish Armie now in Ireland, By three Letters. The First Sent from Generall Major Monroe to Generall Leslie [Earl of Leven] his Excellence [dated the 13 May 1642].

(Morgan, major-general Sir Thomas?) (d. 1679?) A true and just Relation of the Progress of Major-General Sir Thomas Morgan in France and Flanders with the Six Thousand English, in the years 1657 and 1658, at the taking of Dunkirk and other important places. As it was delivered by the General himself. 1699. Rptd. in Stuart Tracts.

Morgan was second in command of the English auxiliary force which took part in the capture of Dunkirk. His tone is here so boastful, and contrasts so strongly with that of his letters during the campaign ptd. in Thurloe’s State Papers, that some writers, notably Godwin, have doubted his authorship. Genuine or not, his colloquies with Turenne are amusing brag.

Naunton, Sir Robert (1563–1635). Fragmenta Regalia, or Observations on the late Queen Elizabeth her Times and Favorites. 1641. Rtpd. with the Memoirs of Robert Carey, ed. Scott, Sir Walter, Edinburgh, 1808.

Newcastle, Margaret Cavendish, duchess of. The Life of William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle. With a True Relation of the Birth Breeding and Life of Margaret Duchess of Newcastle. Ed. Firth, C. H. [1906.]

—— Playes written by the Lady Marchioness of New Castle. 1662.

—— Poems and Fancies. 1653. Select Poems, ed. Brydges, Sir Egerton (Priory Press), 1813.

Nicoll, John (1590–1667 or 8). A Diary of Public Transactions and other Occurrences, Chiefly in Scotland, From January 1650 to June 1667. Ed. Laing, D. Bannatyne Club Publ. Edinburgh, 1836.

Of the later published portion of this diary of an Edinburgh writer and notary public, who was also a manifest time-server, ample use was made by Robert Wodrow, in his History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland (1722).

Overbury, Sir Thomas, The True and Historical Relation of the Poysoning of. 1651.

Professes to be based on the papers of Bacon as attorney-general.

(Peeke, Richard.) Three to One. Being an English-Spanish combat performed by a Western Gentleman of Tavistock in Devonshire, with an English quarter staff, against three Spaniards with rapiers and poniards; at Sherries in Spain, the 15th day of November 1625.… 1626. Rptd. in Stuart Tracts.

There seems to have been some basis of fact in this popular piece of jingoism; Peeke’s adventure is also treated in the poem here rptd. and in the play Dick of Devonshire, variously assigned to Heywood (by Bullen) and to Shirley.

Poyntz, Sydnam. A True Relation of these German Warres from Mansfeld’s going out of England which was in the yeare (1624) untill this last yeare 1626 whereof my self was an eywitnesse of most I have here related as followeth. By mee Sydnam Poynes. Ed. Goodrick, A. T. S. Royal Hist. Soc. Publ., Camden 3rd Ser. no. XIV. 1908.

Poyntz, after finding apprenticeship to trade intolerable, followed Mansfeld to the Netherlands in 1625, and on his last march into Hungary; was captured by the Turks; and on his liberation from slavery served in turn under John George of Saxony and the Emperor Ferdinand II. On his second return to England in 1645, he was appointed by the parliament colonel general of the northern forces and governor of York, but successfully defended himself against the charge of being a papist (which by his own statement he had at one time been); see the Vindication of Colonel General Poyntz appended to the Relation. He commanded the troops of the city of London when it was overwhelmed by the army (1647), and had to fly to Holland. In 1650 he accompanied Lord Willoughby to the West Indies, where he held one or more governorships, and is said to have died in Virginia, at an unknown date. His account of his Thirty Years’ War experiences is full of orthographical, geographical and chronological blunders; he confounds persons, falsifies facts, and is altogether a type of the untrustworthy eyewitness. Poyntz published a separate Relation of the Death of Walleston, from Vienna the 8 February 1634, less graphic than the account in his Memoirs, and accompanied by The Life and Maxims of Walleston, a short character in Clarendon’s manner—at a long interval, but not ill done. The Itinerarium of Thomas Carve, Butler’s chaplain and compatriot (part 1, 1639, part II, 1641, rptd. 1859) is in Latin.

Rous, John. Diary of John Rous, Incumbent of Santon Downham, Suffolk, from 1625 to 1642. Ed. Everett Green, M. A. Camden Soc. Publ. LXVI. 1856.

Slingsby, Sir Henry. Original Memoirs, written during the Great Civil War. With notes &c. Ed. Scott, Sir Walter. Edinburgh, 1806. The Diary of Sir Henry Slingsby, of Scriven, Bart. Now first published entire from the MS. Ed. Parsons, D. 1836.

An account of his trial was published, as well as a tract written by him in the Tower, entitled A Father’s Legacy to his Sons.

Vere, Sir Francis (1560–1609), The Commentaries of, Being divers Pieces of Service, wherein he had command. Published by William Dillingham, D. D. Cambridge, 1657. Rptd. in Stuart Tracts.

Cf. Markham, Sir Clements, The Fighting Veres, 1688. Sir Francis and Sir Horace Vere (afterwards lord Tilbury) were among the most celebrated soldiers of fortune of their age. The Commentaries of Sir Francis, to which are added narrative, by his comrade John Ogle and his page Henry Hexham, were written as a manual for military men who might follow in the author’s footsteps. He took part in the capture of Cadiz (1596) and the expedition to the Azores (1597) and did excellent service under Maurice of Nassau at the battle of Nieuport (1600) and in Ostend (1601). He is very hostile to Ralegh, whom he regards as a dilettante.

Wallington, Nehemiah (1598–1658). Historical Notices of events occurring chiefly in the Reign of Charles I. Ed. Webb, R. 2 vols. 1869.

Walsingham, Edward (fl. 1643–59). Britannicæ Virtutis Imago, or, The Effigies of True Fortitude, expressed to the life, in the famous actions of that incomparable Knight, Sir Thomas Smith. Oxford, 1644.

Smith, major-general of the king’s western army under lord Hopton, was mortally wounded in the battle of Bramdean near Alresford, 29 March 1644.

—— Alter Britanniæ Heros, or The Life and Death of the most honourable Knight Sir Henry Gage, late governor of Oxford. Oxford, 1645.

Gage, who belonged to an old Catholic family, had a distinguished part in the defence of Oxford (of which he was made governor), and relieved Basing. He fell in a skirmish at Abingdon Gage in January 1645. He is greatly extolled by Clarendon.

(Welldon, Sir Anthony) (d. 1649?) The Court and Character of King James. Written and taken by Sir A. W. being an eye, and eare witnesse. Publ. “by Authority” 1650.

The object of this posthumous libel is to destroy any remaining respect for the founder of the dynasty which the “Publisher to the Reader” proclaims it to be God’s purpose to “lay aside.” The writer attempts to “prove a negative” in the case of the Gowrie conspiracy, by which James I set infinite store; to demonstrate the innocence of Ralegh; and to lay bare the whole story of the Overbury case and its attendant scandals. (See Sanderson, Sir William, Sec. V, A.)

Whitelocke, Bulstrode. Annales of his Life 1653–56, with an Introduction addressed to his Children. Whitelocke MSS., British Museum.

Memoirs, biographical and historical, of Bulstrode Whitelocke. By Whitelocke, R. H. 1860.

Contains extracts from the Annals of his Life.

—— History of the Forty-eighth Year of his Age, interspersed with Scripture Lectures addressed to his Children. Whitelocke MSS., British Museum.

—— Journal of the Swedish Embassy in the Years 1653 and 1654. Impartially written by the Ambassador Bulstrode Whitelock. First published from the original manuscript (in British Museum) by Charles Morton (1772). New ed. by Henry Reeve. 1835. (With modernised spelling.)

—— Notes and Commentaries on Matters relating to the Swedish Embassy & c. (partly used by Morton in his ed.). 2 vols. Whitelocke MSS., British Museum.

Wilson, Arthur (1595–1652). Observations of God’s Providence in the Tract of my Life. Ptd. in Desiderata Curiosa, ed. Peck, F., vol. II, 1735, and as an appendix to the Inconstant Lady, ed. Bliss, P., 1814.

The author, born in 1595, in 1614 became connected with the second Robert Devereux, earl of Essex, and accompanied him in his campaigns. After residing at Trinity college, Oxford, he entered the service of the earl of Warwick, whom he seems to have followed to the parliamentary side. His thoughts and habits took a spiritual turn, and he describes himself as “converted and saved.” He was buried at Felsted. See as to his strange career the introduction by Feuillerat, A., to his original edition of Wilson’s play The Swisser, Paris, 1904.

Wynne, Sir Richard (of Gwedin). A Brief Relation of what was observed by the Prince’s Servants in their Journey into Spain, in the year 1623. Ed. Hearne, T. 1729.

The journal is interesting, and shows incidentally that in Spain the conversion of the prince was expected.

Yonge, Walter, J. P. and M. P. for Honiton. Diary of, written at Colyton and Axminster, C° Devon, from 1604 to 1628. Ed. Roberts, G. Camden Soc. Publ. 1848.

Describes western conditions of life and natural phenomena, but is, in the main, a second-hand record of public events.

B. Scottish

Baillie, Robert (1559–1662), Principal of the University of Glasgow. The Letters and Journals of. Ed. from the author’s MSS. by Laing, D. 3 vols. Bannatyne Club Publ. Edinburgh, 1841–2.

A regular and nearly unbroken series from January 1637 to May 1662, within a few weeks of the writer’s death; proving a valuable record, by a presbyterian divine, of the persecution of his church by Cromwell and the sectaries, and by the crown.

Baillie of Lamington, Sir William (fl. 1648). Vindication for his own part of Kilsyth and Preston. Ptd. in vol. II, p. 417, of The Letters and Journals of Robert Baillie, ed. Laing, D., Bannatyne Club Publ., Edinburgh, 1841–2.

Blair, Robert (1593–1666). The Life of Mr Robert Blair, Minister of St Andrews, containing his Aubiography from 1593 to 1636, with Supplement of Life and Continuation of the History of the Times to 1680, by his Son-in-law, William Row. Wodrow Soc. Publ. Edinburgh, 1848.

Blair was a supporter of monarchy, but ejected in 1661.

Guthry, Henry (1600?–76), Late Bishop of Dunkel in Scotland: wherein the Conspiracies and Rebellion against King Charles I, of Blessed Memory, to the Time of the Murther of that Monarch, are briefly and faithfully related. 1702. 2nd ed. with a life, by Crawfurd, G. Glasgow, 1747.

The author, a moderate loyalist, who disapproved of the introduction of the liturgy and Book of Common Prayer, and, indeed, signed the Covenant, was not sent away from Stirling as a “malignant” till 1648, when he had preached in favour of the release of the king. He was made bishop in 1665. His diction contains some curious Scoticisms.

Moysie, David. Memoirs of the Affairs of Scotland. 1577–1603. Bannatyne Club Publ. Edinburgh, 1830.

Moysie was writer and notary public at Edinburgh.

A. Collections of Tracts

The following collections are only those which are best known and accessible to general use.

Harleian Miscellany, the. Ed. Park, J. 12 vols. 1808–11. (Vol. III, 1605–27; vol. IV, 1625–41; vol. V, 1641–5; vol. VI, 1646–59; vol. VII, 1659–73.)

Miscellaneous prose and verse.

King’s Pamphlets, the. British Museum.

Particularly valuable for the civil war period.

Select Tracts relating to the Civil Wars in England, in the reign of Charles the First; by writers who lived in the time of those wars, and were witnesses of the events which they describe. 2 parts. 1815.

Collected by Maseres, Francis, whose preface in Part 1 contains a list of works on or of the period, recommended by him for study.

Somers Tracts. Ed. Scott, Sir Walter. 13 vols. 1809–15. (Vols. II–III, James I; vols. IV–V, Charles I; vol. VI, Commonwealth and Protectorate; vol. VII, Protectorate and Charles II.)

Stuart Tracts, 1603–93. An English Garner. With an introduction by Firth, C. H. Westminster, 1903.

Mainly historical, and enumerated as such in the previous section.

B. Particular Treatises or Pamphlets

No pretence is here made of mentioning more than a few typical examples.

Bastwick, John (1593–1654). The Letany of John Bastwick, Doctor of Phisicke, being now full of devotion, as well in respect of the common calamities of plague and pestilence, as also of his owne particular miserie, lying at this instant in Limbo Patrum. Printed by the speciall procurement and for the especiall use of our English Prelats, in the yeare of remembrance, Anno 1637.

—— The Answer of John Bastwick, Doctor of Physicke, to the information of Sir John Bancks, Knight, Atturney universall. 1637.

—— XVI New Quaeres proposed to our Lord Praelates. 1637.

Lilburne began his literary career by helping Bastwick to print his Letany and Answer to Sir John Bancks in Holland.

Burton, Henry (1578–1648). An Apology of an Appeale. Also an Epistle to the true-hearted Nobility. 1636.

—— Babel no Bethel, that is, the Church of Rome no true visible Church of Christ. 1629.

—— For God and the King. The summe of two Sermons presented on the fifth of November last in St Matthewe’s, Friday Streete. 1636.

Burton (1578–1648) became rector of St. Matthews in 1626, and was, on account of the first and third of the above publications, condemned by the Star chamber to perpetual imprisonment, besides fine and multilation. He was liberated after the meeting of the Long parliament.

Busher, Leonard. Religious Peace, or A Plea for Liberty of Conscience. 1614. An early plea for toleration.

Digges, Sir Dudley (1583–1639). Foure Paradoxes, or politique Discourses. Two Concerning Militaire Discipline, written long since by Thomas Digges Esq. Two Of the worthinesse of warre and warriors by Dudley Digges, his sonne. 1604.

The latter two pamphlets uphold militarism.

—— The Defence of Trade. In a Letter to Sir Thomas Smith Knight, Governeur of the E. India Companies. From one of that Societie. 1615.

(Digges, Dudley, the younger) (1613–43). An Answer to a Printed Book, intituled, Observations upon His Majesties late Answers and Expresses. Oxford, 1642.

An argument in favour of the full maintenance of the regal authority, in both theory and practice.

(——) A Review of The Observations upon some of his Majesty’s late Answers and Expresses. Written by a Gentleman of Quality. Oxford, 1643.

Demonstrates, with many Scriptural illustrations, that the law is not above the king, and the people not the origin of royal authority.

(——) The Unlawfulnesse of Subjects Taking up Armes against their Soveraigne in what Case soever.… Written by Dudley Diggs, Gentleman, late Fellow of All-Souls Colledge in Oxford. 1647. Another ed. 1662.

An Argument in favour of monarchy as against aristocracy, though a popular form of government is the worst.

Eikon Basilike. See ante, bibliography to chap. VI.

(Fell, John (Dean of Christ Church), 1625–86?) The Interest of England Stated: or, a faithful and just Account of the Actions of all Parties now Pretending. Distinctly treating of the Designments of the Roman Catholick, the Royalist, the Presbyterian, the Anabaptist, the Army, the late Protector, the Parliament etc. 1659. In Maseres, F., Select Tracts, part 1, 1815.

Favours the restoration of the king.

Forde, Thomas. The Times Anatomized in Several Characters. 1676.

—— Fragmenta Poetica: or, Poetical Diversions. With a Panegyrick upon his Sacred Majestie’s Most happy Return, on the 29 May, 1660. 1660.

—— Lusus Fortunae: The Play of Fortune. Continually Acted by the severall Creatures on the Stage of the World. Or, A glance at the various mutability, inconstancie, and uncertainty of all earthly things. From a consideration of the present Times. 1649.

—— A Theatre of Wits, Ancient and Modern. Represented in a Collection of Apothegmes. Pleasant and Profitable. 1660.

Holles, Denzil, Lord Holles. The Grand Question concerning the Judicature of the House of Peers stated and argued, and the case of T. Skinner, complaining of the East India Company, which gave occasion to that question related.… 1669.

Holles, Denzil, Lord Holles. A Letter to Monsieur Van B[euninghen] de M——at Amsterdam, written anno 1675, concerning the Government of England. [1676.]

Rptd. in Somers Tracts, ed. Scott, Sir Walter, vol. VIII, p. 32, 1812.

—— A true relation of the unjust accusation of certain French gentlemen, (charged with a robbery of which they were most innocent), and the proceedings upon it, with their trial and acquittance. 1671.

For this miscarriage of justice Holles made the lord chief justice apologise in the House of Lords.

Howell, James. A Brief Character of the Low Countries under the States. Being three weeks observation of the Vices and Vertues of the Inhabitants. Non seria semper. 1660.

—— A Defence of the Treaty of Newport. 1648.

—— A Perfect Description of the People and Country of Scotland. 1659.

—— A Winter Dream. 1649.

—— [char] Dodona’s Grove, or The Vocall Forest. 2nd ed., with An Addition of two other Tracts, viz. Parables reflecting upon the Times. And England’s Teares for the present Warres. 1644.

—— Instructions for Forreine Travell. Shewing by what cours, and in what compasse of time, one may take an exact Survey of the Kingdomes and States of Christendome, and arrive to the practicall knowledge of the Languages, to good purpose. 1642. 2nd ed., with a new Appendix for Travelling into Turkey and the Levant ports. 1650. Rptd. in Arber’s English Reprints, 1869.

—— Londinopolis; an Historicall Discourse on Perlustration of the City of London, The Imperial Chamber, and chief Emporium of Great Britain: whereunto Is added another of the City of Westminster, with The Courts of Justice, Antiquities, and new Buildings thereunto belonging. 1657.

This volume has additional value as containing a bibliography of its indefatigable author’s writings, both those ptd. by Humphrey Moseley and those ptd. by “other men.”

—— Mercurius Hibernicus, or, A Discourse of the Late Insurrection in Ireland, displaying 1. The true causes of it (till now not so fully discoursed). 2. The course that was taken to suppresse it. 3. The reasons that drew on a Cessation of Arms, and other compliances since.… Bristol 1644.

Defends the cessation of arms in Ireland agreed to by the king as quite different from the pacification with the Scots.

—— Some Sober Inspections made into the Cariage and Consults of the Latelong Parlement, Whereby Occasion is taken to speak of Parlements in former Times, and of Magna Charta, With som Reflexes upon Government in general. 1655.

A colloquy, dedicated to the protector, between Philanglus and Polyander against the tyranny of the Long parliament, and in general approval of Cromwell, who is begged to restore St. Paul’s.

—— The Pre-eminence and Pedigree of Parliament. 1677.

The principal fountain of the king’s happiness and safety is his parliament. Howell defends himself against a charge of malignancy made against him in a book entitled The Popish Royal Favourite, or the strength of passages in The Vocal Forest.

—— The True Informer, Who in the following Discours or Colloquy, Discovereth unto the World the chiefe Causes of the sad Distempers in Great Brittany, and Ireland. Oxford, 1643.

A dialogue on the troubles abroad, and more especially at home, between Patricius and Peregin.

Howell, James. The Vision: or a Dialogue between the Soul and the Bodie. 1651.

James I. The Prince’s Cabala or Mysteries of State. Written by King James I, and some Noblemen in his Reign, and in Queen Elizabeth’s. 1615.

Contains not a few shrewd and witty aphorisms; e.g. “I never noted the Relations of the Devils and Witches, talking together, but about foolish things.” With this is bound up:

—— Religio Regis, or The Faith and Duty of a Prince. Written by King James I, being Instructions to his Son Prince Henry. 1615.

A king is not mere laicus.

Lilburne, John (1614?–57).

For an extensive bibliography by Peacock, E., of the writings of Lilburne, and of others concerning him, see Notes and Queries, ser. VII, vol. V, 18 February 1888, pp. 122, 123; and cf. art. Lilburne, by Firth, C. H., in D. of N. B. vol. XXXIII. The following are among the most notorious pamphlets of this dauntless agitator, pamphleteer, patriot and martyr—for he could have laid claim to all of these designations. His life, from 1638 onwards, was an unbroken series of imprisonments, whipping and pillory, fines, banishments, appearances at the bar of parliament. At last, it settled down into a life and death conflict with Cromwell, in which Lilburne engaged in intrigues with royalists, but maintained his hold on popular sympathy. Though in prison to nearly the close of his life, he ended it in peace, as a quaker.

The Just Man’s Justification. 1646.

Anatomy of the Lords Tyranny … exercised upon John Lilburne. 1646.

The Resolved Man’s Resolution etc. 1647.

Jonah’s Cry out of the Whale’s Belly. 1647.

England’s New Chains discovered. 1649.

An Impeachment of High Treason against Oliver Cromwell and his Son-in-law Henry Ireton. 1649.

An Outcry of the Young Men and Apprentices of London. 1649 (?)

Lieutenant Colonel John Lilburne’s Apologetical Narrative. Amsterdam, 1652.

Montagu, Richard (1577–1641). Appello Caesarem. A just Appeale from two unjust Informers. 1625.

This book, written by a king’s chaplain and canon of Windsor (afterwards bishop of Chichester), was brought to the bar of the House of Commons; but proceedings were dropped, and it was suppressed by royal proclamation (1628).

Osborne, Francis (1593–1659). A Miscellany of Sundry Essayes, Paradoxes and Problematicall Discourses, Letters and Characters; Together with Politicall Deductions from the History of the Earl of Essex, executed under Queen Elizabeth. 1659.

—— Politicall Reflections upon the Government of the Turks, with a Discourse upon Macchiavel; the King of Sweden’s Descent into Germany etc. By the author of the late Advice to a Son. Oxford, 1656. Rptd. 1693.

—— A Seasonable Expostulation with the Netherlands, declaring their Ingratitude to and the Necessity of their Agreement with the Commonwealth of England. Oxford, 1652.

Osborne, Francis. A Persuasive to a mutuall Compliance under the present government and Plea for a Free State compared with Monarchie. 1652.

Prynne, William. For a bibliography of Prynne’s writings, see Wood’s Athenae Oxonienses, 3rd ed., ed. Bliss, P., 1813–20, vol., III, pp. 844 ff. For a notice of several of his publications, including Histriomastix (1633), see ante, bibliography to Vol. VI, chap. XIV. Among others may be mentioned, in chronological order:

The Antipathy of English Lordly Prelacy. 1641.

A stout book, as all other “tracts” by Prynne, in two volumes.

A Breviate of the Life of William Laud Arch-bishop of Canterbury: Extracted (for the most part) Verbatim, out of his owne Diary, and other Writings, under his owne Hand. Collected and published … as a necessary Prologue to the History of his Tryall; for which the Criminall part of his Life, is specially reserved.… Ordered by the Committee of the House of Commons to be printed. 1644.

Official and spiritual acts, prayers and preferments, are all mingled in the indictment.

Hidden Workes of Darknes Brought to Publicke Light, or, A necessary Introduction to the History of the Archbishop of Canterburie’s Triall. 1645.

On papal intervention in English affairs, from the Spanish marriage negotiations onwards.

Canterburie’s Doome, or The First Part of a Compleat History of the Commitment, Tryall, Condemnation of William Laud, Arch-Bishop of Canterbury. Drawn up by Order of the House of Commons. 1646.

A folio of nearly 600 pages.

The First Part of an Historical Collection of the Ancient Parliaments of England [673–1216]; published to prove that up to that date there was only a House of Lords [and that the Commons, who now call themselves the Parliament of England, are guilty of gross ignorance.] 1649.

Sexby, Edward (d. 1658). Killing No Murder. 1657. Rptd. in Pollard, A. F., Political Pamphlets, 1897.

Completed about the end of May 1657, when it was believed that the long drawn negotiations between Cromwell and the parliament would end in his acceptance of the crown. Sexby, formerly one of the leading “agitators,” was then living at Antwerp, and had the tract printed in Holland, after it had been “polished and seasoned” by captain Titus. Both claimed the authorship; but the name put on the title-page was that of William Allen, formerly one of Cromwell’s own Ironsides. See Firth, C. H., Last Years of the Protectorate, vol. 1, p. 224; and Engl. Hist. Review, April 1902, p. 308.

—— Simple Cobler, The, of Aggawam in America, willing to help mend his Native Country etc. 1647.

Mentions the saying of a lady “living sometime with the Queen of Bohemiah”:

“The world is full of care, much like unto a bubble, Women and care, and care and women, and women and care and trouble.”

Whitelocke, Bulstrode. Essays Ecclesiastical and Civil. Containing Learned and Judicious Discourses on several subjects. To which is subjoined a Treatise of the Work of the Sessions of the Peace. 1706.

—— Monarchy Asserted to be the best most Ancient and legal form of Government in a conference held at Whitehall with Oliver late Lord Protector and a Committee of Parliaments: made good by the Arguments of Oliver St. John, Lord Chief Justice J. Glyn, Lord Commissioner Whitlocke and others. (April 1657) 1660.

Ends with Cromwell’s declining the title of king.

Whitelocke, Bulstrode. Whitelocke’s Notes uppon the Kings Writ for choosing Members of Parliament, XIII Car. II, being Disquisitions on the Government of England by King, Lords and Commons. First publ. by Morton, C. 2 vols. 1766.

In Ristine, F. H., English Tragicomedy, its Origin and History, New York, 1910, will be found a curious account of a series of lampoons, extending over the period from 1641 to 1660, by royalist writers, mostly anonymous, against Cromwell and his party, frequently but not always couched in dramatic form, and usually calling themselves “tragic comedies.”