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The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume VII. Cavalier and Puritan.

XII. Hobbes and Contemporary Philosophy


Authorities: histories of modern philosophy; Rémusat, C. de, Histoire de la philosophie en Angleterre depuis Bacon jusqu’à Locke, Paris, 1875. Biographies of many of the writers are given by Aubrey, John, Letters written by eminent persons … and Lives of eminent men, 1813 (Brief Lives, edited by Clark, A., Oxford, 1898); and by Wood, Anthony à, Athenae Oxonienses, 1691–2. See also Masson, David, Life of John Milton, 1859–80.


De conscientia et ejus jure vel casibus. 1630. Eng. trans. 1639.


New Atlantis: a work unfinished. (First published along with Sylva Sylvarum, by Rawley, W., 1627.) Ed. Smith, G. C. Moore. Cambridge, 1900.


An Examen of Mr. T. Hobbes his Dialogus physicus de natura aeris. 1622.

New Experiments and Observations touching Cold.… To which are added an Examen of antiperistasis, and an examen of Mr. Hobs’s doctrine about cold. 1665. 3rd ed. with defence against Hobbes’s objections. 1682.

Tracts, containing … 2 Animadversions upon Mr. Hobbes’s problemata de vacus. 1674.


The Serpent Salve; or, A Remedy for the biting of an Aspe. 1643/4. [A defence of monarchy, and criticism of the view that all power sit derived from the people.]

A Defence of the True Liberty of Human Actions from Antecedent and Extrinsicall Necessity. 1655.

Castigations of Mr. Hobbes his last Animadversions in the case concerning Liberty and Universal Necessity. With an appendix concerning the catching of Leviathan or the great Whale. 1658.

Works. Dublin, 1674–7; Oxford, 1842.


Realis philosophiae epilogisticae partes IV. (Containing Civitas solis.) 1623.


Introduction in metaphysicam. Oxford, 1619.

Logicae libri quinque de praedicabilibus. 1622.

De Providentia Dei tractatus. Cambridge, 1623.


An Elegant and Learned Discourse of the Light of Nature. 1652. Ed. Brown, J. Edinburgh, 1857.


De legibus Naturae disquisitio philosophica. 1672. Eng. trans. by Maxwell, John, 1727; by Towers, J., Dublin, 1750.


Nosce Teipsum. This Oracle expounded in two Elegies. 1. Of Humane knowledge. 2. Of the Soule of Man, and the immortalitie thereof. 1599. The Complete Poems. Ed. Grosart, A. B. 1869, 1876.


Two Treatises, in the one of which, the Nature of Bodies; in the other, the Nature of Mans soule; is looked into: in way of Discovery of the Immortality of reasonable soules. Paris, 1644.

Of bodies, and of man’s soul. To discover the immortality of reasonable souls. With two discourses of the power of sympathy and of the vegetation of plants. 1669.


The Leviathan heretical: or … refutation of a book of his, entituled The Historical Narration of Heresie. Oxford, 1683.


Mr. Hobbs’s State of Nature Considered, In a Dialogue between Philautus and Timothy. 1672.

Some Opinions of Mr. Hobbs considered in a second dialogue between Philautus and Timothy. 1673.


The Free-holders Grand Inquest, Touching our Sovereign Lord the King And His Parliament. 1647.

The Anarchy of a Limited or Mixed Monarchy. 1648.

The Necessity of the Absolute Power of all Kings. 1648.

Observations concerning the Originall of Government. 1652.

Patriarcha: or the Natural Power of Kings. 1680.


Atheomastix; clearing foure truthes, against atheists and infidels. 1622.


The Court of the Gentiles. 1669–77.

Idea Theologiae. 1673.

Philosophia Generalis. 1676.


The Vanity of Dogmatizing: or Confidence in Opinions. 1661.

Scepsis Scientifica: or, Confest Ignorance, the Way to Science. 1665.

Plus Ultra; or the Progress and Advancement of Knowledge since the days of Aristotle. 1668.

Philosophia Pia; or, a discourse of the religious temper, and tendencies of the experimental philosophy which is profest by the Royal Society. 1671.

Essays on Several Important Subjects in Philosophy and Religion. 1676. [Contains: (i) Against Confidence in Philosophy; (ii) Of Scepticism and Certainty; (iii) Modern Improvements of Knowledg (iv) The Usefulness of Philosophy to Theology; (v) The Agreement of Reason and Religion; (vi) Against Sadducism in the Matter of Witchcraft; (vii) Antifanatick Theologie, and Free Philosophy. In a continuation of the New Atlantis.]

Sadducismus Triumphatus; or, Full and Plain Evidence concerning Witches and Apparitions. 1681.


A Discourse opening the nature of that Episcopacie which is exercised in England. 1641.

The Nature of Truth, its union and unity with the Soule. 1641.

Cf. Freudenthal, J., Beiträge zur Geschichte der englischen Philosophie (two articles), in Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie, VI, 1893.


An Apologie or Declaration of the Power and Providence of God. Oxford, 1627.


Characters of Vertues and Vices. 1608.

Resolutions and Decisions of Diverse practicall cases of Conscience. 1649.


The Common-wealth of Oceana. 1656.

The Prerogative of Popular Government. 1658.

A Discourse shewing that the spirit of Parliaments with a Council in the interval, is not to be trusted for a Settlement. 1659.

A Discourse upon this saying “the Spirit of the nation is not yet to be trusted with Liberty.” 1659.

The Art of Law-giving: in III books. 1659.

Aphorisms political. [1659.]

Political Discourses: tending to the introduction of a free … Commonwealth in England. 1660.

The Oceana and other Works … collected … by John Toland. 1700.


A Description of the famous Kingdom of Macaria. 1641.


Eight Books of the Peloponnesian War written by Thucydides the son of Olorus interpreted with faith and diligence immediately out of the Greek. 1629.

De Mirabilibus Pecci. 1636. With Eng. trans. “by a person of quality.” 1678.

The Elements of Law Natural and Politic. (Circulated in MS., 1640, first publ. as a whole and under this title by Tönnies, F., 1889.)

Objectiones ad Cartesii Meditationes de prima philosophia vulgo dictae Objectiones Tertiae. (First publ. in Descartes’s Meditationes, 1641.)

Tractatus Opticus. (Publ. by Mersenne in his Cogitata Physico-Mathematica, 1644.)

Elementorum Philosophiae Sectio tertia, De Cive. Paris, 1642. [The 2nd ed., with new notes and preface, was entitled Elementa Philosophica De Cive, Amsterdam, 1647.]

Humane Nature; or the Fundamental Elements of Policy. 1650. [Consists of chaps. I–XIII of The Elements of Law.]

De Corpore Politico; or the Elements of Law, Moral and Politick. 1650. [Consists of chaps. XIV-end of The Elements of Law.]

Epistolica dissertatio de principiis justi et decori; continens apologiam pro tractatu de cive. Amsterdam, 1651.

Philosophicall Rudiments concerning Government and Society. 1651. [An English version of De Cive.]

Leviathan Or the Matter, Forme, and Power of A Commonwealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil. 1651.

Of Liberty and Necessity. 1654. [A publication, not authorised by Hobbes, of a reply by him to the arguments of bishop Bramhall, written for the marquis of Newcastle in 1646.]

The Questions concerning Liberty, Necessity, and Chance. 1656.

Elementorum Philosophiae Sectio prima, De Corpore. 1655. Eng. trans. with an appendix entitled “Six Lessons to the Professors of Mathematics,” 1656.

Elementorum Philosophiae Sectio secunda, De Homine. 1658.

[char] A[char], A[char], A[char], A[char], or Marks of the Absurd Geometry, Rural Language, Scottish Church Politics, and Barbarisms of John Wallis. 1657.

Examinatio et Emendatio Mathematicae hodiernae qualis explicatur in libris Johannis Wallisii. 1660.

Dialogus Physicus, sive de Natura Aeris.… Item de duplicatione cubi. 1661.

Seven Philosophical Problems and Two Propositions of Geometry … with an Apology for Himself and his Writings. 1662.

Problemata Physica. 1662.

Mr. Hobbes considered in his loyalty, religion, reputation and manners. 1662, 1680. [The latter ed. entitled Considerations upon the Reputation, etc.]

De Principiis et Ratiocinatione Geometrarum. 1666.

Opera Philosophica, quae Latine scripsit, Omnia. Amsterdam, 1668. [Part 1 rpts. De Corpore, De Homine and De Cive; Part II, other mathematical and physical pieces; Part III is a Latin trans. of Leviathan, with a new appendix instead of the former “Review and Conclusion.”]

Quadratura Circuli. Cubatio Sphaerae. Duplicatio Cubi. 1669.

Rosetum Geometricum … cum censura brevi doctrinae Wallisianae de motu. 1671.

Three Papers presented to the Royal Society against Dr. Wallis. 1671.

Lux Mathematica excussa collisionibus Johannis Wallisii et Thomae Hobbesii. 1672.

Principia et Problemata aliquot geometrica antehac desperata nunc breviter explicata et demonstrata. 1674.

The Travels of Ulysses, as they were related by himself in Homer’s 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th books of his Odysses. 1673.

The Iliads and Odysses of Homer. Translated out of Greek into English. 1676.

Decamerum Physiologicum; or Ten Dialogues of Natural Philosophy. 1678.

Behemoth; The History of the Civil Wars of England. 1679 (imperfect), 1682.

Thomae Hobbes Malmesburiensis Vita carmine expressa. 1679. Eng. trans. 1680.

An Historical Narration concerning Heresie and the punishment thereof. 1680.

An answer to a Book published by Dr. Bramhall called the “Catching of the Leviathan.” 1682 (written 1668.)

A Dialogue between a Philosopher and a Student of the Common Laws of England. 1681.

The Whole Art of Rhetoric. 1681 (written some thirty years before).

Historia Ecclesiastica carmine elegiaco concinnata. 1688. Eng. trans. 1722.

Editions of Hobbes’s Works

The only complete edition of the works is that by Molesworth, Sir W., Latin Works, 5 vols., English Works, II vols., 1839–45. Elements of Law and Behemoth were ed. from a revision of the MSS. by Tönnies, F., in 1889. Leviathan has been rptd., Oxford, 1881 and 1909, and the text ed. by Waller, A. R., Cambridge, 1904.

Works on Hobbes

In addition to the histories of philosophy, the following may be cited:

Baumann, J. J. Lehren von Raum, Zeit und Mathematik, 1, pp. 237–356. 1868.

Lyon, G. La philosophie de Hobbes. 1893.

Mondolfo, R. La morale di T. Hobbes. 1903.

Robertson, G. C. Hobbes. 1886.

Stephen, Sir L. Hobbes. 1904.

Tarantino, G. Saggio sulle idee morali e politiche di T. Hobbes. 1900.

Taylor, A. E. Hobbes. 1909.

Tönnies, F. Hobbes, Leben ünd Lehre. 1896.

—— Anmerkungen über die Philosophie des Hobbes (4 articles), in Vierteljahrsschrift für wissenschaftliche Philosophie. 1879–81.


An Examination of the Political part of Mr. Hobbs his Leviathan. 1663.


Philosophia veterum e mente Renati Descartes more scholastico breviter digesta. 1671.

Institutio philosophiae secundum principia Renati Descartes. 1672.

Apologia pro R. Des-Cartes contra Samuelum Parkerum. 1679.

An entire body of Philosophy, according to the principles of R. Des-Cartes … translated … by R. Blome. 1694.


Arte of Reason rightly termed Witcraft. 1573.


Observations … and Confutations of … errours in Mr. Hobbs his Leviathan. 1663.


Artis logicae plenior institutio. 1672.


Libellus vere aureus nec minus salutaris quam festivus, de optimo reip. statu. deque nova Insula Utopia. Louvain, 1516; rptd. Paris, 1518; 2nd ed., Basle, 1518.

A fruteful and pleasaunt worke of the beste state of a publyque weale, and of the newe yle called Utopia … translated into Englyshe by Ralphe Robynson. 1551.


Tentamen physico-theologicum. 1669.

Disputationes de Deo et divina providentia. 1678.


Armilla aurea. 1590.

The Whole Treatise of the Cases of Conscience. 1608.


[char] … with occasional reflexions on … Master Hobbs. 1658.


Truth appearing. 1655.

Theologia mystica. 1683.


The Philosophical Touch-Stone; or Observations upon Sir K. Digbie’s Discourses. 1645.

Arcana Microcosmi. 1652.

II[char]: or, a View of all Religions in the World. 1653.

Leviathan drawn out with a hook; or Animadversions on Mr. Hobbes his Leviathan. 1653.


Logicae artis compendium. Oxford, 1615.

De juramenti promissorii obligatione praelectiones septem. Habitae … A.D. MDCXLVI. 1647.

—— translated into English by his Majesties speciall command. 1655.

De obligatione conscientiae praelections decem … habitae A.D. MDCXLVII. 1660. Ed., with Eng. notes, by Whewell, W., Cambridge, 1851, and in Eng. trans. by Wordsworth, bp. Chr., Lincoln, 1877.

Wors. Ed. Jacobson, W. Oxford, 1854.


The Duello or Single Combat. 1610.

De Dis Syris Syntagmata II. 1617.

The Historie of Tithes. 1618.

Mare Clausum seu de dominio maris. 1635.

De Successionibus ad leges Ebraeorum. 1638.

De jure naturali et gentium juxta disciplinam Hebraeorum. 1640.

Brief Discourse of the Powers of the Peers and Commons. 1640.

Table Talk … edited by Milward, R. 1689. Ed. Reynolds, S. H. Oxford, 1892.

Opera Omnia. Ed. Wilkins, D. 1723.


The History of Philosophy: containing The Lives, Opinions, Actions and Discourses of the Philosophers of every Sect. 1655.


The Commonwealth of Oceana put into the Ballance. 1660.

Campanella revived, or an inquiry into the history of the Royal Society. 1670.


Ductor Dubitantium, or the Rule of Conscience in all her measures; serving as a great Instrument for the determination of Cases of Conscience. 1660.


The Creed of Mr. Hobbes examined. 1670.


Patriarcha non Monarcha. 1681.

A Brief Disquisition of the Law of Nature … as also confutations of … Hobbs’s principles. 1692.


Truth tried, or Animadversions on a Treatise published by Robert lord Brook. 1643.

Elenchus geometriae Hobbianae. Oxford, 1655.

Due correction for Mr. Hobbes; or schoole discipline, for not saying his lessons right. Oxford, 1656.

Hobbiani puncti dispunctio … in answer to M. Hobs’s [char]. Oxford, 1657.

Hobbius heauton-timorumenos. Oxford, 1662.

Thomae Hobbes quadratura circuli … confutata. Oxford, 1669.


A philosophicall essay towards an eviction of the being and attributes of God. 1652.

Vindiciae academiarum, … with an appendix concerning what M. Hobbs and M. Dell have published on this argument. 1654.

In Tho. Hobbii philosophiam exercitatio epistolica. 1656.


Institutionum Peripateticarum ad mentem … K. Digbaei pars theorica. Leyden, 1646. In Eng. 1656.

The Grounds of Obedience and Government. 1655.

Sciri, sive sceptices et scepticorum à jure disputationis exclusio. 1663.


The Leviathan found out: or the Answer to Mr. Hobbes’s Leviathan. 1679.


The Rule of Reason, conteining the arte of logique. 1552.

The Arte of Rhetorique. 1553.


Considerations on Mr. Harrington’s … Oceana. 1657.

Monarchy asserted … in vindication of the Considerations upon Mr. Harrington’s Oceana. Oxford, 1659.