The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume III. Renascence and Reformation.

II. Reformation Literature in England



Catalogue of Books in the Library of the British Museum, printed in England, Scotland and Ireland, and of books in English printed abroad to the year 1640. 3 vols. 1884.

Catalogue of Books in the John Rylands Library, Manchester, printed in England, Scotland and Ireland, and of books in English printed abroad to the end of the year 1640. Manchester, 1885.

Sayle, C. Early English Printed Books in the University Library, Cambridge. 4 vols., with appendix to vol., III. Cambridge, 1900–7 (referred to below as Sayle).

For historical bibliography, see Cambridge Modern History, vol. II, bibliographies to chapters XIII, XIV, XV and XVI.


An answer of the most reverend Father in God, unto a crafty and sophistical cavillation devised by Stephen Gardiner, etc. 1551. [Sayle: 733 and 860.] [An edition corrected by Cranmer before his martyrdom. 1580].

A Confutati of unwritt verities, etc. Translated and set forth by E. P. 1558. [Sayle: 6740.]

Cox, J. E. (ed.). Writings and Disputations of Thomas Cranmer relative to the Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper. Parker Society. Cambridge, 1844. (Includes life.)

Cox, J. E. (ed.). Miscellaneous Writings and Letters of Thomas Cranmer. Parker Society. Cambridge, 1846.

Jenkyns, H. (ed.). The Remains of Thomas Cranmer. 4 vols. Oxford, 1833.

Mason, A. J. Thomas Cranmer. 1898. (Leaders of Religion.)

Pollard, A. F. Thomas Cranmer and the English Reformation, 1489–1556. New York and London, 1904.

For Cranmer, see British Museum Catalogue of Early English Books, pp. 423–4. See also Strype’s Memorials and Dixon’s History, referred to later.


A notable Serm [on Rom. XV. 4]. 1548 [i.e. 1549. This is the Plough Sermon. See reprint by Arber, 1868].

The fyrste (… and … seventh) Sermon of Mayster Hughe Latimer, preached before the Kynges Majesty at Westminster. c. 1549. Reprinted by Arber: English Reprints. 1869. [Sayle: 914 and 915.]

A most faithfull Serm preached before the Kynges most excellent majestye. 1550.

A Sermon preached at Stamford the IX day of Oct. anno MCCCC and fyftie. 1550.

Twenty Seven Sermons preached by Hugh Latimer. 1562. With preface by Thos. Some. [Sayle: 797 and 798.]

Fruteful Sermons … by … Hugh Latimer. By John Daye. 1571, and often reprinted. Contains Convocation Sermon of 1536 translated and 37 others. [Sayle: 828.]

The Sermons of Master Hugh Latimer, many of which were preached before King Edward VI. To which is prefixed bishop Latimer’s Life. 1758.

Carlyle, R. W. and A. J. Hugh Latimer. (Leaders of Religion.) 1900.

Corrie, G. E. (ed.). Latimer’s Sermons. Parker Society. Cambridge, 1844.

—— Sermons and Remains of Hugh Latimer. Parker Society. Cambridge, 1845.

Demaus, R. Hugh Latimer. A Biography. New ed. 1881.

Watkins, John. Sermons of Hugh Latimer arranged. With life. 2 vols. 1824.

[See also Vol. IV of the present work.]


[See British Museum Catalogue of Early English Books, p. 1521, and Sayle under Tindale. Also E. Irving Carlyle in D. of N. B.]

The Obedience of a Christen Man, and how Christen rulers ought to governe, where in also (yf thow marke diligently) thou shalt fynde eyes to perceave the crafty conveyaunce of all jugglers. Newly printed and diligently corrected. At Marlborough in the Lande of Hesse by me, Hans Luft. 1535. Also c. 1540, c. 1548, 1550, 1561. [Sayle: 6100, 7101, 7088 and 1082.]

The Testament of W. Tracie, Esquier, expounded by … W. Tindall. 1535. [This will, a foolish document, containing much popular theology, became important owing to the process concerning it carried on by the ecclesiastical lawyers of the time. Sayle: 6101.]

An Answere unto Sir T. More’s dialogue made by W. Tindale. 1530.

A briefe declaration of the Sacraments. Compyled by the godly learned man Wyllyam Tyndall. R. Stoughton. [c. 1550. Sayle: 1066, dated 1548.]

The Parable of the wicked mammon. Hans Luft, at Marlborough in the Land of Hesse. 1528. [Sayle: 7089 and 1033.]

The Practyse of Prelates, whether the Kinge’s grace may be separated from hys quene, etc. Marlborch, 1530. [Sayle: 6274.]

The Supper of the Lorde after the true meanyng of the sixte of Johñ and XI of the fyrst Epistle to the Corhinthians, etc. [By W. T. 1533.] Probably by Joye. [Sayle: 6709 and B.M. Cat. p. 1521.]

Whole Works of Tindale, Frith and Barnes. Preface by Fox. 1572(3). [Sayle: 833.]

Demaus, R. William Tyndall. A biography. 1871.

Walter, H. (ed). Doctrinal Treatises and introductions to different portions of the Holy Scriptures, by Wm. Tyndale. Parker Society. Cambridge, 1848. [Contains The Parable of the Wicked Mammon and the Obedience of a Christian Man.]

—— Tyndale’s Expositions and Practice of Prelates. Parker Society. Cambridge, 1849.

—— An answer to Sir Thomas More’s Dialogue. The Supper of the Lord after the true meaning of John vi and 1 Cor. xi, and Wm Tracy’s Testament expounded. Parker Society. Cambridge, 1850.

On Hans Luft, see Mombert, pp. 110 ff., also Athenæum, 18 April, 1885, and 2 May, 1885. The review points out T.’s indebtedness to Luther, and the greater violence of his glosses when original and not borrowed from Luther. Also Sayle, pp. 1406, 1407.

As to Tindale’s scholarship, there has been much discussion. Reference should be made to Westcott (ed. W. Aldis Wright), Lupton’s article in Hastings’s Bibl. Dict. and the reviews in the Athenæum of 18 April and 2 May, 1885. There is more doubt as to the adequacy of his Hebrew than of his Greek.


It may be noted that, in the earlier stages of the reformation, writers borrowed freely from each other, sometimes verbally, and sometimes with slight adaptation; it is thus as difficult to attribute works of this date as it is in the case of medieval writings.

Coverdale, Myles, Remains of. Ed. Pearson, G. Parker Society. Cambridge, 1846.

—— Writings of. Ed. Pearson, G. Parker Society. Cambridge, 1844.

—— Collected Letters of Martyrs. 1564. For his Erasmus’s Enchiridion see B. M. Cat. 1, 417. He reproduced Wyclif’s (supposed) Wicket, 1550. The Wicket, which was also reprinted 1546 (see Sayle, 6712), was often joined to Tracie’s Testament.

See British Museum Catalogue of Early English Books, pp. 416–8 and D. of N. B.

Fish, Simon. Supplication of Beggars. [See Foxe, Actes and Monuments, IV, 656–667, published c. 1528.]

For bibliography, see Arber, English Scholars’ Library, reprinted 1878 and 1880. Also E.E.T.S. (Furnivall), 1871. Fish also wrote The Summe of the Scripture, 1529, reprinted 1547 and 1548.

Frith, John. For Works and also for those of other reformers see Parker Society’s publications.

Fulke, Wm. Defence of the sincere and true translations of the Holy Scriptures into English tongue. Ed. Hartshorne, N. C. Parker Soc. 1843.

Joye, George. An Apologye made by George Joye to satisfye (if it may be) W. Tindale to pourge and defende himself ageinst many sclaunderouse lyes feyned upon him in T.’s uncharitable and unsober epistle. 1534 (reprinted by Arber in Eng. Scholars’ Library, 1883). 1535. There has been much confusion early and late between Roy and Joye. Joye was a fellow of Peterhouse, and helped Tindale in his controversy with More. Wm Roy, author of Rede me and be not wrothe (see Arber’s reprint, 1871), helped Tindale in the N.T. See also in Arber’s same reprint A Compendious olde Treatyse howe that we ought to have the Scripture in Englysshe, written by a Lollard about 1450; and A proper dyaloge betwene a gentillman and a husbandman eche complaynynge to other their miserable calamitie through the ambicion of the clergye. He translated Erasmus’s An exhortation to the dilygent study of Scripture (Hans Luft, 1529; see Sayle, 6271). For bibliography and history of all these works see Arber’s reprint of 1871. (For both Joye and Roy see D. of N. B.)

Lever, Thos. Sermons. Reprinted by Arber. 1871.

Ridley, Nicholas (1500?–55), studied at the Sorbonne and Louvain, as well as at Cambridge. As master of Pembroke, bp. of Rochester (1547) and bp. of London (1550), he had great influence. He is poorly represented by his extant writings: A briel declaration of the Lorde’s Supper (1555), reprinted by Moule in 1895; Certen godly, learned and comfortable Conferences between N.R., late Bysshope of London, and Hughe Latymer, sometime Bysshope of Worcester, whereunto is added a Treatise agt the error of Transubstantiation by N.R. Works edited by Christmas, H., for Parker Society, 1843.


Fisher, John, bp. of Rochester and cardinal (1459?–1535). His English works (E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. XXVII) collected by Mayor, J. E. B. See Mullinger’s University of Cambridge (vol. 1); Thos. Baker’s History of S. John’s College, edited by Mayor, 2 vols., 1869; ante, p., 533 and Vol. IV of the present work.

Gardiner, Stephen, bp. of Winchester (1483?–1555). His works, mainly in Latin, have great historic significance as well as merit, and some MSS. in the Corpus College library, Cambridge, are still unprinted. To be noted are: A Declaration of those articles G. Joy hath gone about to confute, 1546 [Sayle: 759–60]; An explanation and assertion of the true Catholick Faith, touching the most blessed Sacrament of the Aulter, Rouen, 1551 (see also Cranmer’s share in the controversy) [Sayle: 6718]; A detection of the Devil’s sophistrie, wherewith he robbeth the unlearned people of the true byleef in the most blessed Sacrament of the Aulter, 1546 [Sayle: 1761].

Lupset, Thos. (1498?–1530), Cambridge scholar and friend of Linacre, More, Erasmus and Pole. His works in English were valuable and often reprinted: A treatise of Charity, 1529, 1535, 1539, 1546; An Exhortation to yonge men, 1530 and passim; A compendious and a very Fruteful Treatyse, teachynge the waye of Dyenge well, 1534. Collected works, 1545, 1546, 1560.

For Robert Barnes, Martin Bucer, Edmund Guest (scholar of York, Eton and Cambridge), John and Nicholas Harpesfield, John Hooper, cardinal Pole, John Rainolds, John Rogers, Miles Smith, Rd Taverner, Wm Turner and all the historic persons of the time, reference should also be made to the D. of N.B.


The Golden Legend (much of Pentateuch and Gospels). See ed. Ellis, F. S. 1900 ff. 7 vols.

The Grenville Fragment. 1525. In Brit. Mus. Facsimile by Arber. 1871. [Contains Prologue and St. Matthew chaps. i–xxii (to v. 12).] A full introduction, and a discussion of Roy’s share in the work.

Whole of earliest known complete English N.T. Translated by W. Tyndale. Worms: Peter Schoeffer. 8vo. 1525. Two copies left, both imperfect. Facsimile by Fry, F. 1862.

The Pentateuch, or Five Books of Moses. Translated by Wm Tyndale. Marlborow: Hans Luft. 8vo. 17 Jan. 1530 i.e. 1531.

Jonas, The prophete. 1531 (?). (Antwerp: Martin de Keyser (?). 1531.) Only one copy (Brit. Mus.) left. Facsimile by Fry, F. 1863.

The newe Testament dylygently corrected and compared with the Greke by Willyam Tindal: and fynesshed in the yere of oure Lorde God AMD & xxxiiij in the moneth of November. Antwerp: Marten Emperowr [=de Keyser]. 8vo. 1534.

The newe Testament yet once agayne corrected by Wylliam Tyndall. 8vo. Antwerp, 1535. (Also in 1536 three 4to and three 8vo editions: see Rylands Catalogue, 12, and Darlow and Moule, p. 9.)

Biblia. The Byble: that is the holy Scripture of the Olde and New Testament faythfully translated into Englyshe. M.D.XXXV. … [By Miles Coverdale.] Zurich: Christopher Froschover. Folio. 1535.

The Byble which is all the holy Scripture: In which are contayned the Olde and Newe Testament truly and purely translated into Englysh by Thomas Matthew. Antwerp. For R. Grafton, and E. Whitchurch. Folio. 1537.

Biblia. The Byble, that is the holy Scripture of the Olde and New Testament, faythfully translated in English and newly oversene and corrected. MDXXXVII. Imprinted in Southwarke for James Nycolson. Folio and 4to. 1537 [First Bibles in English printed in England.]

The Byble in Englyshe, that is to saye the content of all the holy scripture, bothe of ye olde and newe testament, truly translated after the veryte of the Hebrew and Greke textes by … dyverse excellent learned men, experte in the forsayde tongues. Printed by Rychard Grafton & Edward Whitchurch. Fol. 1539. [This is the first edition of the Great Bible.]

The Douay Bible. The N.T. (Rheims) was published in 1582, and the O.T. (Douay) in 1609–10. For history, see Westcott, pp. 102 ff., and for the designs of the translators see prefaces to the versions. See also under Gregory, Martin and William Rainolds, in the D. of N. B.

Anderson, Christopher. The Annals of the English Bible. 2 vols. 1845. A new and revised edition. 1 vol. 1862.

Bradshaw, Henry. No. XXI in Collected Papers, 1886: Godfried van der Haghen (G. H.), the publisher of Tindale’s own last edition of the N.T. in 1534–5, pp. 354–70.

Cheney, J. L. The Sources of Tindale’s N.T., in Anglia, vol. VI, 1883, pp. 277–316. [A detailed calculation of his sources.]

Darlow, T. H. and Moule, H. F. Historical Catalogue of the Printed Editions of Holy Scripture in the Library of the British and Foreign Bible Society. 2 vols. Vol. 1, English. 1903.

Doré, J. R. Old Bibles. 2nd ed. 1888.

Fry, F. A bibliographical description of the eds. of the N.T. Tyndale’s version. 1878.

Hoare, H. W. The Evolution of the English Bible. 1901.

Howorth, Sir Henry H. The origin and authority of the Biblical Canon in the Anglican Church. In the Journal of Theological Studies, October, 1906, pp. 1–40. [Gives the history of the Apocrypha in the English Versions.]

Law, T.G. (ed). The New Testament in Scots, being Purvey’s Revision of Wycliffe’s version turned into Scots by Murdoch Nisbet, c. 1520. Ed. from the unique MS. in the possession of Lord Amherst of Hackney. 3 vols. Scottish Text Society. [Joseph Hall wrote the notes in vols. II and III, and was responsible for the text of the whole work.] See useful note in Chambers’s Cycl. of Eng. Lit. vol. 1, p. 213.

Lupton, J. H., on English Versions in Hastings’s Biblical Dictionary, pp. 236 ff. [Also an article by Bebb, Ll. J. M., on Continental Versions in the same volume.]

Milligan, G. Article on Versions (English) in Hastings’s Dictionary of the Bible. Edinburgh, 1900–4.

Mombert, J. L. English Versions of the Bible. New ed. 1907. See Athenæum, 18 April and 2 May, 1885.

Moulton, R. G. The Literary Study of the Bible. (Revised.) 1899.

Rylands Library, Manchester, The John. Catalogue of an Exhibition of Bibles illustrating the History of the English Versions from Wiclif to the present time. Manchester, 7 March, 1904.

Westcott, B. F. A General View of the History of the English Bible. Third edition revised by Aldis Wright, W. 1905. [Invaluable both for its general view and its details.]

NOTE. A useful list of editions of the Bible is given in Dixon’s History, vol. III, pp. 170 ff. Also one in Westcott (ed. Aldis Wright).


The Booke of the Common Prayer and A&mtilde;intracion of Sacramentes, and other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church after the use of the Church of England. Londoni in Officina Edouardi Whitchurche cum privilegio ad imprimendum solum. 1549. Mense Martii.

The Boke of Common Prayer and Administracion of the Sacramentes and other Rites and Ceremonies in the Church of England. Londini, in Officina Edwardi Whytechurche. Cum privilegio ad imprimendum solum. 1552.

The Boke of Common Praier and Administration of the Sacramentes, and other Rites and Ceremonies in the Church of England. Londoni in Officina Richardi Graftoni cum privilegio Regie Maiestatis. 1559.

Formularies of Faith set forth by the King’s authority during the reign of Henry VIII. Oxford, 1856.

Batiffol, P. Histoire du Bréviaire Romain. Paris, 1893. Translated as History of the Roman Breviary, by Baylay, A. M. V. 1898.

Bishop, E. and Gasquet, F. A. Edward VI and the Book of Common Prayer. 1890.

Burton, E. Three Primers put forth in the reign of Henry VIII. Oxford, 1834.

Clay, W. K. Liturgical and Private Prayers of Queen Elizabeth. 1847. Parker Society. 1851.

Corrie, G. E. (ed.). The Homilies. Cambridge, 1850.

Dowden, J. The Workmanship of the Prayer Book in its literary and liturgical aspects. 1899. [Especially chaps. XIV, XVII, XVIII and XIX.]

—— Further studies in the P.B. 1908.

Proctor, F. and Frere, W. H. A new History of the Book of Common Prayer, with a Rationale of its Offices. 1901.

Swete, H. B. Church Services and Service Books before the Reformation. 1905.


Certayne Psalmes, chos out of the Psalter of David and draw into Englishe metre by Thomas Sternhold, grome of ye kynge’s Majesties roobes. [Undated. 19 Psalms. Dedicated to Ed. VI.]

Al such Psalms of David as T. Sternhold, late grome of the Kinges Majesties robes did in his lyfe time drawe into English metre. 1549. [Contains 37 Psalms.]

Crowley, R. The Psalter of David newely translated in Englysh metre. 1549.

Julian, John. Dictionary of Hymnology. 1892. [On Metrical Psalms, see pp. 917 ff.] New ed. 1907. [The standard book of reference, and thoroughly trustworthy.]


Brewer, J. S. The reign of Henry VIII. 1884. [A reprint of Prefaces to Letters and Papers in Rolls Series.]

Dixon, R. W. History of the Church of England from the abolition of the Roman Jurisdiction. 6 vols. London and Oxford. 1884–1902. [Includes a sympathetic and full treatment of Cranmer, etc.]

Foxe, John. Acts and Monuments. 8 vols. Ed. Cattley, S. R. and Townsend, G. 1836–41. [See also post, bibliography to Chapter XV.]

Frere, W. H. A History of the English Church in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I, 1558–1625. 1904.

Frith, C. H. The Ballard History of the Reigns of Henry VII and Henry VIII. Trans. Roy. Hist. Soc. 3rd Ser. vol. II, pp. 21–50. 1908.

Gairdner, James. A History of the English Church in the 16th century. From Henry VIII to Mary. 1902.

—— Lollardy and the Reformation. 1908. [Deals from a full knowledge of records with questions left over in his History.]

Herford, C. H. Studies in the Literary Relations of England and Germany in the 16th century. Cambridge, 1886. [For reformation dialogues, Coverdale’s Hymns and Lutheran Hymnology, etc.]

Lindsay, T. M. History of the Reformation. 2 vols. (1, Germany; II, beyond Germany). 1906–7.

Maitland, S. R. Essays on the Reformation. Reprinted by Hutton, A. W. 1899.

Mullinger, J. B. The University of Cambridge. 2 vols. 1873, 1884 and a third, concluding, volume to appear 1909.

Pollard, A. F. Henry VIII. 1905. [Very full in references, but to be compared with the opposed general view of Gairdner.]

Ponet, John (1514?–56), Cambridge scholar, bishop of Winchester and translator of Bernardino Ochino’s Tragoedie or Dialoge of the unjuste usurped primacie of the Bishop of Rome, etc. (1549).

Strype, J. Ecclesiastical Memorials. Under Henry VIII, Edward VI and Mary I. 6 vols. Oxford, 1822.

—— Annals of the Reformation and Establishment of Religion. 7 vols. Oxford, 1824. [For Queen Elizabeth.]

—— Memorials of Cranmer. 2 vols. Oxford, 1840.

—— Life of Parker. 3 vols. Oxford, 1828.

Wakeman, H. O. An Introduction to the History of the Church of England. 1896 ff. [An admirable board historic view.]

Whitney, J. P. The Reformation, 1503–1648. 1906. [An outline history of the movement in Europe, viewed on its positive side: especially chap. XII on England.]