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The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume X. The Age of Johnson.

XVII. Political Literature


A. Periodicals

The Auditor. June, 1762–Feb., 1763. (Ed. Murphy, A.)

The Briton. May, 1762–Feb., 1763. (Ed. Smollett, T.)

The Con-Test, Nos. 1–38. 23 Nov., 1756–6 Aug., 1757. (Ed.? Roughead, O., or? Francis, P.)

The Monitor, or British Freeholder, Nos. 1–403. 9 Aug., 1755–6 Oct., 1763. (Ed.? Entick, John.)

The North Briton. 1762–3. (By John Wilkes and Charles Churchill.) 2nd edn., with notes. 3 vols. 1763. Continued 1768–9.

The Test, Nos. 1–35. 6 Nov., 1756–9 July, 1757. (Ed. Murphy, A.)

Wilkes, J. C. The Political Controversy, or weekly magazine of ministerial and anti-ministerial essays. 5 vols. 1762–3. (This includes reprints of the issues for 1762–3 of The Monitor, The Auditor, The Briton, The North Briton, and other papers.)

B. Separate Works

The most important tracts of this period (1763–1770) are reprinted in: Almon, J. A collection of scarce and interesting tracts. 4 vols. 1787–8.

Bath, W. Pulteney, Earl of. Seasonable hints from an honest man on the new reign and the new parliament. 1761.

Burke, Edmund. Short account of a late short administration. 1766.

—— Observations on a late State of the nation. 1769.

—— Thoughts on the cause of the present discontents. 1770.

Candor. A Letter to the Public Advertiser. 1764.

—— A Letter concerning libels, warrants, etc. 6th edn. 1766.

For a list and account of other pamphlets, some signed Phileleutherus Anglicanus, which have been attributed to Candor, see W. J. Smith’s essay in Grenville Papers, vol. III, pp. CLXXVI ff.

Francis, P. A Letter from the Cocoa Tree to the Country Gentleman. 1762.

Grenville, G. The present state of the nation. 1768.

—— Speech on the motion for expelling Mr. Wilkes, 3 February, 1769.

Guthrie, W. An Address to the Public on the late dismission of a General Officer [Conway]. 1764.

Jenyns, Soame. Poems. 1752.

—— A Free Enquiry into the Nature and Origin of Evil. 1757.

—— View of the Internal Evidence of the Christian Religion. 1776.

—— Disquisitions on Several Subjects. 1782.

—— Thoughts on Parliamentary Reform. 1784.

—— Works. Ed. Cole, C. N. 4 vols. 1790.

Johnson, Samuel. The False Alarm. 1770. [On the Middlesex Election.]

—— Thoughts on the late transactions respecting Falkland’s Islands. 1771.

—— The Patriot. Addressed to the Electors of Great Britain. 1774.

Lloyd, Charles. A Vindication of the conduct of the ministry in the case of Mr. Wilkes. 1763.

—— The anatomy of a late negotiation. 1763.

—— A defence of the Majority in the House of Commons on the question of general warrants. 1764.

Lloyd, Charles. A critical review of the new administration. 1765.

—— The conduct of the late administration examined. 1765.

—— An honest man’s reasons for declining to take part in the new administration. 1765.

—— An examination of the principles of a late Rt. Hon. Gentleman [Pitt]. 1766.

—— A true history of a short administration. 1766.

Massie, Joseph. An Essay on the governing causes of the natural rate of Interest. 1750.

—— A Representation concerning the Knowledge of Commerce as a National Concern. 1760.

Shebbeare, J. Letters to the people of England. 8 parts. 1756–70.

—— Letters on the English nation. 2nd edn. 2 vols. 1756.

—— The history of the excellence and decline of the constitution … of the Sumatrans. 2 vols. [1763.]

Townshend, C. A Defence of the Minority in the House of Commons on the question relating to general warrants. 1764.

—— The State of the Nation in 1766 and 1767.

Walpole, Horace. The opposition to the late Minister [Bute] vindicated. 1763.

—— A Counter Address to the Public on the late dismission of a General Officer [General Conway]. 1764.

Whately, T. Remarks on The Budget. 1765.

—— Considerations on the trade and finances of the kingdom. 1766.

Wilkes, John. A Letter to Earl Temple. 1763.

—— A Letter to the Duke of Grafton. 1767.

—— A Letter to Mr. Grenville in answer to his Speech. 1769.

C. Biography and Criticism

Almon, J. Biographical, literary, and political Anecdotes of several of the most eminent persons of the present age. 3 vols. 1797.

Andrews, A. History of British Journalism to 1855. 2 vols. 1859.

Bourne, H. R. F. English Newspapers. Chapters in the history of Journalism. 2 vols. 1887.

Escott, T. H. S. Masters of English Journalism. 1911. (Chap. IV.)

Fitzgerald, P. Life and Times of John Wilkes. 2 vols. 1888.

Johnstone, C. Chrysal, or the Adventures of a Guinea. 4 vols. 1760–5. New edn. by Baker, E. A. 1908. [Contains an account of Medmenham.]

Stephens, A. Memoirs of John Horne Tooke, interspersed with original documents. 2 vols. 1813.

Wilkes, J. Correspondence … With memoirs of his life by Almon, J. 5 vols. 1805.

Wright, T. England under the House of Hanover; its history during the reigns of the three Georges, illustrated from caricatures and satires. 2 vols. 1848. Another edn. 1868.

A. Collected Editions

Poems. 1763–5, 1766; 7th edn., 1772; 1774, 1776.

Poetical Works, with an authentic account of his life [by Tooke, W.]. 2 vols. 1804.

Poetical Works. With notes and a life of the author by Tooke, W. (Aldine Poets.) 3 vols. 1844. (Tooke’s edition of 1804 reprinted and enlarged.)

Poetical Works, with memoir, etc., by Gilfillan, G. Edinburgh, 1855.

Poetical Works, with a memoir by Hannay, J. L., and copious notes by Tooke, W. 2 vols. 1866. Revised edn. 1892.

B. Separate Works

The Rosciad. By the Author. 1761. 9th edn. 1765.

Reviewed in Critical Review, March, 1761.

The Apology. Addressed to the Critical Reviewers. 1761.

These three reprinted and annotated by Lowe, R. W., 1891.

Night. An Epistle to Robert Lloyd. 1762.

The Ghost. 4 books. 1762–3.

The North Briton. (By Churchill and Wilkes.) 1762–3.

The Prophecy of Famine; a Scots pastoral inscribed to John Wilkes, Esq. 1763.

An Epistle to William Hogarth. 1763. 2nd edn. 1763.

The Conference. 1763.

The Duellist. In three books. 1763.

The Author. 1763.

Gotham. In three books. 1764.

The Candidate. 1764.

The Farewell. 1764.

The Times. 1764.

Independence. 1764.

Sermons, with a satirical dedication in verse to Warburton. (Published posthumously.) 1765.

C. Biography and Criticism
(In addition to the memoirs cited above under sec. II, A.)

Courthope, W. J. History of English Poetry. 1905. (On Churchill: vol. V, pp. 224–37.)

Forster, J. Charles Churchill, 1731–1764. The Edinburgh Review for January, 1845. Rptd. 1855 and in Historical and Biographical Essays, vol. II, 1858.

Fitzgerald, P. The Life and Times of John Wilkes. 2 vols. 1888.

Genuine memoirs of Mr. Charles Churchill. 1765.

Putschi, F. Charles Churchill, sein Leben und seine Werke. [Wiener Beiträge zur engl. Philologie.] Vienna and Leipzig, 1909.

Scott, R. F. Admissions to the College of St. John the Evangelist. Cambridge, 1903. [Notice of Churchill, pt. III, p. 580.]

Stephen, Sir L. Charles Churchill. D. of N. B. vol. X. 1887.


Chatterton, T. The Consuliad. Poetical works. Ed. Roberts, H. D. 1906.

Falconer, W. The Demagogue. Poetical works. Aldine edn. 1836.

Mason, W. [Malcolm MacGreggor.] Ode to Mr. Pinchbeck upon his newly invented patent candle-snuffers. 1776.

—— An Epistle to Dr. Shebbeare; to which is added an Ode to Sir Fletcher Norton. 1777.

—— The Dean and the Squire. A political eclogue, humbly dedicated to Soame Jenyns, Esq. 1782.

Whitehead, Paul (1710–1774). Poems and miscellaneous compositions. Ed. with a life by Thompson, E. 1777.

—— Manners. A Satire. 1739.

—— Honour. A Satire. 1747.

—— Satires. 1748.


These will be found in the following:

The Public Advertiser (ed. Woodfall, H. S.); The Gazetteer and Almon’s Political Register. The following were the principal signatures to letters contributed to The Public Advertiser: Anti-Sejanus (1766); Cato Redivivus (1766); A. B. (1766–7); Onustus (1767); One of the People (1767), etc.

A full general account will be found in Parkes-Merivale, under sec. V, B, post.

Scott, James. A collection of interesting letters. 1767. (These first appeared in The Public Advertiser under the pseudonym of Anti-Sejanus.)

—— Fugitive Political Essays which have appeared in The Public Advertiser during the last winter, 1769–70. 1770.


The Letters of Junius originally appeared in The Public Advertiser.

A full annotated bibliography (12 columns) of the Letters of Junius, and of the controversial literature relating to them, is given in Lowndes’s Bibliographer’s Manual, new edn. by Bohn, H. G., part 5, 1860. In the preface will be found some account of a secret letter addressed to Grafton and signed Lucius. This letter cannot now be found.

An elaborate bibliography of 49 editions of the Letters and of 289 works and articles about Junius, compiled by Edmunds, J., appeared in vol. II of the Bulletin of the Mercantile Library of Philadelphia, 1890–2.

An annotated list, by Wheatley, H. B., of the 46 persons to whom the authorship of the Letters has been assigned is included in Halkett and Laing’s Dictionary of Anonymous and Pseudonymous Literature (1882–8).

A. Collected Editions

The Political Contest; containing a series of letters between Junius and Sir W. Draper; also the whole of Junius’s letters to the D[uke] of G[rafton]. 2 pts. 1769. 3rd edn. 1769.

Almon, J. A Collection of the Letters of Atticus, Lucius, Junius, and others. 1769.

The Letters of Junius. 2 vols. 1772. (The first authorised edition; as to the previous unauthorised editions by Wheble and others, see Bohn’s bibliography mentioned above.) Other edns.: 1783, 1788, 1789, 1797, 1802 (with notes by Heron, R.), 1806 (ed. Almon, J.), etc.

Junius, including letters by the same writer under other signatures (now first collected). To which are added his confidential correspondence with Mr. Wilkes, and his private letters to H. S. Woodfall; with a preliminary essay [by Good, J. M.]. 3 vols. 1812. 2nd edn. 1814.

The Letters of Junius, with preliminary dissertations and copious notes by Atticus Secundus [M’Diarmid, J.]. 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1822.

Junius. New edn., enlarged, with new evidence as to the authorship. 2 vols. London, 1850. Reprinted.

[In vol. II. is an important essay of 80 pages, in which the editor, Wade, John, assumes Sir Philip Francis to be the author of the Junius Letters. In addition to the letters collected by Junius himself, this edn. contains miscellaneous letters written by or attributed to him.]

B. Critical and Controversial Works

Barker, E. H. I. The claims of Sir Philip Francis to the authorship of Junius’s Letters disproved. II. Some enquiry into the claims of the late Charles Lloyd, Esq. to the composition of them. 1831. [Opposes the claims of Francis and Sackville, and advocates those of Charles Lloyd.]

Brockhaus, F. Die Briefe des Junius. Leipzig, 1876.

Chabot, C. The handwriting of Junius professionally investigated. With preface and collateral evidence by Twisleton, Edward. 1871.

Chatham, William Pitt, earl of. Correspondence. Edd. by Taylor, W. S. and Pringle, J. H. 4 vols. 1840. [Contains two secret letters of Junius to Lord Chatham in 1768 and 1772.]

Cockburn, Sir G. Inquiry as to who was the author of Junius. Dublin, 1845. [Argues strongly for Charles Lloyd.]

Coleridge, S. T. Notes on Junius. Literary Remains. Ed. Coleridge, H. N. Vol. I. 1836.

Dilke, C. W. Junius. In Papers of a Critic, vol. II. 1875.

Francis, H. R. Junius revealed, by his surviving grandson, Francis, H. R. 1894.

Francis, Sir P. Memoirs, with correspondence and journals. Commenced by Parkes, J. Completed and edited by Merivale, H. 2 vols. 1867. [Contains a cogent statement of the Franciscan case, especially with regard to dates and to the identity of Francis’s and Junius’s political opinions. It also has a full account of the principal letter-writers in The Public Advertiser, unfortunately identifying them all with Francis and Junius.]

Francis, Sir P. and others. The Francis Letters. By Sir Philip Francis and other members of the family. Ed. by Francis, B. and Keary, E. 2 vols. 1901. [With a note on the Junius controversy by Keary, C. F.]

Grafton, A. H. F., 3rd duke of. Autobiography and political correspondence. Ed. Anson, Sir W. R. 1898. [Gives the inner history of many political events Commented upon by Junius. Sir William Anson suggests that “whatever part Francis may have played in the composition of the Letters, Temple directed their policy, supplied much of their information, and may conceivably have polished their invective.”]

Grenville Papers. Correspondence of R. Grenville, Earl Temple, and Rt. Hon. G. Grenville, their friends and contemporaries. 4 vols. 1852–3. [Contains three secret letters written by Junius to George Grenville in 1768. The editor, Smith, W. J., argues that Lord Temple was Junius and gives much information on the political pamphleteering of the time in a valuable preface to vol. III.]

Hayward, A. More about Junius. The Franciscan theory unsound. Rptd. from Fraser’s Magazine. 1868. [Against Parkes and Merivale.]

—— The handwriting of Junius. 1874.

—— Junius. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Edn. 9, vol. XIII. 1881.

Jaques, J. The history of Junius and his works. 1843.

Lecky, W. E. H. History of England in the eighteenth century. 3rd edn. Vol. III. 1887. [Account and critique of Junius.]

Macaulay, Lord. Essay on Warren Hastings. Works, vol. IX. 1898.

Merivale, H. Junius, Francis, and Lord Mansfield in December, 1770. Fortnightly Review. 1 March, 1868. [Replying to Hayward.]

Newhall, I. Letters on Junius … showing that the author of that celebrated work was Earl Temple. Boston, 1831.

Rae, W. Fraser. Facts about Junius and Francis, with other notes on the Junius controversy. Contributed to the Athenaeum in 1888 and following years.

Smith, James. Junius unveiled. 1909. [Argues that Gibbon was Junius.]

Stephen, Sir L. Sir Philip Francis. D. of N. B. vol. XX. 1889.

—— Chatham, Francis, and Junius. Eng. Hist. Rev. April, 1888.

Taylor, J. A discovery of the author of the Letters of Junius. 1813. [In favour of Dr. Philip Francis and Sir Philip Francis.]

—— The identity of Junius with a distinguished living character [Sir P. Francis] established. 1816. 2nd edn. 1818.

—— Supplement to Junius identified. 1817. 2nd. edn. 1818.

A. T. B.