The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
VOLUME XVIII. Later National Literature, Part III.

XXX. The English Language in America


American Academy of Arts and Letters …, Proceedings of the Special Meeting of the. 22 Feb., 1917.

Archer, William. America To-day. 1899.

Barringer, George A. Etude sur l’anglais parlé aux Etats-unis. Actes de la Société Philologique, III (1874), 295–310.

Bowen, Edwin W. Briticisms vs. Americanisms. Popular Science Monthly. vol. 69 (1906), pp. 324–37. Questions at Issue in Our English Speech. 1914.

Bristed, Charles Astor. The English Language in America. In Cambridge Essays. London, 1855.

Ellis, A. J. Early English Pronunciation. Part 4, 1217–30. London, 1874.

Grandgent, C. H. From Franklin to Lowell. A Century of New England Pronunciation. Pub. Mod. Lang. Ass. of America, XIV (1899), pp. 207–239. (Bibliography of American grammars and spelling-books pp. 211–12.) Old and New. Cambridge, Mass., 1920.

James, Henry. The Question of Our Speech. Boston, 1905.

Knortz, Karl. Amerikanische Redensarten und Volksgebräuche. Leipzig, 1907. (Slang and homely vernacular, some not peculiar to America.)

Krapp, G. P. The Pronunciation of Standard English in America. 1918.

Lewis, Calvin L. A Handbook of American Speech. Chicago, 1916.

Lienemann, Oskar. Eigentümlichkeiten des Englischen der Vereinigten Staaten nebst wenig bekannten Americanismen. Zittau, 1886.

Lodge, Henry Cabot. The Origin of Certain Americanisms. In: The Democracy of the Constitution, 1915. Shakespeare’s Americanisms. In: Certain Accepted Heroes and Other Essays. 1897.

Lounsbury, Thomas R. The Standard of Pronunciation in English. 1904. The Standard of Usage in English. 1908. English Spelling and Spelling Reform. 1909.

Lowell, James Russell. The Biglow Papers. Boston, 1848, 1864.

Marsh, George P. Lectures on the English Language. 1860.

Matthews, Brander. Americanisms and Briticisms. 1892. Parts of Speech; Essays on English. 1901. Is the English Language Decadent? Yale Review, Apr., 1918.

Mencken, H. L. The American Language, 1919. [Appeared after this chapter was in type.]

Menner, Robert J. The Pronunciation of English in America. Atlantic Monthly, Mar., 1915, pp. 360–366.

Northup, Clark S. A Bibliography of the English and French Language in America from 1894 to 1900. Dialect Notes, II, 151–78.

Phipson, Evacustes A. British vs. American English. Dialect Notes, 1 (1896), 428–36.

Pickering, John. A Vocabulary or Collection of Words and Phrases which have been supposed to be peculiar to the United States of America. To which is prefixed an Essay on the Present State of the English Language in the United States. Boston, 1816.

Pound, Louise. British and American Pronunciation. School Review, June, 1915, pp. 381 ff.

Ripman, Walter. The Sounds of Spoken English with Specimen Passages. 1914. [Scattered references to American pronunciation.]

Schele de Vere, M. Americanisms: the English of the New World. 1872.

Tucker, Gilbert M. Our Common Speech. 1895. [Chapter on American English and a bibliography, valuable for references to British and American periodicals.]

Webster, Noah. Dissertations on the English Language: with Notes Historical and Critical. Boston, 1789. Letter to the Hon. John Pickering, on the Subject of his Vocabulary. Boston, 1817.

Whibley, Charles. The American Language. Bookman, Jan., 1908.

White, Richard Grant. Words and their Uses, Past and Present. 1870.

Whitman, Walt. An American Primer. Boston, 1904.

Williams, R. O. Our Dictionaries and Other English Language Topics. 1890. [Chapters on Peculiarities in American English and Good English for Americans].

Witherspoon, John. The Druid, VVII. In: Works, Philadelphia, 1802, 2d ed., pp. 458–75.


Babbitt, E. H. English of the Lower Classes in New York City. Dialect Notes I (1896), pp. 457–64.

Chase, George D. Cape Cod District. Dialect Notes, II, pp. 289–303; 423–29.

Dialect Notes. Published by the American Dialect Society. 1896– .

Emerson, Oliver F. The Ithaca Dialect. Dialect Notes, I (1896), pp. 85–173.

Grandgent, C. H. English in America. Die Neueren Sprachen, II (1895), pp. 443–67. German and English Sounds. Boston, 1892.

Read, William A. Variant Pronunciations in the New South. Dialect Notes, III (1911), pp. 497–536. The Southern R. University Bulletin, Louisiana State University, 1, 2 (Feb., 1910). Vowel System of Southern U. S. A. Englische Studien, 41:70–78.

Report of a Joint Committee … on the Subject of a Phonetic English Alphabet. 1904.

St. Louis Public Library. Books Containing American Local Dialects. St. Louis, 1914.


Alden, Abner. An Introduction to Spelling and Reading. Boston, 1813. 6th ed.

Bingham, Caleb. The Young Lady’s Accidence. 1789, 3d ed. 1794, 8th ed.

Brown, Goold. The First Lines of English Grammar. 1823. Institute of English Grammar. 1825. The Grammar of English Grammars. 1851.

Cummings, J. A. The Pronouncing Spelling-Book. Boston, 1822, 3d ed.

Dearborn, Benjamin. The Columbian Grammar. Boston, 1795. [List of “improprieties” quoted by Grandgent, Pub. Mod. Lang. Ass., 1899, pp. 229–39].

Fisher, George. The American Instructor: or Young Man’s Best Companion. The Ninth Edition, Philadelphia, printed by B. Franklin, 1748.

Franklin, Benjamin. A Scheme of a New Alphabet and Reformed Mode of Spelling. Works, ed. Sparks, Boston, 1840, VI, 295.

Frazer, Donald. The Columbian Monitor. 1794.

Green, Richard W. The Scholar’s Companion. Philadelphia, 1838.

Hale, E. A Spelling-Book. Northampton, Mass., 1799.

Kirkham, Samuel. English Grammar. 1830, 20th ed.

Mackintosh, Duncan, et ses deux Filles. Essai Raisonné sur la grammaire et la Prononciation Anglaise. Boston, 1797.

Murray, Lindley. English Grammar. Boston, 1802, 2d ed.

Powers, Daniel. A Grammar on an Entirely New System. West Brookfield, Mass., 1845. [Records many New England vulgarisms].

Ross, Robert. The American Grammar: or a Complete Introduction to the English and Latin Languages. Hartford, 1782.

Thomas, Isaiah. New American Spelling-Book. Worcester, Mass., 1785.

Ware, Jonathan. A New Introduction to the English Grammar, Composed on the Principles of the English Language, exclusively. Windsor, Vt. 1814.

Webster, Noah. A Grammatical Institute of the English Language. Hartford, 1784. The American Spelling-Book. The Twelfth Connecticut edition, Hartford, [1792.] The Elementary Spelling Book. Middletown, Conn., 1829. Numerous subsequent eds.

Willard, Samuel. The General Class-Book. Greenfield, Mass., 1840, 19th ed.

Woodbridge, William. A Plain and Concise Grammar of the English Language. Middletown, Conn., 1800.


Alexander, Caleb. The Columbian Dictionary of the English Language. Boston, 1800.

Ayres, Alfred [Thomas E. Osmun]. The Orthoëpist, A Pronouncing Manual, etc. 1880.

Bartlett, John Russell. Dictionary of Americanisms; a Glossary of Words and Phrases usually regarded as peculiar to the United States. Boston, 1848.

Century Dictionary, The. An Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language. 1889–91, 10 vols. Century Dictionary, Cyclopedia and Atlas, The, 1911. 12 vols.

[Coxe, Richard]. A New Critical Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Language … by an American Gentleman. Burlington, N. J., 1813.

Clapin, Sylva. A New Dictionary of Americanisms. [1902?].

Elliott, John, and Johnson, Samuel, Jr. A Selected Pronouncing and Accented Dictionary. Suffield [Conn.], 1800.

Elwyn, Alfred L. Glossary of Supposed Americanisms. Philadelphia, 1859.

Farmer, John S. Americanisms, Old and New. A Dictionary of Words, Phrases and Colloquialisms peculiar to the United States, British America, the West Indies, etc., etc. London, 1889.

Johnson, Samuel, Jr. A School Dictionary … New Haven [1798].

Pierce, Robert Morris. Dictionary of Hard Words. 1910.

Smalley, D. G. An American Phonetic Dictionary of the English Language … designed by Nathaniel Storrs … with an Introduction by A. J. Ellis. Cincinnati, 1855.

Standard Dictionary, The. 1893–94. Standard Dictionary of the English Language, A. 1898. New Standard Dictionary of the English Language, A. 1913.

Steger, Stewart A. American Dictionaries. Baltimore, 1913.

Thornton, Richard H. An American Glossary, being an Attempt to illustrate certain Americanisms upon Historical Principles. Philadelphia, 1912. 2 vols.

Vizetelly, Frank H. A Desk-Book of Twenty-five Thousand Words Frequently Mispronounced. 1917.

Webster, Noah. A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language. Hartford and New Haven, 1806. An American Dictionary of the English Language. 1828, 1840, 1847, 1859. Unabridged, 1864, 1879. International, 1890, 1900. New International, 1909.

Worcester, Joseph Emerson. A Comprehensive Pronouncing and Explanatory Dictionary of the English Language. Boston, 1830, 1881, 1886.


Baldensperger, Fernand. Une Prédication Inédite sur l’Avenir de la Langue des Etats-Unis. Modern Philology, Dec., 1917, p. 91.

Bridges, Robert. A Tract on the Present State of English Pronunciation. Oxford, 1913.

F[owler], H. W. and F. G. The King’s English. Oxford, 1906. 2d ed.

Letters to Squire Pedant in the East, by Lorenzo Altisonant, an Emigrant to the West. For the Benefit of the Inquisitive Young. By a Lover of the Studious. n. p. n. d.