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The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume VIII. The Age of Dryden.

IV. The Early Quakers



Joseph Smith’s Descriptive Catalogue of Friends’ Books, in 3 vols., with Supplement (published in 1867, but kept up to date), may be consulted at the Friends’ Library, Devonshire House, Bishopsgate. See, also, his Bibliotheca Anti-Quakeriana (1873), for books adverse to the Society of Friends.

The Swarthmore Manuscripts, unpublished, form a collection of about 1400 original seventeenth century letters, papers, etc., which was preserved at Swarthmore Hall, Ulverston, till 1759, when it was dispersed on the sale of the estate. The papers are being gradually collected again, and are preserved at the Friends’ Library, Devonshire House, Bishopsgate.

Barclay, A. R. Letters, & c. of Early Friends, illustrative of the History of the Society from its Origin to George Fox’s Decease. 1841.

Barclay, R. (of Reigate). The Inner Life of the Religious Societies of the Commonwealth. 1876.

Beck, W. The Friends: who they are and what they have done. 1892.

Besse, J. A Collection of the Sufferings of the People called Quakers from 1650 to 1689. 1753.

Braithwaite, W. C. The Beginnings of Quakerism. [To be published immediately. Drawn from original and, to a large extent, contemporary sources. The most accurate history of the origin of Quakerism yet written.]

—— Spiritual Guidance in the Experience of the Society of Friends. 1909.

Burr, Anna R. The Autobiography: a Critical and Comparative Study. Boston, 1909.

Clarkson, T. A Portraiture of Quakerism. 1806.

Combe, C. La Révélation intérieure immédiate d’après l’Apologie de Robert Barclay. Montauban. 1894.

Croese, G. The General History of the Quakers. 1696.

Emmott, Elizabeth B. The Story of Quakerism. Published for the Friends’ Central Education Committee. 1908.

Gough, J. A History of the People called Quakers. 4 vols. Dublin, 1789–90.

Grubb, E. Authority and the Light Within. 1908.

Hancock, T. The Peculium: an endeavour to throw light on some of the causes of decline of the Society of Friends. 1859.

Harvey, T. E. The Rise of the Quakers. 1905.

James, W. The Varieties of Religious Experience. 1902.

Janney, S. M. History of the Religious Society of Friends, from its Rise to the year 1828. 4 vols. Philadelphia, 1859–67.

Jones, R. M. Studies in Mystical Religion. 1909.

—— Children of the Light. 1909. [A little Book of Selections.]

Penn, William. A Brief Account of the Rise and Progress of the People called Quakers. 1694. [Introduction to Fox’s Journal; but also printed separately.

Penney, N. The First Publishers of Truth: Early Records of the Introduction of Quakerism into the Counties of England and Wales. Introduction by Hodgkin, T. 1907.

Rowntree, J. S. Quakerism Past and Present: an Inquiry into the Causes of its Decline. 1859.

Sewel, W. The History of the Rise, Increase and Progress of the Christian People called Quakers. 1722.

Webb, Maria. The Fells of Swarthmore Hall and their Friends. 1865.

—— The Penns and Peningtons of the Seventeenth Century. 1867.

A. Writings

George Fox’s Journal. The original manuscript, believed to have been written by Thomas Lower and others at Fox’s dictation, is in course of being printed verbatim by the Cambridge University Press, introduction by Harvey, T. E., annotated by Penney, Norman, 1911.

The Great Mistery of the Great Whore Unfolded. 1659.

A Battle-door for Teachers and Professors to learn Singular and Plural: You to many, and Thou to one. George Fox, John Stubs, Benjamin Furly. 1660.

A Journal or Historical Account of the Life, Travels, Sufferings, Christian Experiences, and Labours of Love in the Work of the Ministry of that Ancient Eminent and Faithful Servant of Jesus Christ, George Fox. [Edited, and corrected into grammatical English, by Thomas Ellwood, Fox’s literary executor, and other Friends.] With preface by Penn, William. 1694. Many subsequent eds.

The Journal. 8th (Bicentenary) ed. 2 vols. 1891. With corrections, and map. 2 vols. 1902–3.

A Collection of Epistles. 1698.

Gospel Truth Demonstrated, in a Collection of Doctrinal Books. 1796.

B. Biography and Criticism

Beck, W. Six Lectures on George Fox and his Times. 1877.

Bickley, A. C. George Fox and the Early Quakers. 1884.

Hodgkin, T. George Fox. Leaders of Religion Series. 1896.

Janney, S. M. Life of George Fox. Philadelphia, 1853.

Jones, R. M. George Fox, an Autobiography. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1903. 1 vol. London, 1904.

Rowntree, J. S. The Life and Character of George Fox. Lecture to University Extension Students at Oxford. 1894.

—— An Inquiry into the Truthfulness of Lord Macaulay’s Portraiture of George Fox. 1861.

Spurgeon, C. H. George Fox. An Address. 1866.

Stähelin, Margaret. George Fox: Aufzeichnungen und Briefe des ersten Quakers. Mit einer Einführung von Wernle, P. Tübingen, 1908.

A. Writings

A first complete edition of the works of William Penn is now being prepared by Myers, Albert Cook, of Philadelphia.

A Collection of the Works of William Penn. To which is prefixed a Journal of his Life. Ed. Besse, Joseph. 2 vols. 1726.

An Index to William Penn’s Works. By “Philalethes” [Henry Portsmouth]. 1730.

The Sandy Foundation Shaken. 1668.

Innocency with her Open Face. 1669.

No Cross No Crown. 1669. Many subsequent eds.

No Cross No Crown. With introduction by Hilton, J. Deane. 1902.

Some Fruits of Solitude. 1st ed., 1693. Many subsequent eds.

Some Fruits of Solitude. With introduction by Gosse, Edmund. 1901.

Some Fruits of Solitude. With introduction by Clifford, J. 1905.

Primitive Christianity Revived. 1696.

The Christian Quaker and his Divine Testimony Stated and Vindicated. 1699.

B. Biography and Criticism

Clarkson, Thomas. Memoirs of the Private and Public Life of William Penn. 2 vols. 1813.

Dixon, W. Hepworth. History of William Penn, Founder of Pennsylvania. 1872.

Jeffrey, F. Contributions to the Edinburgh Review. 1853. [Contains reviews of Clarkson, T., Portraiture of Quakerism, April, 1807, and Memoirs of Penn, July, 1813.]

Jenkins, H. M. (ed.). Pennsylvania, Colonial and Federal. 3 vols. Philadelphia, 1903.

—— The Family of William Penn. Philadelphia, 1899.

Sharpless, I. Selections from the Works of William Penn. With introduction. 1909.

—— A History of Quaker Government in Pennsylvania. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1900.

Stoughton, J. William Penn, the Founder of Pennsylvania. 1882.


The Holy Truth and People Defended. 1672.

The Works of the Long-Mournful and Sorely Distressed Isaac Penington. 1681, 3rd ed. 4 vols. 1784.

Letters of Isaac Penington, written to his Relations and Friends. Ed. Kendall. J. 1796.

Barclay, J. Letters of Isaac Penington. The greater part not before published. 1828.

—— Selections from the works of Isaac Penington. 1837.

Binns, H. B. Selections from the works of Isaac Penington. With introduction. 1909.


A Catechism and Confession of Faith. 1673.

Theses Theologicae. (In Latin.) Amsterdam, 1674. (In English.) London, 1711.

The Anarchy of the Ranters and other Libertines. 1676.

An Apology for the True Christian Divinity: being an Explanation and Vindication of the Principles and Doctrines of the People called Quakers. 1st ed. 1678. Many subsequent eds.

Allen, W. Selections from the Apology of Robert Barclay. 1837.

Biography, etc.

Armistead, W. A Memoir of Robert Barclay, the Author of the Apology, with some Account of his Father, Colonel David Barclay. Manchester, 1850.


Rogero-Mastix: a Rod for William Rogers. 1685. [Verse.]

A Collection of Poems on various Subjects. [n.d.]

The History of the Life of Thomas Ellwood … written by his own hand. To which is added a Supplement by J. W. [Joseph Wyeth.] 1714. Many later eds. including: ed. by Crump, C. G., 1900; ed. by Graveson, Samuel, 1906.


Davies, Richard. An Account of the Convincement, Exercises, Services and Travels of that Ancient Servant of the Lord, Richard Davies; with some Relation of Ancient Friends, and the Spreading of Truth in North Wales, & c. 1710. (Numerous later eds.)

Dewsbury, William. The Faithful Testimony of that Antient Servant of the Lord, and Minister of the Everlasting Gospel, William Dewsbury. 1689.

Fisher, Samuel. Rusticus ad Academicos: the Rustick’s Alarm to the Rabbies, or the Country correcting the University and the Clergy. 1660.

Gratton, John. A Journal of the Life of that Ancient Servant of Christ, John Gratton. With a Collection of his Books and MSS. 1720.

Howgill, Francis. Memoirs, with extracts from his writings. By J. Backhouse. York, 1828.

Mollineux, Mary. Fruits of Retirement. 1702.

Nayler, James. A Collection of sundry Books, Epistles and Papers written by James Nayler. With an impartial Relation of the most remarkable Transactions relating to his Life. 1716.

Parnell, James. Collection of his writings. 1675.

—— Account of his life. By Smith, Charlotte F. 1906.

Penington, Mary (daughter of Sir John Proude). Her Testimony concerning her dear Husband, Isaac Penington. In I. P.’s Works (q.v.), 1681. 1794.

Roberts, Daniel. Memoir of John Roberts. Written in 1725. 1st ed., abridged. 1746.

—— First complete ed. Ed. Lawrence, Edmund T., with prefatory letter by Holmes, Oliver Wendell. 1898.

Whitehead, George. George Whitehead, his work and service. Compiled from his Autobiography by William Beck. 1901.