The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume III. Renascence and Reformation.

V. The Progress of Social Literature in Tudor Times


Cock Lorell’s Bote. Wynkyn de Worde, c. 1510. Fragment in Garrick Coll. B.M. Rptd. in Maidment’s Publications, XLVI, 1840; Percy Society by E. F. Rimbault, XXX, 1843; Roxburghe Club, XIII, 1817. [Cock Lorell quoted in S. Rowlands’s list of professional rogues but not in Harman’s. Among the numerous allusions to this character, Ben Jonson’s is the most important, i.e. Cooke Laurell (rptd. Roxburghe Coll., vol. II, p. 445 and Percy Folio MS., 1867), in which Cock invites the Devil to dinner, the menu, fit for such a guest, involving satire on social types.]
Vide Herford, C. H., Literary Relations of England and Germany in the Sixteenth Century, Cambridge, 1886; Pt II, chap. 6.
Geiler, J. (von Kaisersberg). Navicula, sive speculum fatuorum, cum figuris. Argent. 1511. Le grand nauffraige des folz, qui sont en la nef dinsipience navigeans en la mer de ce monde, livre de grand effect, profit, utilité, valeur, honneur et moralle vertu, à l’instruction de toutes gens. Paris: Denys Janot, s.d. Pimlyco, or, Runne Red-cap. Busbie, J. and Loftis, G. 1609. Rptd. in Antient Drolleries (No. 2), Oxford, 1891; The hospitall of incurable fooles, erected in English, Bellifant, E. 1600 (Trans. from T. Garzoni).
The Galley late come into Englande from Terra Nova, laden with Phisitiens Apothecaries and Chirurgiens. Quoted by J. Halle but not elsewhere alluded to.
(1) Latin Origins of Testaments
Testamentum Grunnii Corocottae Porcelli. Described by Alex. Brassicanus (German Grammarian, d. 1539) from MS. at Mayence. Rptd. Fani, 1505; included in Facetiae Domenichi, 1548; and Nugae Venales, 1741. Probably influenced Wyl Bucke and The Passion of the Fox. Grunnius leaves the different parts of his body to those likely to appreciate the bequests; his teeth go to the quarrelsome, his tongue to lawyers and the rope he brought from the forest to the cook to hang himself withal.
Testamentum Canis. Facetiae Poggii. First printed, 1470.
Testamentum ludicrum Sergii Polensis Parasiti. (Diction marks the beginning of decadence.) Rptd. by Domitius Brusoni: Facetiarum exemplorumque Libri VII, Rome, 1518.
(2) Their Development in French Literature
Cf. Testament de Monseigneur des Barres, 1488; Sensuyt le Testament de Taste Vin, Roy des Pions, c. 1488 (a goliardic extravagance from which Dunbar drew some traits for the Testament of Mr. Andro Kennedy); Le Grant Testament de Villon et le petit, 1489; Le Testament D’Anthoine de Leve, translate dytalien en langue francoyse, 1536 (?) (Brunet); A lampoon on Antonio de Leyva, in which, amongst other burlesque bequests, he leaves his ulcers “aux Millanoys, Lucquoys et Pietmontoys,” similar in spirit to the Testament of the Earl of Pembroke, 1650, and the Testament of the Marquis of Argyle, 1661 (?); Le Testament de Martin Leuter, n.d.; Le testament fin Rubin de Turquie, maigre Marchand contrefaisant sotie … n.d.; Le Testament de Henri de Valoys, recommandé à son amy Jean d’Espernon, avec un coq-a-l’asne, 1589: Testament de l’Union, attached to the Satyre Ménippée (ed. 1594) in which the Sainte Union suffering from mortal sickness makes a testament in the spirit of the Wyll of the Deuyll; Le Bragardissime et joyeux Testament de la Bière, 1611, dedicated to drunkards in view of the feastings of the Carême. Testament de Bachus trouvé au cabinet d’un des plus fameux poëte (sic) de ce temps, 1649.
Vide Peignot, G. Testamens anciens et modernes. Dijon, 1829.
(3) Scotch and English Testaments
Colyn blowbols Testament. MS. Rawlinson, C. 86 fol. 106 (Bodl.). Re-ed. Halliwell, J. O., Nugae Poeticae, 1844; and Hazlitt, W. C., Early Popular Poetry, vol. 1, 1864. The tract recalls the goliardic drinking songs.
Heresye’s Testament. Mentioned in the Wyll of the Devyll but not elsewhere found: probably suppressed.
Hunting of the Hare with her last Wyll and Testament (a ballad), The. Ptd. by Coles, F., Vere, T. and Wright, J. (Bodl.).
Jl of Brentford’s (or Breyntfords) Testament, by Copland, R., n. d. Re-ed. Furnivall, F. J., 1871.
Last will and testament of Doctors Commons, The. n.p. 1641.
Last Will and Testament of Philip Herbert … vulgarly called Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, who died of Foole-age. Jan. 28th, 1650. Nodnol. 1650.
Last Will and Testament, with his character, The Marquis of Argyle’s, 1661 (?).
Both these are political lampoons of the type of Antoine de Leve.
Passion of the Fox, The. W. de Worde, 1530. Re-ed. W. C. Hazlitt in Fugitive Poetical Tracts, vol. 1, 1875. Composed by a chantry priest at Mere, who, losing a pet fox, is carried away in a dream to the mountain of sleep, where Morpheus tells him how his favourite strayed from home and was hunted and killed. The priest is shown a roll in which the fox’s testament is written, the animal, after the manner of Grunnius Corocotta, bequeathing the parts of his body with poetic and satiric discrimination: his eyes to the blind, his ears to the deaf,
  • My obedyens to every good wyfe
  • My fast holdynge to hym that wyll make stryfe,
  • My lepes and skyppes of great quycknes
  • I gyve to servauntes in theyr busynes.
Testament of the Hawthorne, The. Second ed. of Tottel’s Miscellany, 1557.
Wyl Bucke his Testament. Copland, W., c. 1550. Re-ed. by Haslewood, J., Chiswick Press, 1827, and Halliwell, J. O., Contributions to the Literature of the 16th and 17th cents., 1851. The buck, when dying, bequeaths the portions of his body to different departments of the kitchen service.
Wyll of the Devyll, The. Powell, H., n.d. Rptd. at close of 16th cent. by Jones, R., who added the Devil’s “X detestable commandements.” Re-ed. in J. P. Collier’s Illustrations of Early English Popular Literature, 1862–3, vol. 1, and Furnivall, F. J., 1871, with &jmacr;l of Breyntford’s Testament. Besides the Krankheit der Messe, the tract is similar to the Testament D’Antoine de Leve and perhaps suggested the Testament de l’Union. It borrows an episode from Arlotto’s Facetie (1520).
Cf. also Henryson’s Testament of Cresseid, Dunbar’s Testament of Mr. Andro Kennedy, Lyndsay’s Testament and Complaynt of our Soverane Lordis Papyngo and Gascoigne’s Dan Bartholmew of Bath.
  • Orders and Fraternities
A new Ballad against Unthrifts. Ptd. by John Alde. This ballad, besides enumerating different forms of extravagance which end in ruin, contains a direct allusion to the figure of a “bote,” in the stanza suggestive of the beggar books:
  • Then some to Newgate doo take ship,
  • Sailing ful fast up Holborne Hil,
  • And at Tiborn their anckers picke,
  • Ful sore indeed against their wil.
XX Orders of Callettes or Drabbys. Alex. Lacye. 1562–3.
XX Orders of Fooles. H. Kyrham. 1569–70.
XXV Orders of Fooles. Registered 1569, ptd. by Alex. Lacie. Rptd. J. Lilly, Black-Letter Ballads and Broadsides, 1870.
XXV Orders of Knaves: Otherwyse called a quartern of Knaves, confirmed for ever by Cock Lorell. Ptd. by Awdeley, with the Fraternitye of Vacabones, 1565. Rptd. by Viles, E. and Furnivall, F. J., Shakespeare Lib., 1907.
Who liveth so merry in all this land? Registered 1557–8. Rptd. in Wit and Drollery, (X) Jovial Poems, 1661, 1682, p. 252; Wit and Mirth or Pills to purge Melancholy, vol. 1 (1698 and 1707); Chappell, W., Popular Music of the Olden Time, 1855–9, vol. 1, p. 81.
(1) French Dances of Death
La dse macabre. Guy Marchant. 1485. Danse macabre des femmes et le debat du corps et de lame. Guyot Marchant. 1468. Cy est la nouvelle danse macabre des hommes dicte miroer salutaire de toutes gens. Guyot Marchant. 1490. A large number of adaptations and imitations followed these during the 16th cent.
Bibliophile Jacob (Lacroix, P.). Danse macabre histoire fantastique du XVe siècle. Paris. 1832.
Langlois, E. H. Essai sur les Danses des Morts. Rouen. 1852.
Peignot, E. G. Recherches sur les Danses des Morts. Dijon. 1826.
(2) English Dances of Death
The Shaking of the Sheets or the Dance of Death. MS. copy, B.M. (Add. MSS. No. 15,225) in which it is ascribed to Thomas Hill. Entered at Stationers’ Hall 1568–9 to Awdeley. (Vide J. P. Collier’s extracts from Registers of Stationers’ company (1557–70), 1848, vol. 1, p. 195.) Rptd. by Chappell, W., Popular Music of the Olden Time, 1855–9, vol. 1, p. 85.
[Illustrated ballads concerning dances and songs of death are described in A Coll. of 79 Black Letter Ballads and Broadsides, 1559–97, Joseph Lilly, 1867.]
Disraeli, I. Curiosities of Literature: History of the Skeleton of Death. 1791–1834 ff.
Douce, F. Dance of Death … with a dissertation on the several representations of that subject. 1833.
Massmann, H.-F. Literatur der Todtentäntze. Leipzig. 1840.
Wright, T. History of Caricature and Grotesque. 1865. Chap. XIII.
(1) Medieval Origins
Contempt for female character is primarily monastic. Influence of the East is also unmistakable (cf. the position of women in the Arabian Nights). A MS. of the 13th cent., describes them, amongst other things, as “necessarium malum, naturalis temptatio, desiderabilis calamitas, domesticum periculum, delectabile detrimentum.” The scholastic jongleurs adopted the same view though in a different spirit (Wright, T., History of Caricature and Grotesque, chap. X) especially in Golias de conjuge non ducenda, which was translated into French at beginning of 14th cent. (MS. Harl, 2253, fol. 117, r°), into English in 15th cent. (MS. Digby, 181, fol. 7) and, in 16th cent., as The Payne and Sorowe of Evyll Maryage, by W. de Worde, n.d. (vide Percy Soc. III, 1840). Compare MS. Harl. of reign of Edward II (Reliquiae Antiquae, 1841, vol. II, p. 218) and a Lambeth MS. of 15th cent. (Rel. Antiq. II, p. 248).
Dyer, T. F. T. Folk-Lore of Women as illustrated by legendary and traditional tales, folk-rhymes, proverbial sayings and superstitions. 1905.
Wright, T. Latin Poems commonly attributed to Water Mapes. Camden Soc. 1841.
(2) French Satires of the 15th Cent.
Cf. the several Complaints and Doctrinals, des nouveaulx mariez, etc.
Les Quinze Joyes de Mariage attributed by Pottier (1830) to Antoine de la Sale. Earliest known MS. at Rouen with date 1464. Earliest printed ed. about 1480–90 (Brunet). The popularity of the tract is proved by allusions in Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles, Sylva Nuptialis and Rabelais. Dekker’s Bachelor’s Banquet, 1603, is founded on it. As late as 1721 we find The Fifteen Comforts of Matrimony … wherein the various miscarriages of the Wedded State … are laid open.
See the two useful collections of French facetiae and satires of 15th cent.: Le Débat de deux demoyselles, etc., Paris, 1825; Les Joyeusetez, faceties … de Caresme Prenant, etc. (ed. by Martin, L. A.), Paris, 1829–34.
(3) Disquisitions of the 16th Cent.
Riessinger, Félix. Secuntur Tractaculi sive opusculi de laude mulierum, de fraude earundem nec non regmatizandi arte. Naples. 1471–9(?).
Barclay, Ship of Fools (1509), has a chapter “Of the yre immoderate, the wrath and great lewdness of wymen.” Jodocus Badius added to his Latin version of the Narrenschiff a supplement Stultiferae naviculae seu scaphae fatuarum mulierum, the women being divided into five barges as their folly finds expression by the sight, hearing, smell, taste or touch.
Cf. also Paulus Olearius, De Fide Concubinarum in Sacerdotes, 1500; Henricus Bebelius, Triumphus Veneris, 1515; Nevizan, Sylva Nuptialis, 1521; Jehan Bouches, Les triumphes de la noble et amoureuse dame et l’art de honnestement aymer, composé par le Traverseur des voyes, 1539; Myles Coverdale, Christen State of Matrymonye, wherein housbandes and wyfes maye lerne to kepe house together with love, 1543.
(4) English Popular Satires on Women
(Those previous to 16th cent. are noticed in Vol. II.)
Complaynt of them that be to soone maryed. W. de Worde, 1535. See Percy Soc. III, 1840.
Complaynt of them that ben to late maryed. W. de Worde, n.d. Re-ed. by Collier, J. P., Illus. of Early English Popular Literature, 1st series, 1862–3.
Payne and Sorowe of Evyll Maryage, The. W. de Worde, n.d. Percy Soc. III. 1840.
Spectacle of lovers, The, a lytell contravers dyalogue bytwene love and councell, with many goodly argumentes of good women and bad … by Wyllyam Walter. W. de Worde, n.d.
(5) Popular Controversies and Essays on Women
Schole-howse of Women, The. Wyer, R., n.d. Rptd by King, J., 1560, and Allde, J., 1572. (Vide Herbert’s Ames, fol. 375; Dibdin, III, 181.) Re-ed. by Hazlitt, W. C., Early Eng. Pop. Poetry, vol. IV, p. 97. (Tract borrows freely from A C. Mery Talys, LXII and LXIV.)
Prayse of all Women, The, called Mulierun Paean by Gosynhyll, E. 1541.
Defence of Good Women, The, by Elyot, Sir T. Berthelet, 1545.
A lytle and bryefe treatyse called the defence of Women and especially of Englyshe women, made agaynste the Schole-howse of Women, by More, E. Kyng, J., 1557. A reprint or supplement. Tysdayle, J. 1562–3. Re-ed. by Utterson, Select Pieces Early Pop. Poetry, 1817.
The hundreth poyntes of good husserye (huswifrye?). Daye, 1557–8. (Probably An hundreth poyntes of evell huswrifrye, Allde, J., 1565–6, is a parody of it.)
The defence agaynst them that commonly defame women. Allde, J., 1560. (A “ballett.”)
A Defence for Mylke Maydes. Gryffyth, W., 1563–4.
The prayse and dysprayse of women. Entered by Serlle, R., 1563–4, but printed by How with name of author, C. Pyrrye, on titlepage. n.d.
A balett intituled the frutes of love and falsehood of Women. Allde, J., 1567–8. The deceate of Women. Allde, J., 1568–9. (Perhaps a reprint.)
A new balet, entituled howe to Wyve well, by Lewys Evans. Printed by Rogers, O., n.d. (Soc. of Antiq.)
This form of the controversy continued till the 18th cent., e.g. Love given over, or, a Satyr against the Pride, Lust and Inconstancy, etc., of Women, with Sylvia’s Revenge, or, a Satyr against Man, in answer to the Satyr against Woman. 1710.
Cf. In Prays of Woman and Ballate aganis Evill Women, in Dunbar’s Poems.
(6) English Satirical Portraiture of Women
[Cf. Skelton’s Tunnyng of Elynour Rummyng and Dunbar’s Tua Mariit Wemen and the Wedo.]
Boke of Mayd Emlyn, The. John Skot, n.d. Re-ed. by Rimbault, E. F., in Anc. Poet, Tracts, Percy Soc. XXVII, 1842, and by Hazlitt, W. C., Early English Pop. Poetry, vol. IV, p. 81.
[For other allusions to the wife of five successive hushands, vide Wife of Bath’s Prologue and A C. Mery Talys, VIII and IX.]
Twelve mery gestys of one called Edyth, the lyeing wydow whyche still lyveth. Rastell, J., 1525. Rptd.Jhones, R., 1573. Re-ed. Hazlitt, W. C., Shakespeare Jest-books, 1864, vol. III.
[The same picture of feminine drinking bouts and horse play is found in the jest-book Life of Long Meg of Westminster, of which the earliest surviving copy of 1635 is probably a reprint of a previous edition of the age of Elizabeth. Re-ed. by Triphook, R., Miscellanea Antiqua Anglicana, 1816, and Hindley, C., in the Old Book Collector’s Miscellany, 1872, vol. II.]
Proude Wyves Paternoster, The. Imprinted, Kynge, J., 1560. Rptd. by Charlwood, J., 1581–2. Re-ed., Select Pieces of Early Popular Poetry 1817; Hazlitt, W. C., Early English Popular Poetry, vol. IV, 147. Reviewed in J. P. Collier’s Bibliographical and Critical Account of Early English Literature. 1865.
Compare La Patenostre à l’Userier and La Credo à l’Userier, in which the ecclesiastical Latin is intermingled with reflections on moneymaking; Patenostre d’Amours, in which a lover utters his regrets at the difficulty of seeing his lady (Méon: Fabliaux et Contes, 1808, vol. IV, p. 441); Credo au Ribaut, in which a debauchee regrets his dissolute life.
A Commyssion unto all those whose wyves be thayre masters. Lacy, Alex. 1564–5.
Merry Jeste of a Shrewde and Curste Wyfe lapped in Morrelles skin. Imprinted by Jackson, H., n.d. (1560–70?). Rptd in Shakespeare Soc., 1844; Utterson, Select Pieces of Early English Popular Poetry, 1817; Hazlitt, W. C., Early English Popular Poetry, vol. IV, p. 179.
Taming of a Shrew, The. Ballad in a Sloane MS. Rptd. in Ritson’s Ancient Songs and Ballads, 1829, vol. II, p. 242. (Two incidents are borrowed from Skoggan’s Jests.)
Compare Du Vilain et de sa femme; Du prudhomme qui renvoya sa femme (both in Le Grand’s Anciens Fabliaux); De la Male Dame, alias de la Dame qui fut escoilliée (Méon: Fabliaux et Contes, vol. IV, p. 365.)
For the “fight for the breeches” vide Fabliau de sire Hains et de Dame Anieuse, by Hugues d’Estourmi in 13th cent. (described by Wright, T., in History of Caricature and Grotesque, chap. VII).
For development of satire on women among the Theophrastians, vide The Man in the Moone (1609); Sir Thomas Overbury (1614); Stephens, J. (1615); Nicholas Breton (1616); Cures for the Itch (1626); Wye Saltonstall (1631). The development of the literature of characters, especially after Healey’s translation of Theophrastus (1616), will be more fully treated in a later volume of the present work.
A C. Mery Talys. Ptd. by Rastell, J., n.d. (c. 1526). Rptd. by Waley, J., 1558; by Sampson Awdley (?); by Charlwood, J., 1582. Re-ed. from an ed. of 1526 by Oesterley, Dr. H., 1866; Singer, S. W., Chiswick Press, 1814; Hazlitt, W. C., Shakespeare Jest-books, 1st series, 1864.
Mery Tales, Wittie questions and quicke answeres. Ptd. by Berthelet, T., n.d. (c. 1535). Rptd., with 26 new tales (including those adapted from Erasmus’s Epistles), by Wykes, H., 1567; by Bynneman, 1576–7. Re-ed. by Singer, S. W., Chiswick Press, 1814, and Hazlitt, W. C., Shakespeare Jest-books, 1st series, 1864. [Works of Erasmus influence of which is traceable in this miscellany are: Adagia, 1500; Colloquia, 1519.]
Merie Tales newly Imprinted and made by Master Skelton, Poet Laureat. Ptd. by Colwell, T., n.d. Rptd. in 1566–7 (?). Re-ed. in Dyce’s Skelton, 1843, and in W. C. Hazlitt’s Shakespeare Jest-books, 2nd series, 1864.
Geystes of Skoggan. Ptd. by Colwell, T., 1565–6 (probably a reprint of an earlier edition). Rptd. by Williams, F., 1626. A chapman’s edition appeared c. 1680; another reprint by Caulfield, 1796. Re-ed. by Hazlitt, W. C., Jest-books, 2nd series, 1864.
Howleglass. Ptd. by Copland, W. and twice rptd., all n.d. Re-ed. by Delapierre, O., Aventures de Tiel Ulenspiegel, Brussels, 1840. Re-ed. by Mackenzie, K., Marvellous adventures and rare conceits of Tyll Owlglass, 1860, and by Ouvry, F., Howleglass, 1867.
Vide Het leven van den jongen Ulenspiegel, Amst., 1819, and Brie, F. W., Eulenspiegel in England, 1903.
Parson of Kalenborowe, The Story of the. Antwerp; Doesborch, J., s.d. (Fragment in Douce Coll. Bodl.)
Freer Rushe. Registered to Allde, J., 1568–9. Rptd. by Allde, Ed., 1620 (earliest surviving ed.), 1626; by Allde, Eliz., 1629; by Jane Bell, 1659. Reprint of 1620 ed., 1810. Re-ed. in Thoms’s Early Prose Romances, 1828, and Morley’s Early Prose Romances (Carisbrooke Lib. IV), 1889.
Vide Beloe’s Ancedotes, 1814, vol. 1, pp. 253 ff.; Hazlitt. W. C., National Tales and Legends, 1892, pp. 134. ff.
History of the Life and Death of Will Summers. Earliest known ed. in 1676, but probably a reprint, as Summers was jester to Henry VIII and subject of a comedy by Nashe, T. (Summers Last Will and Testament) in 1600.
[For origin and development of “ana,” which are principally an off-shoot of classicism and have little or no connection with these story books, vide Wolf, or Wolfius, J. C., Preface to Casauboniana, 1710.]
Sack-Full of News, The. Registered, 1557. Rptd. 1582, 1587, 1673. Re-ed. by Halliwell, J. O., 1861; Hazlitt, W. C., Jest-books, 2nd series, 1864.
Merie Tales of the Mad Men of Gotam, gathered together by A.B. of Phisike Doctour (supposed, without other evidence, to be Andrew Boorde). Colwell, T., n.d. Rptd. by Alsop, R. and Fawcet, T., 1630. Re-ed. by Halliwell, J. O., 1840, and by Hazlitt, W. C., Jest-books, 2nd series, 1864.
Chandler, F. W. The Literature of Roguery (in Types of English Literature). 1907. Vol. 1. Chap. II. (Subject discussed from the point of view of the picaresque novel.)
Doran, J. Hist. of Court Fools. 1858.
Douce, F. Illustr. of Shakspr. (Diss. on Clowns and Fools). 1807.
(Both indirectly illustrate the jest-books by emphasising the popularity of fools’ jests and tricks.)
Hazlitt, W. C. Preface to Jests New and Old. 1887.
—— Studies in Jocular literature. 1890.
(Both treat of the evolution of the jest.)
Herford, C. H. Literary Relations of England and Germany in the Sixteenth Century. Cambridge, 1886. Pt. II, chap. V. (Traces the reappearance of the legends of Markolf, Parson of Kalenberg, Eulenspiegel and Friar Rush.)
Wright, T. Hist. of Caricature and Grotesque. 1865. Chap. XIV (Treats of personal element in jest-books.)
Books of Riddles
Booke of Merry Riddles. Earliest known ed. (almost certainly a reprint) by Allde, Ed., 1600. Reprints 1617, 1629, 1631, 1660, 1672. The ed. of 1629 is re-ed. in J. O. Halliwell’s Literature of the XVIth and XVIIth centuries illustrated, 1851, 1866 and, separately, in 1866.
Delectable Demaundes and pleasant Questions, with their several answers in Matters of Love. 1566. (Trans. from Alain Chartier.)
Demades Joyous, The. Printed by W. de Worde, 1511. Rptd. in J. Timb’s Literary World, 1839, and sometimes attached to Hartshorne’s Anc. Metrical Tales, 1829.
Mery demandes and answere (sic) thereunto, The. Rogers, O., 1564–5. Probably the same as the Budget of Demands mentioned in Captain Cox’s library (1575). See Collier, J. P., Extracts from Stationers’ Registers (1848), vol. 1, p. 94.
Riddles of Heraclitus and Democritus. Hatfield, A., for Norton, J., 1598.
[The Demades Joyous and the Booke of Riddles are classed with the Ship of Fooles or the C. Mery Talys, and “other excellent writers both witty and pleasaunt” in the 2nd ed. of The English Courtier and the Countrey-Gentleman, 1586.]
For the large number of jest-books and story-books of the 17th century to be considered in vol. IV, vide Hazlitt, W. C., Shakespeare Jest-books, 3rd series 1864; Hazlitt, W. C., Handbook to Early English Literature, 1867, p. 300.
(1) Fabliaux
Aussy, P. J. B. Le Grand d’. Fabliaux et Contes du XIIe et XIIIe Siècles. 3rd ed. 1829. (Selected and translated into English by Way, G. L., 1815.)
Barbazan, E. Fabliaux et Contes. 1808.
Deslongchamps, L. Essai sur les Fables Indiennes, et sur leur introduction en Europe. 1838.
Jubinal, A. Nouveau recueil de Contes … des XIIIe, XIVe, XVe, Siècles. 1839.
Montaiglon, de, et Rothschild, J. de. Poésies françoises des XVe et XVIe Siècles. 1855–78.
Paris, Gaston. La Poésie du Moyen Age. 2e série. 1906.
Raynouard, M. Choix des poésies originales des Troubadours. 1816–21.
Robert, A.-C.-M. Fables inédites des XIIe, XIIIe, XIVe Siècles (with parallel references for history and development of the tales). 1825.
Wright, T. Introduction to the seven sages. Percy Soc. LXIV. 1846.
(2) Exempla
Jacques de Vitry (ordained priest, 1210), Exempla; Etienne de Besançon (b. c. 1250), Alphabetun narrationum; Fabularum anecdotorumque collectio ad usum alphabeticum digesta; Robert Holcot (d. 1349), Liber de moralizationibus; Gesta Romanorum (end of 13th or beginning of 14th cent.)
Subsequent to invention of printing: Speculum Exemplorum; Johan Gritsch, Sermones; Paratus de tempore et de sanctis (middle of 15th cent.); Herolt’s Promptuarium (16th cent.).
Vide Lecoy de la Marche, L’Esprit de nos aieux, 1889; Wright, T., Coll. of Latin Stories for Percy Soc., No. XXVIII, 1842; Madden, Sir F., Introduction and notes to Old English Versions of Gesta Romanorum, 1838; Oesterley, H., Gesta Romanorum, 1872; Crane, T. F., The Exempla of Jacques de Vitry, Folk-Lore Soc., 1890, especially the introduction.
(3) Latin and Italian Facetiae and Stories
Poggii Facetiae, 1470; Mensa Philosophica, 1480 (the 4th part contains jests, anecdotes, repartees, etc., some of which reappear in later jest-books, designed to represent the type of conversation most appropriate for students in hours of relaxation at table), The Schoolemaster or Teacher of Table Phylosophie, 1576 (?), is practically a translation; Dyalogus Salomonis et Marcolfi (sine ulla nota: end of 15th century?); Bebelius, H., Libri facetia R. iucdissimi; atque fabule admodum riddae, 1502; the collections of Piovano Arlotto, 1520; Lucinius, 1529; T. Gastius Brisacensis, 1543 and 1548; Guicciardini, 1565; Brusonius, 1560; Poncino dalla Torre, 1581; L. Dominichi, 1548; O. Melandrus, 1597; Nicodemus Frischlinus, 1600; Facetiae Facetiarum, hoc est joco-seriorum fasciculus, 1615 (treats such subjects as virginity and drunkenness). Vide also Facezie e motti dei secoli XVe e XVIe (edited by P. G.), 1874; Facetiae Latinae, Sammlung humoristischer Aufsätze aus der lateinischen Literatur des 16 und 17 Jahrhunderts, 1881. [Akin to the development of facetiae are the collections of novels by Sachetti, Boccaccio, Bandello, Anthio, Firenzuola, Malespini, Antoine de la Sale, Giovanni (Il Pecoroné, 1554,) La Reine de Navarre, Painter, etc.]
Vide Burckhart, J. Die Cultur der Renaissance. IIer Absch. cap. IV: Der moderne Spott und Witz. Basel, 1860.
(4) Popular German Jest-books
Der Pfarrer von Kalenberg. A verse composition on this subject found with Philipp Franckfürter’s name. Through Philipp composed at the end of the 14th cent., the poem probably belongs to the end of the 15th cent., and is first mentioned by Brant, Murner and Bebel. A Strassburg ed. before 1519 exists.
Johannes Pauli, Schimpf und Ernst, 1522 (drawn partly from Gesta Romanorum and partly from the preaching of Geiler von Kaisersberg); Wickram, G., Rollwagenbüchlein, 1555; Frey, T., Gartengesellschaft, 1556; Montanus, M., Wegkürzer, 1557; Lindener, M., Katzipori, 1558; Lindener, M., Rastbüchlein, 1558; Schumann, V., Nachtbüchlein; Kirchoff, H. W., Wendunmuth, 1565.
Till Eulenspiegel. Stories attached to the name of a Kneitlingen peasant existed in the 15th cent. First appearance in book form, in verse and then in prose, probably took place in Low German and was translated into High German, c. 1500. Original compiler and translator are both unknown. Johnes Grieninger printed Ein kurtzweilig lesen von Dyl Eulenspiegel, and rptd. it 1519. Other editions followed throughout the century, and the book was frequently printed in other countries.
Reprints: Narrenbuch, herausgegeben durch Friedrich Heinrich von der Hagen, 1811; Hub, J., Die komische und humoristische Literatur der deutschen Prosaisten des XVIten Jahrhunderts, 1856; Schwänke des XVI Jahrhunderts edited by Goedeke, K., in Deutsche Dichter des Sechzehnten Jahrhunderts, 1879; Die Gesch. des Pfarrer vom Kalenberg, edited by Dollmayer in Neudrücke deutscher Litteraturwerke XVI und XVII Jhdts, 1906; Thomas Murners Ulenspiegel, Herausgegeben von Laffenberg, J. M., 1854; Grundriss zur Gesch. der deutschen Dichtung aus den Quellen, by Goedeke, K., 1834, vol. 1, pp. 343–47.
The full bibliography will be given in Vol. IV. Several types of broadside are noticed in this chapter under other headings (e.g. Dances of Death, Satires on Women, tracts on Society, Broadside Monstrosities, controversies on Witchcraft). It might also be noticed that literary controversies and “flytings” were already a feature of the popular press; e.g. The flyting of Dunbar and Kennedy; The flyting between Thomas Smith and William Gray, 1540 (Fugitive Tracts, ed. Hazlitt, W. C., 1875). The controversy following A Balade on Thomas Cromwell, July 1540 (vide Lemon, R., Catalogue of Broadsides in possession of the Soc. of Antiq. 1866); Flyting betwixt Montgomerie and Polwart (see works of Alex. Montgomerie, ed. Cranstoun, J., Edinb., 1887, and Brotanek, R., Das Leben und die Dichtungen Alex. Montgomeries, Vienna, 1896).
Early street ballads will also be found in Ritson’s Ancient Songs and Ballads, revised by Hazlitt, W. C., 1877, Class III and Class IV; Black Letter Ballads and Broadsides (1559–97) by Lilly, J., 1867; Songs, Carols and Miscellaneous Poems from Richard Hill’s Commonplace Books (E.E.T.S.); Ballads from MSS. ed. by Furnivall, F. J. (Ballad Soc. 1868–77); Satirical Songs and Poems on Costume, Fairholt, F. W., Percy Soc. LXXX, 1849; Festive Songs, Sandys, W., Percy Soc. LXXVII, 1848; Songs of London Prentices and Trades, Mackay, C., Percy Soc. VII, 1841; Coll. of Old Books anterior to the reign of Charles I, Collier, J. P., Percy Soc. I, 1840; Songs and Ballads, Wright, T., 1860; Turnament of Totenham and the Feest, etc., Wright, T., 1836; Popular Music of the Olden Time, Chappell, W., 1855–9; The Old Book Collector’s Miscellany, Hindley, C., 1871, vol. 1, A bundle of old ballads.
N.B. For comparison between the street-broadside and the folk lore ballad see Vol. II of the present work, Chap. XVII.
All wyckednes doth beginne to amende as doth sowre ale in sommer, A ballett intituled. Alex. Lacy, 1568–9.
Covetousness, Ballett agaynst. Rogers, O., 1560. Prob. a reprint of some ballad of Henry VIII’s or Mary’s time, to judge by allusions to the priesthood.
Dice Play, A manifest detection of the most vyle and detestable use of. Tottel, 1532. Re-ed. Halliwell, J. O., for Percy Soc. LXXXVII, 1850, who ascribes the authorship to Gilbert Parker on the evidence of an entry in an ancient, if not contemporary, handwriting.
Gallant, A Treatise of a. W. de Worde, n.d. Re-ed. by Halliwell, J. O., 1860 and Hazlitt, W. C., Early English Popular Poetry, vol. III, p. 147.
New Notborune Mayd upon the passion of Cryste. Skot, n.d. Re-ed. for Percy Soc., 1842. The tract, a parody on the Nut Brown Maid (vide vol. II, p. 429) illustrates the practice of introducing religious instruction under the auspices of a popular song. For another example of the pious parody compare To pass the Place, Colwell, T., 1561–2 or 1564–5.
Pryde and Abuse of Women now-a-dayes, A treatyse shewing and declaring the, by Bansley, C. Printed by Raynalde, T., 1540–50. Re-ed. (but not issued) for Percy Soc., 1841. Re-ed. by Hazlitt, W. C., in E.E.P.P. vol. IV, p. 227. (The puritan sentiment evident in this tract is more pronounced in Gosson’s Quippes for Upstart new fangled Gentlewomen, 1595; see Vol. IV of the present work.)
Robin Conscience, The Booke in Meeter of. c. 1550. Rptd. by Alde, E. Re-ed. by Halliwell, J. O., Contributions to English Literature, 1849, and Hazlitt, W. C., E.E.P.P. vol. III, p. 221. Vide J. P. Collier’s Hist. of English Dramatic Poetry, vol. II, p. 402. (Martin Parker produced, 1635, a narrative satire Robin Conscience or Conscionable Robin, his progress thorow Court, City and Countrey.)
Spare your Good. W. de Worde, n.d. Rptd. by Kytson, A. (c. 1560). Re-ed. by Hazlitt, W. C., Fugitive Poetical Tracts, vol. 1, 1875.
Brinkelow, Henry. Cplaynt of Roderyck Mors… unto the Parliament Howse of Ingland. Printed at Savoy by Franciscus Turma, n.d. (1536?). Rptd., 1545. Re-ed. Cowper, J. M., E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. XXII. Includes The Lamentacion of a Christian against the Citie of London, 1542.
Crole, Croleus, Crowlaeus or Crowley, Robert. The five tracts noticed in the text are all re-ed. by Cowper, J. M., for E.E.T.S., 1872. Vide Wood’s Athen. Oxon, by Bliss, 1, 543–6; Ames by Dibden, IV, 326–7; Warton’s Hist. of Poetry, IV. For the Informacion and Peticion vide Strype’s Eccl. Mem, II, 139; Brydge’s Brit. Bibl. II, 291–3. For One and thirty Epigrams vide Strype’s Eccl. Mem. II. 266.
Newes come from Hell of love unto all her welbeloved frendes. Copland, W., 1565. An attack on usurers.
Vox Populi Vox Dei. 1515–20. A complaint of the Commons against over taxation. Re-ed. by Furnivall, F. J., in Ballads from MSS. in Ballad Society, 1821, with a number of other MS. Tracts bearing on the same subject; by Dyce, A., in Poetical Works of Skelton, Appendix IX; Hazlitt, W. C., E.E.P.P. vol. III, 267.
Liber Vagatorum, Der Betler Orden Augsburg, by Oglin, E., 1512–4 (1st section gives account of the orders of the Fraternity, 2nd section gives notabilia concerning them, 3rd has “Rotwelsche Voc.”). Translated in 1528 under title Von der falschen Betler büeberey, with preface by Luther. Translation by Hotten, J. C., The book of Vagabonds and Beggars, 1860. Vide Wiemarisches Jrbuch, X, 1856.
Hye Way to the Spyttel Hous, The. Printed by Copland, R., n.d. Re-ed. Utterson’s Select Pieces of E. P. P., 1817, vol. II, p. 1; Hazlitt, W. C., E.E. P.P. vol. IV, p. 17.
A ballett called the description of vakaboundes. Sampson, alias Awdeley, 1561. Now lost, unless it was an earlier version of the Fraternitye.
Fraternitye of Vacabones. Printed by Awdeley, J., 1561. Rptd. 1565, 1575. Re-ed. by Viles, E. and Furnivall, F. J., for Shakespeare Library, 1907, as Rogues and Vagabonds of Shakspeare’s Youth.
A Ballette ascrybynge the manner of the Rogges. Alex. Lacye, 1563–4.
A Caveat or Warening for Commen Corsetors vulgarely called Vagabones, set forth by Thomas Harman, Esquiere. 1st ed. is lost. 2nd ed. “augmented and inlarged by the fyrst author hereof,” printed by Gryffith, W., 1567. Re-ed. by Hindley, C., in The Old Book Collector’s Miscellany, 1871, vol. 1, and by Viles and Furnivall in Rogues and Vagabonds, 1907, together with Parson Hyberdyne’s Sermon in Praise of thieves and thievery (a goliardic parody similar in spirit to such medieval tracts as Missa de Potatoribus and Officium Lusorum and such later (1638)? extravagancies as D. Heinsius, Laus Pediculi).
A Dyaloge betwene ij beggers. Coplande, W., 1567–8.
A ballett intituled of the Cutt pursses. Howe, W., 1567–8.
A ballett intituled of Robbers and Shefters. Greffeth, W., 1568–9.
Black, G. F. Bibliography of Gipsies. (About to be published.)
Chandler, F. W. The Literature of Roguery (Types of English Literature). 1907. Chap. III considers beggar books as a link in the development of the picaresque novel, with exhaustive bibliography.
Eden, Sir F. M. The State of the Poor. 3 vols. 1797.
Frianoro, R. Il Vagabondo. 1627. (Translated into French, 1644, as Le Vagabond ou l’histoire et le charactere de la malice et des fourberies de ceux qui courent le monde aux despens d’autruy.)
Histoire Générale des Larrons. 1636.
Hotten, J. C. Introduction to his translation of the Liber Vagatorum (The Book of Vagabonds and Beggars. 1860.
Inventionz subtilitez et entreprinses practiquees par plusieurs estats des royaumes, provinces, villes et republiques, descouverts contre les larrons de toutes qualitez. Au Pon. A.M, 1624.
Jusserand, J. J. English Wayfaring Life in the Middle Ages. Trans. Smith, L. T. 8th ed. n.d.
Smith, J. T. Mendicant Wanderers. 1883. (A brief review of the class to modern times.)
Turner, C. J. Ribton. A Hist. of Vagrants and Vagrancy and Beggars and Begging. 1887.
Boorde, Andrew.
The fyrst boke of the Introduction of Knowledge. Ptd. by Copland, W. Prob. composed 1542 and published 1547. Re-ed. by Furnivall, F. J., E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. X. 1870.
Compendyous Regyment or a Dyetary of Helth. Ptd. by Wyer, R., 1542. Re-ed. by Furnivall, F. J., ibid.
Prognosticacion. 1545.
Breviarie of Health. Ptd. by Middleton, W., 1547. Selections included in F. J. Furnivall’s Forewords to Introduction of Knowledge, E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. X, 1870. Furnivall includes in the same volume The Treatyse Answerynge the boke of Berdes (lost tract by Boorde, condemning beards) compyled by Collyn Clout (Barnes). Vide Haslewood in Brit. Biblio. IV; Wood’s Athen. Oxon. 1, pp. 170, 182 (ed. Bliss). [The Mad Men of Gotam, Skoggan’s Jests, The Mylner of Abyngton, Nos Vagabunduli, have been attributed to Andrew Boorde without sufficient evidence.]
Bullein, W.
Gouvernement of Healthe. Ptd. Daye, J., 1558–9. Rptd., 1559, 1595.
A Comfortable Regiment. 1562.
Bulleins Bulwarke of Defce againste Sicknes, Sornes and woundes that dooe daily assaulte Mankinde, by Kyngston, Thom. 1562. An edition by Marshe, T. was registered 1562–3.
An Almanack and Prognostication. Vele, A., 1563–4.
A Dialogue both pleasaunte and pietifull … against the fever Pestilence with a Consolacion and Comfort against death, by Kingston, Thom., 1564. (Prob. a rpt.) Rptd., 1573, 1578. Re-ed. by Bullen, M. W. and Bullen, A. H., for E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. LII, 1888.
Vertue and operation of Balsame. 1885.
Vide Wood’s Ath. Oxon. I, 538; Strype’s Annals, 1824, II, ii, 307–8, III, ii, 513; Herbert’s Ames, 629, 632, 835, 839, 862, 868, 1289, 1343, 1796.
Halle, John (1529?–66?).
Certayne Chapters taken out of the proverbs of Solomon … and Certayne Psalmes of David translated into English metre. Reynalde, T., 1549.
A Poesie in Forme of a Vision. Hall, R., 1563. (A verse attack on sorcery, necromancy and quackery.) Vide British Bibliographer, II, 349.
The Courte of Vertue, contayning many holy or spiretuall songes, sonnettes. Psalms, Balletts and Shorte Sentences. Marshe, T., 1565. (Vide Warton’s Hist. of Eng. Poetry, IV; Ritson’s Bibliographia Poetica, 232–3.)
Chirurgia parva Lanfranci … reduced from dyvers translations to our vulgar or usuall frase … by John Halle Chirurgien, who hath therunto necessarily annexed … An Historiall expostulation also against the beastly abusers, both of Chyrurgerie and Phisicke in our tyme. Marshe, T., 1565. Rpt. of Expostulation, by Pettigrew, T. J., for Percy Soc. XLI, 1844. In 1651, there was added to a new ed. of Recorde’s Urinall of Physick an ingenious Treatise, concerning Physitians, Apothecaries and Chyrurgians, set forth by a Doctor of Queen Elizabeth’s dayes.
Vide Ames’s Typogr. Antiq., pp. 550, 584, 805, 806, 854; Brydges’s Brit. Bibl., II, 349–352; Granger’s Biog. Hist. of Engl., 5th ed. 1, 308; Ritson’s Bibl. Poetica, p. 232; Tanner’s Bibl. Brit., p. 372.
Recorde, Robert, the physician (fl. 1540–57). Titles of his dialogues: The Grounde of Artes, 1542 (Arithmetic). The Urinall of Physick, 1548. Pathway of Knowledge (Geometry). Gate of Knowledge (Mensuration). Castel of Knowledge, 1556 (Astronomy and Mathematics). Treasure of Knowledge (Astronomy). Whetstone of Witte (Algebra and Arithmetic, invents the sign = and explains how to extract a square root).
Skeyne, Gilbert (1522?–99). Ane Breve Descriptioun of the Pest. Edinburgh, 1568. Ed. Skene, W. F. Bannatyne Club. Edinburgh, 1860. The earliest medical treatise published in Scotland.
Vicary, Thomas. A profitable treatise of the Anatomie of Man’s Body. Earliest extant ed. by Bamforde, H. 1577. (The work is really a transcript of a 14th cent. MS. based on Lanfranc and Mondeville, H. de.) Re-ed. by Furnivall, F. J. for E.E.T.S. 1888.
Besides those mentioned in text, the following may be noted:
The description of a monstrous pig, the which was farrowed at Hamsted besyde London the xvith day of October, this present yeare of our Lord God MDlxii.
The true discription of two monsterous children, lawfully begotten … borne in the parish of Swanburne in Buckynghamshyre, the iiij of Aprill, Anno Domini 1566; the two children having both their belies fast joyned together, and imbracyng one another with their armes.…
The Disclosyng of a late counterfayted Possession by the Devyll in twoo Maydens within the Cittie of London. Whereunto is annexed part of a homilie of Chrisostome, and also strange stories and practises, as well in England as in other countries. Watkins, R., 1574.
Beware the Cat. 1551 (?), 1561 (?). Rptd. by Irelonde, 1568–9, and by Allde, Ed., 1584. Re-ed. by Halliwell, J. O., 1864. A clever rhapsody in which “Maister Streamer” converses with Baldwin, Ferrers and others at the house of John Day the printer, on the supernatural powers of cats, their means of intercommunication and the possibility of men being bewitched in this form. Being desirous to understand the feline language, Streamer swallows a revolting compound (following an elaborate recipe of Albertus Magnus) which gives the utmost acuteness to his sense of hearing. After ludicrous misadventures, he spends the night listening to the gossip of cats, and then recounts what he has heard. Collier describes the tract as “an allegorical satire, under the personification of Cats.” But the whole book, with its grotesque adventures and practical jokes, is reminiscent of the spirit of the jest-books. One episode suggests Reynard the Fox and another—the story of the weeping cat alleged to be a girl bewitched for rejecting her lover—is found in the Indian collection Vrihat-Katha and Gesta Romanorum (XXVIII). Streamer was a court jester.
Vide the broadside A short answere to the Boke called Beware the cat, which denies that the book was written by Streamer, attributing its authorship to Wylliam Baldewine “God graunt him wel to spede”
  • Every thing almost: in that boke is as tru,
  • As that at Midsomer: in L. it doth snu.
(Catalogue of a Collection of Prtd. Broadsides in possession of the Soc. of Antiquaries of L., by Lemon, R., 1866.) William Baldwin contributed to A Mirror for Magistrates, and was author, amongst other works of The Funerals of Ed. VI. (See Collier, Registers of the Stationers’ Cpy, 1, 200, and Biblio. Cat. of E. E. Lit. 1, 43.)
Ludwig Lavaterus. Of Ghostes and Spirits walking by nyght and of strange noyses, crackes and sundry forewarnynges, whiche commonly happen before the death of men, great slaughters and alterations of Kyngdomes. Translated by R. H. 1572.
Scot, Reginald.
A perfite platforme of a Hoppe-Garden by Reynolde Scot. Denham, H., 1574. Rptd., 1576, 1578.
The Discoverie of Witchcraft, wherein the lewde dealing of witches and witchmongers is notablie detected, the knaverie of conjurors, the impietie of inchantors, the follie of soothsaiers, the impudent falshood of cousenors, the infidelitie of atheists, the pestilent practises of Pythonists, the curiositie of figure casters, the vanitie of dreamers, the beggerlie art of alcumystrie, the abhomination of idolatrie, the horrible art of poisoning, the vertue and power of naturall magike, and all the conveiances of legierdemain and juggling are deciphered.… Herreunto is added a treatise upon the nature and substance of spirits and divels. Brome, W., 1584. Rptd., 1651, 1665. Re-ed., 1886.
Vide Wood’s Ath. Oxon. (ed. Bliss, P.), 1, 679–680; Oldys’s, British Librarian, 213–228.
Ashmole, E. Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum. (Contains: Ordinall of Alchimy, by Norton, T.; Compound of Alchymie, by Ripley, G.; Pater Sapientiae; Hermes Bird; Worke of J. Dastin; Pearce the Black Monk upon the Elixir; R. Carpenter’s Worke; Hunting of the Greene Lyon; T. Charnock’s Breviary of Philosophy; Bloomfield’s Blossoms, etc.)
Baedi. Die Hexenprocesse in Deutschland. 1874.
Bandrillart, H. J. L. Jean Bodin et son temps. 1853.
Haas, C. Die Hexenprocesse. 1865.
Hall, F. T. Pedigree of the Devil. 1883.
Halliwell, J. O. Poetry of Witchcraft. 1853. (Plays on the Lancashire witches, by Heywood and Shadwell.)
Henderson, W. Folk Lore of the Northern Counties. F.L.S. 1879. Chap. V, Charms and Spells; VI, Witchcraft; XI, Dreams.
Herford, C. H. Literary Relations of England and Germany in the Sixteenth Century. Cambridge, 1886. Pt. II, chap. IV.
Hulme, F. E. Natural History Lore and Legend. 1895. (A rehabilitation of medieval naturalists.)
Jacob, J. L. (Paul Lacroix). Curiosités théologiques; Curiosités infernales; Curiosités des sciences occultes.
Notestein, W., is working at an account of witchcraft in England from 1558 to 1718.
Retrospective Review (1820–6), V, 86–139.
Scott, W. Demonology and Witchcraft. 1883.
Soldan, W. G. Gesch. der Hexenprocesse. 1880.
Ward, A. W. Introduction to Marlowe’s Dr. Faustus and Greene’s Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. 4th ed. Oxford, 1901.
Wright, T. Narratives of Sorcery and Magic. 1851.
Ashbee, E. W. Tracts of 16th and 17th centuries (mostly 17th).
Beloe, W. Anecdotes of Literature and Scarce Books. 1808–12, 1814.
Brydges, Sir S. E. Archaica. 1815.
Collier, J. P. Illus. of Early English Popular Literature. 1863–6.
—— Illus. of Old English Literature. 1866.
—— Bibliographical and Critical Account of the rarest books. 1865.
Halliwell, J. O. Contributions to Early English Literature. 1849.
—— Literature of 16th and 17th centuries illustrated by Tracts. 1851.
—— Nugae Poeticae. 1844. (Illustrates manners and arts of 15th cent.)
Harleian Miscellany (Love Letters of Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn, etc.).
Haslewood, J. Frondes Caducae. 1816.
—— Flyleaves. 1822 ff.
Hazlitt, W. C. Fugitive Tracts. 1875.
Hindley, C. Old Book Collector’s Miscellany. 1871.
Huth, H. Fugitive Tracts (coll. of verses illustrating politics and society, 1493–1700). 1875.
Isham Reprints. 1895.
Lang, A. Social England Illustrated. 1903.
Miscellanea Antiqua Anglicana. 1816.
Pollard, A. F. Tudor Tracts (1532–88). 1902. (Historical, rather than literary.)
Utterson, R. Select Pieces of Early Popular Poetry. 1817.
Wright, T. Anecdota Literaria. 1844.
Wright, T. and Halliwell, J. O. Reliquiae Antiquae. 1841.
(1) Contemporary
Camden Soc. No. 23, Original letters of eminent literary men of the 16th to the 18th centurie. No. 37, A Relation or rather a True Account of the Isle of England. (Trans. from the Italian by Sneyd, C. A. 1847.) See also the Egerton, Plumpton, Rutland and Trevelyan papers, published by the same Society.
Erasmus. Apophthegmes (trans. by Udall, N., 1542, literally rptd., 1877). Epistles (Nichols, F. M., 1901). Familiar Colloquies (Bailey, N., 1733. Rptd., 1900). Praise of Folly (Copner, J., 1878). Selections from Erasmus by Allen, P. S. (school text-book, 1908); by Edwards, G. M., 2 vols., Cambridge, 1906, 1908.
Epistolae Obscurorum Virorum. 1st appearance, 1516. Re-ed. by E[duard] B[öcking], Leipzig, 1864; Brecht, W., Die Verfasser der Epistolae obscurorum virorum (Quellen und Forschungen), Strassburg, 1904. Trans. by V. Develay, Lettres des hommes obscurs, Paris, 1870. Trans. Stokes, F. G., with reprint of text, in the press.
Laneham, Robert. A Letter whearin … the entertainment untoo the Queenz Majesty at Killingwoorth (Kenilworth) Castle in this Somerz Progress 1575 is signified. (Contains the account of Captain Cox’s now famous library.) Re-ed. by Furnivall, F. J., with exhaustive intro. for Shakespeare Library, 1908.
Latimer, H. An ed. of his sermons appeared by Daye, J., 1562. (Latimer’s sermons are a striking illustration of the influence of story-telling among the people. See Vol. IV of the present work and ante, bibliographies to Chapters 1 and II.
Starkey, T. A Dialogue between Cardinal Pole and Thomas Lupset. n.d. Re-ed. by Cowper, J. M., with useful intro. [England in the reign of King Henry the Eighth], E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. XII, 1871.
(2) Modern
Beloe, W. Anecdotes of Literature and Scarce books. 1814, 1808–12.
Black, W. G. Folk-Medicine. A chapter in the history of culture. F.L.S. 1883.
Brand, J. Popular Antiquities. Revised by Hazlitt, W. C. 1870.
Burckhart, J. Die Cultur der Renaissance in Italien. Ed. by Geiger, L. Leipzig, 1896, 1908. Trans. by Middlemore, S.G.C. 1890. IIer Abschnitt, Die Entwicklung des Individuums. VIer Abschnitt, Sitte und Religion.
Busch, W. England unter den Tudors. I. K. Henry VII. Stuttgart, 1892 ff.
Cooke, J. Vagrants, Beggars and Tramps. Quarterly Review, Oct. 1908.
Courtney, W. P. The Secrets of our National Literature. 1908.
Creighton, M. The Age of Elizabeth. 1876.
Disraeli, I. Amenities of Literature. (Books for the people. Difficulties experienced by a primitive author. Spoliation of the monasteries. A crisis and a reaction. The discovery of witchcraft. Dr. Dee, the occult philosopher. Early writers, their dread of the press. War against books.) Curiosities of Literature. (Trials and proofs of guilt. Songs of trade or songs for the people. Ancient and modern Saturnalia.) 1841 ff.
Dixon, J. H. Ancient Poems, Ballads and Songs of the Peasantry of England. Percy Society. 1846.
Douce, F. Illustrations of Shakespeare and of ancient manners with dissertations on Shakespeare’s Clowns and Fools, on Gesta Romanorum and on the English Morris Dance. 1807.
Dyer, T. F. T. British popular customs. 1876. Folk-Lore of Shakespeare. 1883. Old English Social life as told by the parish registers. 1898.
Furnivall, F. J. Forewords to Early English Meals and Manners. E.E.T.S. 1894.
—— Child-Marriages and Divorces, Trothplights, etc. E.E.T.S. CVIII.
Gairdner, J. Henry VII. 1889.
—— Letters and Papers … Henry VII. Rolls Series. 1858.
Hall, H. Society in the Elizabethan Age. 4th ed. 1901.
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[See also bibliography to the chapter on Chroniclers in the present work.]