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The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume VIII. The Age of Dryden.

XI. Platonists and Latitudinarians


See, also, Vol. VII, bibliography to Chap. II.


Psyche, or Love’s Mystery. 1648, 1651. Cambridge, 1702. [The MS. is preserved in Peterhouse library.]

Poems, with a memoir by J. G[ee]. Cambridge, 1749.

Poetical Works. Ed. Grosart, A. B. (Chertsey Worthies Library.) 2 vols. Blackburn, 1880.

Some Observations upon the Apologie of Dr. H. More for his Mystery of Godliness. Cambridge, 1665.


Discourse concerning the true notion of the Lord’s Supper. 1642.

The Union of Christ and the Church a Shadow, by R. C. 1642.

Sermon preached before the House of Commons, 31 March, 1647.

The Victory of Christ, a Sermon.

The true Intellectual System of the Universe, wherein all the reason and philosophy of Atheism is confuted and its impossibility demonstrated. 2 vols. 1743. With Life by Birch, T. [An earlier edition appeared in 1678 in which the Greek quotations are exceptionally faulty; and Birch’s edition was republished in 1820.]

A Treatise concerning Eternal and Immutable Morality. With preface by Chandler, Edward, bishop of Durham. 1731.

Systema intellectuale hujus Universi, seu de veris Naturae originibus. Jena, 1733; Leyden, 1773. [This was a translation by Mosheim, J. L. von, which served to introduce the Intellectual System to continental scholars. (See Mullinger, J. B., University of Cambridge, vol. III, p. 661.) Mosheim was largely indebted to Chandler (see supra) for his materials in his account of Cudworth.]

Criticisms of his Philosophy

Hallam, Henry. Literature of Europe, vol. IV. 1864.

Hunt, J. Hist. of Religious Thought in England, passim. 3 vols. 1870–3.

Martineau, James. Types of Ethical Theory, vol. II. 2 vols. 1883.

Maurice, F. D. Modern Philosophy, ch. VII, par. 16 and 17. 1862.

Tulloch, J. Rational Theology and Christian Philosophy in England in the Seventeenth Century, vol. II, pp. 192–302. 1872.

Whewell, W. Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy, pp. 84–89. 1862.

Mill, John Stuart. Dissertations and Discussions, vol. II, pp. 450–9. [Criticism on the above.]


All his works are discourses in college chapel published after his death.

The Schisme, Act of Oblivion, Child’s Returne, Panting Soul, Mount Ebal, White Stone, Spiritual Optics, Worth of Souls. By Nathanael Culverwel, lately Fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. 1652.

An Elegant and Learned Discourse of the Light of Nature. 1652, 1654, 1661, 1669. Edited by Brown, John, D.D., of Edinburgh, with a critical Essay by Cairns, John, of Berwick. 1857. [In this last edition the classical and Hebrew quotations are translated.] Selections from same in Campagnac, E. T., The Cambridge Platonists, pp. 213–321, 1901.

There are criticisms also in Hunt, J., u.s. vol. II, pp. 334–8; Tulloch, J., u.s. vol. II, pp. 411–426; Mullinger, u.s. pp. 630–646.


The Vanity of Dogmatizing. 1661. Recast and rptd. as Scepsis Scientifica. 1665.

Lux Orientalis. 1661, 1665. A defence of More’s theory of the Prae-existence of Souls. Rptd. in 1682, with George Rust’s Defence of Truth.

Plus Ultra, or the Progress and Advancement of Knowledge. 1668.

[char], or a Seasonable Recommendation and Defence of Reason in affairs of Religion against Infidelity. 1670.

There are notices in Hallam, H., Intr. to the Literature of Europe, vol. IV, pp. 61, 119; Lecky, W. E., Rationalism, vol. I, pp. 110–115, 1882; Tulloch, J., u.s. vol. II, p. 444; Hunt, J., u.s. vol. II, pp. 170–173.


Psychozoia Platonica: or a Platonicall Song of the Soul, consisting of foure severall Poems. 1642. Rptd. in Philosophical Poems, as A Platonick Song of the Soul; treating of the Life of the Soul, her Immortalitie, Sleep, Unitie, and Memorie after Death. Cambridge, printed by Roger Daniel, printer to the Universitie. 1647. [Here the several Parts are described as: (i) Psychozoia, … containing a Christiano-Platonicall display of Life. (ii) Psychathanasia, or the Immortality of the Soul, in three Books, with an Appendix entitled—Democritus Platonissans, an Essay upon the Infinity of Worlds out of Platonick Principles. (iii) Antipsychopannychia, or a Confutation of the Sleep of the Soul after Death, to which, again, the Preexistency of the Soul appears as an Appendix. This volume also contains “some few smaller Poems,” among which that entitled Cupid’s Conflict, and the Insomnium Philosophicum are perhaps the most noteworthy—the latter being descriptive of the author’s own rapturous trances.] A 2nd ed. of the Poems appeared in the same year and is the text adopted by Grosart in Chertsey Worthies Library, 1878.

Observations, under the assumed name of “Alazonomastix,” upon Thomas Vaughan’s Anthroposophia Theomagica and Anima Magica abscondita. 1650. To this Vaughan replied in his Man-mouse taken in a Trape, to which More rejoined in his Second Lash of Alazonomastix. 1651.

An Antidote against Atheism: or, An Appeal to the Natural Faculties of the Mind of Man, whether there be not a God. 1653. 2nd ed., with Appendix. 1655.

Conjectura Cabbalistica, or a Conjectural Essay of interpreting the Mind of Moses, in the first three chapters of Genesis, according to a threefold Cabbala, viz. Literal, Philosophical, Mystical (dedicated to Cudworth). 1653.

Enthusiasmus Triumphatus, or a Discourse of the Nature, Causes, Kinds, and Cure of Enthusiasme: written by Philophilus Parriastes and prefixed to Alazonomastix his Observations and Reply. 1656.

The Immortality of the Soule, so farre forth as it is demonstrable from the Knowledge of Nature and the Light of Reason (dedicated to Viscount Conway). 1659.

An Explanation of the Grand Mystery of Godliness: or a True and Faithful Representation of the Everlasting Gospel of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 1660. [Of this, four chapters (Tetractys Anti-Astrologica) were subsequently published separately, as containing “a brief but solid Confutation of Judiciary Astrology—wherein the wondrous weaknesses of John Butler his Answer called a Vindication of Astrology, etc. are laid open to the view of every intelligent Reader.” 1681.]

A Collection of several Philosophical Writings of Dr. Henry More, … as namely Antidote against Atheism. Appendix to same. Enthusiasmus Triumphatus. Letters to Descartes, etc. Immortality of the Soul. Conjectura Cabbalistica. 2nd ed. more correct and much enlarged. 1662. 4th ed. 1712. [This volume contains the letter of Clerselius asking More’s permission to print his correspondence with Descartes and the latter’s reply, also the correspondence itself, since more correctly printed in vol. V of Adam and Tannery’s ed. of Œuvres de Descartes; Correspondance, vol. II.]

Enchiridion Ethicum, praecipua Moralis Philosophiae Rudimenta complectens, illustrata ut plurimum Veterum Monumentis, et ad Probitatem Vitae perpetuo accommodata. 1667, 1668, 1669, 1695, 1696, 1711. [A popular treatment of the subject which, however, nearly cost him the friendship of Cudworth. See Worthington’s Correspondence, ed. Crossley, J. (Chetham Society, Manchester, 1855), vol. II, pp. 140–167.]

Divine Dialogues, containing sundry Disquisitions and Instructions concerning the Attributes of God and His Providence in the World. 1668. Best ed. 1713.

An Exposition of the Seven Epistles to the Seven Churches; together with a Brief Discourse of Idolatry, with application to the Church of Rome. 1672.

Enchiridion Metaphysicum, sive de rebus incorporeis succincta et luculenta Dissertatio. 1671, 1672. [In this, More animadverts upon some of Descartes’s theories in Natural Philosophy with considerable acrimony.]

Apocalypsis Apocalypseos, or the Revelation of St. John the Divine unveiled; an Exposition of the whole Book of the Apocalypse. 1680.

A plain and continued Exposition of the several Prophecies or Divine Visions of the Prophet Daniel. 1681.

See Paralipomena Prophetica: containing several Supplements and Defences of More, Dr. H., his Exposition of the Prophet Daniel and the Apocalypse, 1685.

A brief Discourse of the Real Presence of the Body and Blood of Christ in the Celebration of the Holy Eucharist. 1681. [Against the doctrine of Transubstantiation as maintained by Bossuet and Maimbourg.]

A Collection of Aphorisms. In two parts. 1704.

Latin Edition of his Writings

In 1679, More, believing that his writings were destined to take their place as classics, translated them into Latin (being aided by funds especially bequeathed by his friend Cockshutt, of the Inner Temple, for that purpose), and published them in two large folio volumes under the title Henrici Mori Cantabrigiensis Opera Omnia, tum quae Latine tum quae Anglice scripta sunt nunc vero Latinitate donata, etc.

Sources for his Biography

In what he terms Praefatio Generalissima to the above edition, More embodied many interesting facts connected with his early life; and, in 1710, Richard Ward, rector of More’s former living of Ingoldsby in Lincolnshire, published The Life of the Learned and Pious Dr. Henry More, late fellow of Christ’s College, etc. To which are annexed divers of his Useful and Excellent Letters. Among these letters, that to lady Carbery, on her studies, and that to William Penn, the quaker, are the most noteworthy.

Criticisms of his Philosophy

Hallam, Maurice, Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy, pp. 347–9, Hunt, J., passim, Martineau, Jas., u.s. vol. II, all indicate points of importance in More’s teaching which call for consideration. Tulloch’s estimate, the earliest to recognise More’s superiority to his contemporaries in his conviction of the claims of reason in relation to the subjects of which he treats, should be carefully studied. Dean Inge’s Bampton Lectures for 1899 deal with the mysticism of the period; while Benson, A. C., in a short study, Essays, 1896, dwells chiefly on the less recondite characteristics of his subject.


Funeral Sermon preached at the Burial of John Smith. 1652.

A brief Account of the new Sect of Latitude-Men together with some reflections on the New Philosophy. By S. P. of Cambridge. In answer to a Letter from his Friend at Oxford. [Attributed to Patrick chiefly on the internal evidence.] 1662.

Parable of the Pilgrim. 1664, 1839.

Autobiography [first published from his own manuscript at Oxford in 1839, by Chamberlayne, T.], prefixed to collection of his Works in 9 vols., edited by Taylor, Alexander, in 1858.

Critical Notices

Hunt, J., u.s. vol. II.

Overton, J. H. Life in the English Church, 1660–1714. 1885.

Tulloch, J., u.s. vol. II, pp. 440–1.


A Discourse delivered at Cambridge. 1655.

A Letter of Resolution concerning Origen. 1661.

Sermon preached at Newtown at the Funeral of Hugh, earl of Mount Alexander. Dublin, 1664.

Sermon at the Funeral of Jeremy Taylor. Dublin, 1667.

A Discourse of Truth. 1677. Subsequently edited by Glanvill. 1682.

Discourse of the Use of Reason in matters of Religion, etc. 1683.

Remains, edited by Hallywell, Henry. 1686.

Biographical and Critical Notices

Cotton, Hen. Fasti Ecclesiae Hibernicae. 5 vols. and Suppl. Dublin. 1848–78.

Hunt, J., u.s. vol. 1.

Mullinger, J. B. Hist. of University of Cambridge, vol. III, pp. 650–64. 1911.

Peile, J. Hist. of Christ’s College, pp. 171, 177. 1900.

Tulloch, J., u.s. vol. II, pp. 433–7.

Worthington, John, Dairy and Correspondence, vol. 1. Ed. Crossley, J. (Chetham Society). Manchester, 1848.


Select Discourses. 1660. [On the following subjects: 1. Of the true Way or Method of attaining to Divine Knowledge. 2. Of Atheism. 3. Of Superstition. 4. Of the Immortality of the Soul. 5. Of the Existence and Nature of God. 6. Of Prophecy. 7. Of Legal and Evangelical Righteousness. 8. Of the shortness of Pharisaical Righteousness. 9. Of the Excellency and Nobleness of True Religion. 10. Of a Christian’s Conflicts with and Conquests over Satan. Of these 1, 4, 5 and 9 are printed by Campagnac, E. T., in The Cambridge Platonists, pp. 79–209, 1901.]

Biographical and Critical Notices

Campagnac, E. T., u.s. Introd. XXVII–XXX.

Hunt, J., u.s. vols. 1 and II.

Mullinger, J. B., u.s. vol. III, pp. 630–643. 1911.

Oration by Patrick, and account by Worthington in his edition of the Select Discourses. 1660.

Searle, W. G. Hist. of Queens’ College, pp. 550, 568. 1867.

Tulloch, J., u.s. vol. II, pp. 121–186.


[char] or, some select Notions of the Learned and Reverend Divine of the Church of England, Benj. Whichcote, D.D., faithfully collected from him by a Pupil and Particular Friend of his. 1685.

Select Sermons, with a Preface by the third Earl of Shaftesbury, author of the Characteristics. 1698. Rptd. Edinburgh, 1742, by Principal Wishart.

Several Discourses, examined and corrected by his own Notes, and published by Jeffery, John, D.D., archdeacon of Norwich. 1701.

The True Notion of Place in the Kingdom or Church of Christ, stated by the late Dr. Whitchcot in a Sermon [on St. James, iii, 18] preach’d by him on the malignity of Popery. Examined and corrected by Jeffery, J. 1717.

The Works of the learned Benjamin Whichcote, D.D., rector of St. Lawrence Jewry. 4 vols. Aberdeen, 1751. [Contains only the Discourses.]

Moral and Religious Aphorisms: collected from the manuscript Papers of the Reverend and Learned Dr. Whichcote, and published in MDCCIII, by Dr. Jeffery. Now republished, with very large additions from the Transcripts of the latter, by Samuel Salter, D.D.… to which are added Eight Letters, which passed between Dr. Whichcote, Provost of King’s College, and Dr. Tuckney, Master of Emmanuel College. 1753.

Campagnac, E. T., The Cambridge Platonists, pp. 1–75, 1901, gives extracts both from the Sermons and the Aphorisms. Although, however, he thus implicitly claims for Whichcote a place among the Platonists, it is to be noted that neither Plato nor Plotinus is named in the pages quoted.

Biographical and Critical Notices

Hunt, J., u.s. vols. 1 and II.

Mullinger, J. B., vol. III, passim.

Notes [as yet unpublished] by the late Professor J. E. B. Mayor in his Cambridge in the Reign of Queen Anne, pp. 297–306.

Tillotson, Archbp. J. Sermon preached at the Funeral of the Reverend Benj. Whichcote, 1683.

Tulloch, J., u.s. vol. II.

Westcott, B. F. Masters in English Theology. 1877.


The Christian’s Pattern: a translation of the De Imitatione of Thomas à Kempis. 1654.

Life of Joseph Mede by J. W., prefixed to 3rd ed. of Mede’s Works. 1672.

Diary and Correspondence of Dr. John Worthington. Ed. Crossley, J. 2 vols. (Chetham Society.) Manchester, 1847–86. [From the Baker MSS. in the British Museum and the Cambridge University Library, etc.]

A bibliography of works which Worthington either wrote or edited was published by the Chetham Society in 1885, and in this the following are given as his own:

[char]. A Form of Sound Words: or a Scripture Catechism; shewing what a Christian is to believe and practise in order to Salvation. 1673 and later eds.

The Great Duty of Self-Resignation to the Divine Will. 1675. [This went through numerous editions and was translated into German.]

The Doctrines of the Resurrection and the Reward to come, considered as the grand Motives to an Holy Life. 1690.

Charitas Evangelica: a Discourse of Christian Love. 1691.

Forms of Prayer for a Family. 1693, 1721. [This also was translated into German.]

Miscellanies … also a Collection of Epistles; with the Author’s Character by Archbishop Tillotson. 1704.

Select Discourses … with the Author’s Character. 1725.

Biographical and Critical Notices

Tulloch, J., u.s. vol. II, pp. 426–433.

Mullinger, J. B. Art. in D. of N. B. vol. LXIII; Hist. of University of Cambridge, vol. III, passim.