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The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume VII. Cavalier and Puritan.




Spingarn, J. E. Critical Essays of the Seventeenth Century. 3 vols. Oxford, 1908–9. (A few paragraphs from the introduction to vol. 1 are embodied in the text of the present work.)


Alexander, Sir William. Anacrisis: or a Censure of some Poets Ancient and Modern. 1634(?). First published in the Works of William Drummond of Hawthornden, Edinburgh, 1711. Rptd. in Rogers, Memorials of the Earl of Stirling, Edinburgh, 1877, and in Spingarn, as above.

Bacon, Francis. The Advancement of Learning. 1605. De Sapientia Veterum. 1609. Essays. 1625. Various passages in other works.

Bolton, Edmund. Hypercritica: or a Rule of Judgment for writing or reading our History’s. 1618(?). First published by Anthony Hall at the end of his Nicolai Triveti Annalium Continuatio, Oxford, 1722. Rptd. in Haslewood, Ancient Critical Essays upon English Poets and Poesy, vol. II, 1815, and in Spingarn, as above.

Chapman, George. Various prefaces to his translation of Homer (c. 1610–16). Rptd. in R. H. Shepherd’s ed. of Chapman’s Works, Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey, and in Spingarn, as above.

Collop, John. Poesis Rediviva: or Poesie Reviv’d. 1656. Epistle dedicatory and various poems.

Cowley, Abraham. Preface to Poems. 1656. Rptd. with a significant omission in Works, 1668, and in later eds. of Cowley; rptd. from the ed. of 1656 in Spingarn, as above. Also the notes to Davideis 1656. See ed. in Cambridge English Classics, 2 vols., 1905, 1906.

D’Avenant, Sir William. Preface to Gondibert: an Heroick Poem. First printed separately at Paris in 1650, and then published with the poem, London, 1651, and in his collected Works, 1673. Rptd. in Spingarn.

Denham, Sir John. Preface to Fanshawe’s translation of Guarini’s Pastor Fido. 1647. Preface to Essay on Translation. 1656.

Drayton, Michael. Epistle to Henry Reynolds, Esquire, of Poets and Poesie, in The Battaile of Agincourt.… Elegies upon sundrie Occasions. 1627. Rptd. in various eds. of Drayton, and in Spingarn, as above. Preface to Englands Heroicall Epistles. 1630.

Hakewill, George. An Apologie or Declaration of the Power and Providence of God in the Government of the World. 1627. 3rd ed. 1635.

Hales, John. The Method of reading profane History, in Golden Remains. 1659.

Hobbes, Thomas. Answer of Mr. Hobbes to Sr Will. D’Avenant’s Preface before Gondibert. Ptd. with Davenant’s preface in 1650, with Gondibert in 1651, and in D’Avenant’s Works in 1673; rptd. in Molesworth’s ed. of Hobbes’s English Works, and in Spingarn, as above. To the Honourable Edward Howard, Esq., on his intended impression of his Poem of the British Princes; prefixed to Howard’s British Princes, 1669; rptd. in Molesworth, as above. To the Reader concerning the Vertues of an Heroique Poem; prefixed to Hobbes’s translation of the Odyssey, 1675; rptd. in Molesworth and in Spingarn, as above.

Howell, James. Epistolae Ho-Elianae: Familiar Letters Domestick and Foreign. 1645–55. Ed. Jacobs, Joseph. 1892.

Jonson, Ben. Timber, or Discoveries made upon Men and Matter, as they have flow’d out of his daily Readings, or had their refluxe to his peculiar Notions of the Times. 1620–35(?). Published posthumously at the end of the second volume of the folio ed. of Jonson’s Works, 1640–1, with a separate title-page dated 1641. Annotated eds. by Schelling, F. E., Boston, U. S. A., 1892; Gollancz, I., in the Temple Classics, 1898; and Castelain, Maurice, Paris, 1907; all the critical sections rptd. in Spingarn, as above. Notes of Ben Jonson’s Conversations with William Drummond of Hawthornden, January, 1619. Recorded by Drummond, and imperfectly printed in his Works, Edinburgh, 1711, with a brief Character of several Authors by Drummond himself; first ed. from the original MS. by Laing, D., for the Shakespeare Society in 1842; all the purely critical passages rptd. in Spingarn, as above. Many of the prefaces, epistles dedicatory, prologues and epilogues of Johnson’s plays, as well as some of his poems, epigrams and passages in the plays themselves, contain significant critical material; see, also, the critiques of Jonson’s work in Jonsonus Virbius, 1638, which indicate that he passed on his interest in criticism to his epigones. See, also, ante, Vol. IV, p. 594.

Milton, John. Areopagitica, 1644, and various passages in his other prose writings. Preface to Paradise Lost. 1668. Preface to Samson Agonistes. 1671. The last two, and passages from The Reason of Church Government, An Apology for Smectymnuus, and the treatise Of Education, rptd. in Spingarn, as above.

Novae Solymae libri sex. 1648. Trans. by Begley, W., 1902, and ascribed by him to Milton(?). Contains numerous passages of a critical nature.

Peacham, Henry. The Compleat Gentleman. 1622. Other eds. 1634, 1661; rptd. from the ed. of 1634, with introduction by Gordon, G. S., Oxford, 1906. See, especially, chap. VI, Of stile in speaking, writing, and reading History, and chap. X, Of Poetry; the latter rptd. in Spingarn, as above.

Poole, Joshua. The English Parnassus. 1656. 2nd ed. 1677. On the preface by J. D., “being a Short Illustration of English Poesy,” see Saintsbury, History of English Prosody, II, 345–8.

Reynolds, Henry. Mythomystes, wherein a short Survay is taken of the Nature and Value of true Poesy and Depth of the Ancients above our Moderne Poets. 1632(?). Entered on the Stationers’ register, 12 August 1632. Rptd. in Spingarn, as above.

Ross, Alexander. Mystagogus Poeticus, or the Muses Interpreter, explaining the historicall Mysteries and mystical Histories of the ancient Greek and Latine Poets. 1647. 6th ed. 1675. Mel Heliconium, or Poeticall Honey gathered out of the weeds of Parnassus. 1642. Gnomologicon Poëticum, hoc est, sententiae veterum Poëtarum insigniores in ordinem alphabeticum digestae. 1647.

Sheppard, Samuel. The Socratick Session: or the Arraignment and Conviction of Julius Scaliger, in Epigrams. 1651.

Smith, John. The Mysterie of Rhetorique Unvail’d. 1657.

Suckling, Sir John. A Session of the Poets. 1637(?). Published in Fragmenta Aurea, 1646. Rptd. in all eds. of Suckling, and in Spingarn, as above.

Webster, John. Preface to The White Divel. 1612. Rptd. in all eds. of Webster, and in Spingarn, as above.

Wilkins, John. Ecclesiastes, or a Discourse concerning the Gift of Preaching as it fals under the Rules of Art. 1646. 9th ed. 1695.

(?) Wither, George. The Great Assises holden in Parnassus by Apollo and his Assessours. 1645. Rptd. by the Spenser Society, 1885.

On the numerous works of this period connected with the stage controversy (e.g. Heywood’s Apology for Actors, 1612; Green’s Refutation of the Apology for Actors, 1615; A Short Treatise against Stage Plays, 1623; Prynne’s Histriomastix, 1632, etc.), see Thompson, E. N. S., The Controversy between the Puritans and the Stage, New York, 1903; also Vol. VI, chap. XIV of the present work, with its bibliography. On the literary controversy evoked by D’Avenant’s Gondibert, see D’Israeli’s Quarrels of Authors.

Lost works: Ben Jonson’s Observations on Horace his Art of Poetry (see Spingarn, as above, 1, 10, 212, 214, 220); Cowley’s Discourse concerning Style (see ibid. II, 142); Crashaw’s “writing against Plays” (see Selden, Table Talk, s. [char] Poetry).


Aubignac, Abbéd’. La Pratique du Théâtre. 1657.

Balzac, J. L. Guez de. Œuvres. 1665.

Chapelain, J. Preface to Marino’s Adone. 1623. Les Sentiments de l’Académie sur le Cid. 1638.

Colletet, G. L’Art poëtique. 1658.

Costar, P. Défense des Ouvrages de Voiture. 1653.

Deimier, P. de. L’Académie de l’Art poëtique. 1610.

Fancan. Le Tombeau des Romans. 1626.

Fauchet, Claude. Œuvres. 1610.

Gasté, A. (editor). La Querelle du Cid. 1898.

Godeau, A. Discours sur les Œuvres de Malherbe. 1630.

Gournay, Mlle. de. L’Ombre. 1626.

La Mesnardière, J. de. La Poëtique. 1640.

La Mothe le Vayer, F. de. Œuvres. 3rd ed. 1661–2.

Laudun d’Aigaliers, P. de. L’Art poëtique françois. 1598.

Le Moyne, P. Traité du Poëme héroïque, in Saint-Louis. 1653.

Malherbe, F. de. Œuvres. Ed. by Lalanne. 1862.

Mambrun, P. De Poemate Epico. 1652.

Montaigne, M. de. Essais. 1588.

Ogier, F. Preface to Jean de Schelandre’s Tyr et Sidon. 1628.

Pasquier, É. Œuvres. 1723.

Pellisson, P. Histoire de l’Académie françoise. 1653. Trans. by H. R. 1657.

Ronsard, P. de. Œuvres. Ed. by Blanchemain. 1857–67.

Sarasin, J. F. Œuvres. 1656.

Scudéry, G. de. Preface to Alaric. 1654.

Scudéry, Mlle. de. Preface to Ibrahim ou l’illustre Bassa. 1641.

Vaugelas, C. F. de. Remarques sur la Langue françoise. 1647.

Vauquelin de la Fresnaye, J. L’Art poëtique. 1605. Ed. by Pellissier. 1885.

Holland and Germany

Büchler, J. Sacrarum Profanarumque Phrasium Poeticarum Thesaurus. 11th ed. London. 1632.

Fabricius, G. De Re Poetica. 1595.

Heinsius, D. De Constitutione Tragoediae. 1610. Q. Horatii Flacci Opera. 1612.

Opitz, M. Buch von der deutschen Poeterei. 1624.

Pontanus, J. Poeticarum Institutionum libri tres. 1594.

Rodenburg, T. Eglentiers Poëtens Borst-weringh. 1619. (This is a Dutch paraphrase of Sidney’s Defence of Poesie.)

Vondel, J. van den. Aenleidinge ter Nederduitsche Dichtkunste. 1650.

Vossius, G. J. Opera. 1695–1701.


Aromatari, G. Degli Autori del ben Parlare. 1643.

Boccalini, T. De’ Ragguagli di Parnaso. 1612. Trans. by the earl of Monmouth. 1656.

Castelvetro, L. La Poetica d’Aristotele vulgarizzata et sposta. 1570.

Fioretti, B. Proginnasmi Poetici di Udeno Nisieli. 1620–39.

Galileo Galilei. Scritti di Critica letteraria. Ed. by Mestica. 1906.

Guarini, B. Opere. 1737.

Mascardi, A. Prose Volgari. 1630.

Mazzoni, J. Della Difesa della Commedia di Dante. 1587.

Minozzi, P. F. Sfogamenti d’Ingegno. 1641.

Minturno, A. S. L’Arte Poetica. 1564.

Pallavicino Sforza. Trattato dello Stile e del Dialogo. 1646.

Patrizzi, F. Della Poetica. 1586.

Pellegrini, M. I Fonti dell’ Ingegno ridotti ad Arte. 1650.

Piccolomini, A. Annotationi nel Libro della Poetica d’Aristotele. 1575.

Possevino, A. Bibliotheca Selecta de Ratione Studiorum. 1607.

Scaliger, J. C. Poetices libri septem. 1561. 5th ed. 1617. Select Translations from Scaliger’s Poetics, by Padelford, F. M. 1905.

Sperone Speroni. Opere. 1740.

Strada, F. Prolusiones et Paradigmata Eloquentiae. 1617.

Summo, F. Discorsi Poetici. 1600.

Tasso, T. Opere. Ed. by Rosini. 1821–32. I Discorsi dell’ Arte Poetica, etc. Ed. by Solerti. 1901.

Tassoni, A. Considerazioni sopra le Rime del Petrarca. 1609. Pensieri Diversi. 1608–12.

Tesauro, E. Il Cannocchiale Aristotelico. 1654. 7th ed. 1675.

Vettori (Victorius), P. Commentarii in primum Librum Aristotelis de Arte Poetarum. 1560.

Viperano, J. A. De Poetica. 1579.


Cascales, F. Tablas Poéticas. 1617.

Cueva, J. de la. Exemplar Poético. 1612. Ed. by Walberg. 1904.

Gracián, B. Obras. 1669.

Huarte, J. Examen de Ingenios. 1575. Eng. trans. by Carew, R., 1594, and by Bellamy, 1698.

Morel-Fatio, A. (editor). Les Défenseurs de la Comedia. Bulletin Hispanique. 1902.

Pinciano, A. L. Philosophia Antigua Poética. 1596.

Salas, González de. Nueva Idea de la Tragedia Antigua. 1633.

Vega, Lope de. Arte Nuevo de hazer Comedias. 1609. Ed. by Morel-Fatio. Bulletin Hispanique. 1901.


Aronstein, P. Ben Jonson’s Theorie des Lustspiels. Anglia, vol. XVII. 1895.

Brotanek, R. Trajano Boccalini’s Einfluss auf der englischen Literatur. Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen, vol. CXI. 1903.

Castelain, M. Shakespeare et Ben Jonson. Revue germanique, vol. III. 1907.

Flügel, E. Bacon’s Historia Literaria. Anglia, vol. XXII. 1899.

Gayley, C. M. and Scott, F. N. Introduction to the Methods and Materials of Literary Criticism, especially pp. 392–8. Boston, U. S. A., 1899.

Grossmann, H. Ben Jonson als Kritiker. Berlin, 1898.

Hamelius, P. Die Kritik in der englischen Literatur des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts. Leipzig, 1897. Was dachte Shakespeare über Poesie? Brussels, 1899.

Ingleby, C. M. The Shakspere Allusion-Book. Ed. Munro, J. 1909.

Jacquinet, P. Francisci Baconi de Re litteraria Judicia. Paris, 1863.

Klein, D. Literary Criticism from the Elizabethan Dramatists. New York, 1910.

Reinsch, H. Ben Jonsons Poetik und seine Beziehungen zu Horaz. Erlangen, 1899.

Rigault, H. Histoire de la Querelle des Anciens et des Modernes. Paris, 1856.

Saintsbury, G. History of Criticism and Literary Taste, vol. II (book IV, chap. 5, and book V, chap. 4). Edinburgh and London, 1902.

Schücking, L. L. Shakespeare im literarischen Urteil seiner Zeit. Heidelberg, 1908.

Symmes, H. S. Les Débuts de la Critique dramatique en Angleterre jusqu’à la Mort de Shakespeare. Paris, 1903.

Upham, A. H. The French Influence in English Literature from the Accession of Elizabeth to the Restoration. New York, 1908.

For a more extended bibliography, see Spingarn, as above, vol. III, pp. 342–56, and Literary Criticism in the Renaissance, 2nd ed., New York, 1908, pp. 337–43. For the history of French criticism in this period, see Brunetière, Évolution des Genres, pp. 57–86, and Vial and Denise, Idées et Doctrines littéraires du XVIIe siècle, pp. 35–157; for Italian criticism, Foffano, Ricerche letterarie, pp. 135–312, and Croce, Trattatisti italiani del Concettismo e B. Gracian; for Spanish criticism, Menéndez y Pelayo, Historia de las Ideas Estéticas en España, 2nd ed. vol. III, pp. III–528; for Dutch and German criticism, Borinski, K., Die Poetik der Renaissance, and Saintsbury, Hist. of Crit., vol. II, pp. 352–64. On Daniel Heinsius, the chief source of Jonson’s literary theory in Discoveries, and one of the most influential critics of this period, see Sandys, J. E., History of Classical Scholarship, vol. II, pp. 313–14, and Jonckbloet, Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Letterkunde, 4th ed. vol. IV, pp. 215–22.