William Strunk, Jr. (1869–1946). The Elements of Style. 1918.


(Many of the words and expressions here listed are not so much bad English as bad style, the commonplaces of careless writing. As illustrated under Feature, the proper correction is likely to be not the replacement of one word or set of words by another, but the replacement of vague generality by definite statement.)
  • All right. Idiomatic in familiar speech as a detached phrase in the sense, “Agreed,” or “Go ahead.” In other uses better avoided. Always written as two words.
  • As good or better than. Expressions of this type should be corrected by rearranging the sentence.
    My opinion is as good or better than his. My opinion is as good as his, or better (if not better).
  • As to whether. Whether is sufficient; see under Rule 13.
  • Bid. Takes the infinitive without to. The past tense is bade.
  • Case. The Concise Oxford Dictionary begins its definition of this word: “instance of a thing’s occurring; usual state of affairs.” In these two senses, the word is usually unnecessary.
    In many cases, the rooms were poorly ventilated. Many of the rooms were poorly ventilated.
    It has rarely been the case that any mistake has been made. Few mistakes have been made.
    See Wood, Suggestions to Authors, pp. 68-71, and Quiller-Couch, The Art of Writing, pp. 103-106.
  • Certainly. Used indiscriminately by some speakers, much as others use very, to intensify any and every statement. A mannerism of this kind, bad in speech, is even worse in writing.
  • Character. Often simply redundant, used from a mere habit of wordiness.
    Acts of a hostile character Hostile acts
  • Claim, vb. With object-noun, means lay claim to. May be used with a dependent clause if this sense is clearly involved: “He claimed that he was the sole surviving heir.” (But even here, “claimed to be” would be better.) Not to be used as a substitute for declare, maintain, or charge.
  • Compare. To compare to is to point out or imply resemblances, between objects regarded as essentially of different order; to compare with is mainly to point out differences, between objects regarded as essentially of the same order. Thus life has been compared to a pilgrimage, to a drama, to a battle; Congress may be compared with the British Parliament. Paris has been compared to ancient Athens; it may be compared with modern London.
  • Clever. This word has been greatly overused; it is best restricted to ingenuity displayed in small matters.
  • Consider. Not followed by as when it means, “believe to be.” “I consider him thoroughly competent.” Compare, “The lecturer considered Cromwell first as soldier and second as administrator,” where “considered” means “examined” or “discussed.”
  • Dependable. A needless substitute for reliable, trustworthy.
  • Due to. Incorrectly used for through, because of, or owing to, in adverbial phrases: “He lost the first game, due to carelessness.” In correct use related as predicate or as modifier to a particular noun: “This invention is due to Edison;” “losses due to preventable fires.”
  • Effect. As noun, means result; as verb, means to bring about, accomplish (not to be confused with affect, which means “to influence”).
    As noun, often loosely used in perfunctory writing about fashions, music, painting, and other arts: “an Oriental effect;” “effects in pale green;” “very delicate effects;” “broad effects;” “subtle effects;” “a charming effect was produced by.” The writer who has a definite meaning to express will not take refuge in such vagueness.
  • Etc. Not to be used of persons. Equivalent to and the rest, and so forth, and hence not to be used if one of these would be insufficient, that is, if the reader would be left in doubt as to any important particulars. Least open to objection when it represents the last terms of a list already given in full, or immaterial words at the end of a quotation.
    At the end of a list introduced by such as, for example, or any similar expression, etc. is incorrect.
  • Fact. Use this word only of matters of a kind capable of direct verification, not of matters of judgment. That a particular event happened on a given date, that lead melts at a certain temperature, are facts. But such conclusions as that Napoleon was the greatest of modern generals, or that the climate of California is delightful, however incontestable they may be, are not properly facts.
    On the formula the fact that, see under Rule 13.
  • Factor. A hackneyed word; the expressions of which it forms part can usually be replaced by something more direct and idiomatic.
    His superior training was the great factor in his winning the match. He won the match by being better trained.
    Heavy artillery is becoming an increasingly important factor in deciding battles. Heavy artillery is playing a larger and larger part in deciding battles.
  • Feature. Another hackneyed word; like factor it usually adds nothing to the sentence in which it occurs.
    A feature of the entertainment especially worthy of mention was the singing of Miss A. (Better use the same number of words to tell what Miss A. sang, or if the programme has already been given, to tell something of how she sang.)
    As a verb, in the advertising sense of offer as a special attraction, to be avoided.
  • Fix. Colloquial in America for arrange, prepare, mend. In writing restrict it to its literary senses, fasten, make firm or immovable, etc.
  • He is a man who. A common type of redundant expression; see Rule 13.
    He is a man who is very ambitious. He is very ambitious.
    Spain is a country which I have always wanted to visit. I have always wanted to visit Spain.
  • However. In the meaning nevertheless, not to come first in its sentence or clause.
    The roads were almost impassable. However, we at last succeeded in reaching camp. The roads were almost impassable. At last, however, we succeeded in reaching camp.
    When however comes first, it means in whatever way or to whatever extent.
    However you advise him, he will probably do as he thinks best.
    However discouraging the prospect, he never lost heart.
  • Kind of. Not to be used as a substitute for rather (before adjectives and verbs), or except in familiar style, for something like (before nouns). Restrict it to its literal sense: “Amber is a kind of fossil resin;” “I dislike that kind of notoriety.” The same holds true of sort of.
  • Less. Should not be misused for fewer.
    He had less men than in the previous campaign. He had fewer men than in the previous campaign.
    Less refers to quantity, fewer to number. “His troubles are less than mine” means “His troubles are not so great as mine.” “His troubles are fewer than mine” means “His troubles are not so numerous as mine.” It is, however, correct to say, “The signers of the petition were less than a hundred, “where the round number, a hundred, is something like a collective noun, and less is thought of as meaning a less quantity or amount.
  • Line, along these lines. Line in the sense of course of procedure, conduct, thought, is allowable, but has been so much overworked, particularly in the phrase along these lines, that a writer who aims at freshness or originality had better discard it entirely.
    Mr. B. also spoke along the same lines. Mr. B. also spoke, to the same effect.
    He is studying along the line of French literature. He is studying French literature.
  • Literal, literally. Often incorrectly used in support of exaggeration or violent metaphor.
    A literal flood of abuse A flood of abuse
    Literally dead with fatigue Almost dead with fatigue (dead tired)
  • Lose out. Meant to be more emphatic than lose, but actually less so, because of its commonness. The same holds true of try out, win out, sign up, register up. With a number of verbs, out and up form idiomatic combinations: find out, run out, turn out, cheer up, dry up, make up, and others, each distinguishable in meaning from the simple verb. Lose out is not.
  • Most. Not to be used for almost.
    Most everybody Almost everybody
    Most all the time Almost all the time
  • Nature. Often simply redundant, used like character.
    Acts of a hostile nature Hostile acts
    Often vaguely used in such expressions as “a lover of nature;” “poems about nature.” Unless more specific statements follow, the reader cannot tell whether the poems have to do with natural scenery, rural life, the sunset, the untracked wilderness, or the habits of squirrels.
  • Near by. Adverbial phrase, not yet fully accepted as good English, though the analogy of close by and hard by seems to justify it. Near, or near at hand, is as good, if not better.
    Not to be used as an adjective; use neighboring.
  • Oftentimes, ofttimes. Archaic forms, no longer in good use. The modern word is often.
  • One hundred and one. Retain the and in this and similar expressions, in accordance with the unvarying usage of English prose from Old English times.
  • One of the most. Avoid beginning essays or paragraphs with this formula, as, “One of the most interesting developments of modern science is, etc.;” “Switzerland is one of the most interesting countries of Europe.” There is nothing wrong in this; it is simply threadbare and forcible-feeble.
  • People. The people is a political term, not to be confused with the public. From the people comes political support or opposition; from the public comes artistic appreciation or commercial patronage.
    The word people is not to be used with words of number, in place of persons. If of “six people” five went away, how many “people” would be left?
  • Phase. Means a stage of transition or development: “the phases of the moon;” “the last phase.” Not to be used for aspect or topic.
    Another phase of the subject Another point (another question)
  • Possess. Not to be used as a mere substitute for have or own.
    He possessed great courage. He had great courage (was very brave).
    He was the fortunate possessor of He owned
  • Respective, respectively. These words may usually be omitted with advantage.
    Works of fiction are listed under the names of their respective authors. Works of fiction are listed under the names of their authors.
    The one mile and two mile runs were won by Jones and Cummings respectively. The one mile and two mile runs were won by Jones and by Cummings.
    In some kinds of formal writing, as in geometrical proofs, it may be necessary to use respectively, but it should not appear in writing on ordinary subjects.
  • So. Avoid, in writing, the use of so as an intensifier: “so good;” “so warm;” “so delightful.”
    On the use of so to introduce clauses, see Rule 4.
  • Sort of. See under Kind of.
  • State. Not to be used as a mere substitute for say, remark. Restrict it to the sense of express fully or clearly, as, “He refused to state his objections.”
  • Student body. A needless and awkward expression, meaning no more than the simple word students.
    A member of the student body A student
    Popular with the student body Liked by the students
    The student body passed resolutions. The students passed resolutions.
  • System. Frequently used without need.
    Dayton has adopted the commission system of government. Dayton has adopted government by commission.
    The dormitory system Dormitories
  • Thanking you in advance. This sounds as if the writer meant, “It will not be worth my while to write to you again.” Simply write, “Thanking you,” and if the favor which you have requested is granted, write a letter of acknowledgment.
  • They. A common inaccuracy is the use of the plural pronoun when the antecedent is a distributive expression such as each, each one, everybody, every one, many a man, which, though implying more than one person, requires the pronoun to be in the singular. Similar to this, but with even less justification, is the use of the plural pronoun with the antecedent anybody, any one, somebody, some one, the intention being either to avoid the awkward “he or she,” or to avoid committing oneself to either. Some bashful speakers even say, “A friend of mine told me that they, etc.”
    Use he with all the above words, unless the antecedent is or must be feminine.
  • Very. Use this word sparingly. Where emphasis is necessary, use words strong in themselves.
  • Viewpoint. Write point of view, but do not misuse this, as many do, for view or opinion.
  • While. Avoid the indiscriminate use of this word for and, but, and although. Many writers use it frequently as a substitute for and or but, either from a mere desire to vary the connective, or from uncertainty which of the two connectives is the more appropriate. In this use it is best replaced by a semicolon. This is entirely correct, as shown by the paraphrase,
    The office and salesrooms are on the ground floor, while the rest of the building is devoted to manufacturing. The office and salesrooms are on the ground floor; the rest of the building is devoted to manufacturing.
    Its use as a virtual equivalent of although is allowable in sentences where this leads to no ambiguity or absurdity.
    While I admire his energy, I wish it were employed in a better cause.
    I admire his energy; at the same time I wish it were employed in a better cause.
    While the temperature reaches 90 or 95 degrees in the daytime, the nights are often chilly. Although the temperature reaches 90 or 95 degrees in the daytime, the nights are often chilly.
    The paraphrase,
    The temperature reaches 90 or 95 degrees in the daytime; at the same time the nights are often chilly,
    shows why the use of while is incorrect.
    In general, the writer will do well to use while only with strict literalness, in the sense of during the time that.
  • Whom. Often incorrectly used for who before he said or similar expressions, when it is really the subject of a following verb.
    His brother, whom he said would send him the money His brother, who he said would send him the money
    The man whom he thought was his friend The man who (that) he thought was his friend (whom he thought his friend)
  • Worth while. Overworked as a term of vague approval and (with not) of disapproval. Strictly applicable only to actions: “Is it worth while to telegraph?”
    His books are not worth while. His books are not worth reading (not worth one’s while to read; do not repay reading).
    The use of worth while before a noun (“a worth while story”) is indefensible.
  • Would. A conditional statement in the first person requires should, not would.
    I should not have succeeded without his help.
    The equivalent of shall in indirect quotation after a verb in the past tense is should, not would.
    He predicted that before long we should have a great surprise.
    To express habitual or repeated action, the past tense, without would, is usually sufficient, and from its brevity, more emphatic.
    Once a year he would visit the old mansion. Once a year he visited the old mansion.