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The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume X. The Age of Johnson.

XIII. Historians



The following MSS. in the British Museum are unprinted, except in part. (See Harrison, F., Proceedings of the Gibbon Commemoration, 1794–1894, p. 32.) Journals of Edward Gibbon, 1762–4. Consisting of:

1. Journal de mon Voyage dans quelques endroits de la Suisse: 21 September–20 October, 1755. (Autograph to 15 October.) [In English; partly printed in Miscellaneous Works, 1796.]

2. Ephemerides, or Journal of my actions, studies and opinions: vol. II, 17 August, 1762–May, 1763. In French.

3. Ephemerides, or Journal de ma vie, de mes études et de mes sentimens; vol. III, August-November, 1763. In French.

4. Journal (without title), including the tour in Italy; December, 1763–June 1764. In French.

5. Journal (without title); written in Italy, June-December, 1764. In French.

[According to Harrison, F., the above fill not less than 720 pp. of quarto and folio in Gibbon’s very close handwriting, and small excerpts of them are inserted as notes in the published Memoirs and in a few other parts of the Miscellaneous Works.]

Outlines of the History of the World. Written (in Gibbon’s early hand) between 1758 and 1763.

Extraits raisonnés de mes Lectures, beginning with general remarks upon Reading; written at Dover, 17 March, 1761.

Common Place Book, in which I purpose to note what I find most remarkable in my Historical Readings. Begun at Lausanne, March 19, 1755.

Observations on various subjects, written in French, at Lausanne and Buriton, 1756–8.

Note-Book, containing four pages of Materials for corrections and improvements for the 1st vol. of my History, followed by two pages of Materials for the fourth volume of [the same], November 8, 1781.

B. The Decline and Fall
(1) Editions

Gibbon, Edward. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Vol. I. 1776. Vols. II and III. 1781. Vols. IV–VI. 1788.

—— The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. With notes by Milman, H. H. 12 vols. 1838–9. With notes by Milman, H. H. and Guizot, F. P. G. With additional notes by Smith, William. 8 vols. 1854. New edn., 1872. [Of Milman’s Preface a considerable part first appeared in The Quarterly Review, vol. I, January, 1834.]

—— The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Ed. Bury, J. B. 7 vols. 1896–1900. New edn. 7 vols. 1909–13. [Now the standard edition, containing, besides a pregnant introduction, a series of longer notes or excursuses, with select bibliographies of later works, appended to each volume, and forming a supplement to the work, especially in those parts in which it falls short of the results of later research.]

Gibbon, Edward. Histoire de la Décadence, etc. Trans. by Le Clerc de Sept-Chênes (the reader of Louis XI, who was supposed to have been the actual translator of this portion!), Demeunier, Boulard, Cautwell and Marignie. 18 vols. Paris, 1777–95. New edn., revised by Mme. Guizot, with Lettre sur la vie et le caractère de Gibbon by Suard, J.-B.A., and Notes by Guizot, F. P. G., 13 vols., Paris, 1812; 3rd edn., 1828–9.

—— Geschichte des Verfalls und Untergangs des Römischen Reiches. Übers. und mit einigen Anm. herausg. von Wenck, Friedrich August Wilhelm. 19 vols. 1779. 2nd edn. 1820.

German translation of c. XLIV by Hugo, G. H. under the title: Gibbon’s Übersicht des römischen Rechts. Göttingen, 1789.

Istoria della Decadenza e Rovina dell’ Imperio Romano. Trans. by Fabbroni and Foggi, vols. I–IX. Pisa, 1779–86. [Vol. X, though printed, was never published.]

(2) Adversaria, etc.

Apthorpe, East. Letters on the Prevalence of Christianity before its Civil Establishment; with Observations on the late History of the Decline of the Roman Empire. 1778.

Burgh, William. An Enquiry into the Belief of the Christians of the first three centuries respecting the one Godhead. York, 1778.

(Chelsum, James.) Remarks on the two last Chapters of Mr. Gibbon’s History, etc., in a Letter to a Friend. 1776. Rptd. in an enlarged form, with the author’s name, Oxford, 1778. [Chelsum was assisted in his task by Thomas Randolph.]

—— A Reply to Mr. Gibbon’s Vindication. Winchester, 1785.

Davis, Henry Edwards. An Examination of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Chapters of Mr. Gibbon’s History of the Decline and Fall, etc. In which his view of the Progress of the Christian Religion is shewn to be founded on the Misrepresentation of the authors he cites: and Numerous Instances of his Inaccuracy and Plagiarism are produced. 1778.

Edwards, Thomas. The Jewish and Heathen Rejection of the Christian Miracles. Preached before the University of Cambridge. March 7, 1790.

Hailes, Lord (Sir David Dalrymple.) An Inquiry into the Secondary Causes which Mr. Gibbon has assigned for the Rapid Growth of Christianity. 1786.

Loftus, Smyth. A Reply to the Reasonings of Mr. Gibbon, etc. Dublin, 1778.

Milner, Joseph. Gibbon’s Account of Christianity considered; together with some Strictures on Hume’s Dialogues concerning Natural Religion. 1781.

Priestley, Joseph. An History of the Corruptions of Christianity. 1782. [The challenge to Gibbon is in Part 1 of the General Conclusion.]

Randolph, Thomas (President of Corpus Christi College, Oxford). The Proof of the Christian Religion drawn from its Successful and Speedy Propagation, etc. In two sermons. Oxford, 1777. [Against Gibbon’s chap. XV.]

Taylor, Henry. Thoughts on the Nature of the Grand Apostacy, with Reflections and Observations on the XVth Chapter of Mr. Gibbon’s History of the Decline and Fall, etc. 1781.

—— Further Thoughts, etc. 1783.

Travis, George (archdeacon). Letters to Edward Gibbon, Esq., author of the History of the Decline and Fall, etc. Chester, 1785. 3rd edn. (enlarged). 1794.

Porson, Richard. Letters to Archdeacon Travis in Answer to Defence of the Three Heavenly Witnesses. The Gentleman’s Magazine, 1788–9. Rptd. 1790, and with an additional letter (or this only?) in Porson’s Tracts and Miscellaneous Criticisms. Ed. Kidd, T. 1815.

Watson, Richard (bishop of Llandaff). An Apology for Christianity in a Series of Letters to Edward Gibbon, Esq. 1776.

—— Two Apologies, one for Christianity in a series of letters addressed to Edward Gibbon, Esq., 1776, the other for the Bible, in answer to Thomas Paine, etc., 1805.

Whitaker, John. Gibbon’s History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, in vols. IV, V and VI quarto, reviewed. 1791. [Originally published in The English Review.]

White, Joseph. Sermons containing a View of Christianity and Mahometanism, in their history, their evidence and their effects, preached before the University of Oxford. Bampton Lectures, 1784. 3rd edn. 1789.

Gibbon, Edward. A Vindication of Some Passages in the XVth and XVIth Chapters of the History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. By the Author. 1779. (Rptd. in Misc. Works, vol. IV.)

C. Other Writings (including Memoirs and Letters)

Miscellaneous Works of Edward Gibbon, with Memoirs of his Life and Writings Composed by Himself. Ed. John, Lord Sheffield. Vols. I and II, 1796; vol. III, 1814; new edn., 5 vols., 1814. [Vol. I: Memoirs and Letters; vol. II: Letters; vol. III: Historical and Critical; vol. IV: Classical and Critical; vol. V: Miscellaneous.]

(1) Memoirs and Letters

Autobiographies, the, of Edward Gibbon. Printed verbatim from hitherto unpublished MSS., with an introduction by the Earl of Sheffield. Ed. Murray, John. 1896. Contains (though in different order):

A. The Memoirs of the Life of Edward Gibbon, with various observations and excursions by himself. Written in 1788–9, but only giving particulars of his family.

B. My own Life. Written in 1789–90, and ending in April, 1764.

C. Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Edward Gibbon; written in 1789–90, and brought down to October, 1772.

D. Memoirs (without title); written in 1790–1, and brought down to October, 1772.

E. My Own Life; dated at end “Lausanne, March 2, 1791,” and ending with the death of Deyverdun in July, 1789; with notes added in 1792–3.

F. Memoirs (without title); written in 1792–3, but only brought down to the date of Gibbon’s leaving Oxford in June, 1753. [Described by Murray as the latest and most perfect. A fragment of headings from June, 1753 to April, 1758, with two pages on ancestry, containing the famous passage on Tom Jones and the house of Austria.]

Life, the, of Edward Gibbon, Esq., With Selections from his Correspondence, and illustrations by Milman, H. H. 1839. [The Memoirs, divided into chapters, with extracts from the Journals, and selected Letters to Lord Sheffield and others.]

Private Letters of Edward Gibbon (1753–1794). With an Introduction by the Earl of Sheffield. Ed. by Prothero, Rowland E. 2 vols. 1896.

Memoirs, the, of the Life of Edward Gibbon, with various Observations and Excursions by himself. Ed. Hill, George Birkbeck. 1900. [Contains ample notes, and in the appendix, valuable excursuses.]

(2) Other Writings

Antiquities of the House of Brunswick. Miscellaneous Works, vol. III. 1814.

Essai sur l’Étude de la Littérature. 1761. Rptd. in Miscellaneous Works, vol. IV.

Mémoire justificatif pour servir de réponse à l’Exposé, etc., de la Cour de France. 1779. [Published anonymously.] Rptd. in Miscellaneous Works, vol. V, 1814.

Mémoires Littéraires de la Grande-Bretagne. 2 vols. 1767–8. [Ed. by Gibbon and Deyverdun, George.] Rptd. in Miscellaneous Works, vol. IV, 1814.

Observations on the Design of the VIth Book of the Aeneid. Rptd. in Miscellaneous Works, vol. IV.

D. Biography and Criticism
(Writings not previously mentioned under B)

Adeane, Jane H. The Girlhood of Maria Josepha Holroyd (Lady Stanley of Alderley), recorded in letters. Ed. J. H. A. 1896. [She was the daughter of Gibbon’s chief friend, the first Lord Sheffield.]

See, also, Adeane, Jane H., The Early Married Life of Maria Josepha, Lady Stanley, 1899.

Bagehot, W. Estimates of some Englishmen and Scotchmen: E. Gibbon. 1858.

Morison, James Cotter. Gibbon. (English Men of Letters series.) 1878.

Proceedings of the Gibbon Commemoration, 1794–1894. Royal Historical Society. 1895. [Contains Introductory Speech of Sir Mountstuart Grant Duff, Address by Frederic Harrison, and Catalogue of the Exhibition at the British Museum of Autograph Memoirs, Journals and Notebooks, Correspondence, Early Impressions, Relics and Portraits.]

Read, General Meredith. Historic Studies in Vaud, Berne and Savoy, from Roman Times to Voltaire, Rousseau and Gibbon. 2 vols. 1897. [See vol. II for much about Gibbon and the relics of him at Lausanne and elsewhere.]

Smith, James. Junius Unveiled. 1909. [An unconvincing attempt to prove that Gibbon was Junius.]

See bibliography to Chap. XII, ante.

Hooke, Nathaniel (d. 1673). Roman History, from the Building of Rome to the Ruin of the Commonwealth. 4 vols. 1738–71.

For titles of a series of dissertations by Hooke on the Roman Senate see art. Hooke, Nathaniel, in Dictionary of National Biography, vol. XXVII.

Middleton, Conyers. The History of the Life of Marcus Tullius Cicero. 2 vols. 1741.

Middleton, Conyers. The Miscellaneous Works. 4 vols. 1752. 2nd edn. 5 vols. 1755. [Contains, besides the Life of Cicero:]

—— A Dissertation concerning the Origin of Printing. 1735.

—— The Epistles of M. T. Cicero to M. Brutus, and of Brutus to Cicero.

With English notes and a prefatory dissertation. 1743.

A Treatise on the Roman Senate. 1746–7.

See, also, bibliography to Vol. IX, Chap. XII.

Mitford, William. The History of Greece. 10 vols. 1784–1810. New edn. 10 vols. 1819–20.

Macaulay, Lord. Review of the above. In Knight’s Quarterly Magazine for November, 1824. Rptd. in Miscellaneous Writings, vol. I, 1860.

Memoir, by the author’s brother, Lord Redesdale. In History of Greece. 8 vols. 1829. Revised by King, W.

Whitaker, John. The Course of Hannibal over the Alps ascertained. 2 vols. 1784.

Tytler, Alexander Fraser (Lord Woodhouselee). A Critical Examination of the above. 1794.

—— The History of Manchester. In Four Books. Book I (Roman and Roman-British Period), 1771; Additional vol. of Principal Corrections, and 2nd edn. of vol. 1, 2 vols., 1773; Book II (Saxon Period, to foundation of Heptarchy, and descent upon it of the Danes), 1775. [No more published.]

Whitaker, John. The Genuine History of the Britons, a refutation of Macpherson’s Introd. to the History of Great Britain and Ireland. 1772.

—— Mary Queen of Scots vindicated. 3 vols. 1787; volume of Additions and 2nd edn., 1790. [An uncompromising defence, now of no importance. His unfinished MS. of the Private Life of Mary Queen of Scots was used by Chambers, G. as a basis for his Life of Mary, 1818.]

—— Life of St. Neot (posthumous).