The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume III. Renascence and Reformation.

XVII. The Marprelate Controversy


i Bibliographies

There is no complete bibliography bearing directly upon the Marprelate controversy. Considerable information of a bibliographical nature may, however, be gleaned from Collections towards a Bibliography of Congregationalism in Dexter’s Congregationalism as seen in its Literature (see below) and from Early Nonconformist Bibliography, published by Grippen, T. G., in vol. 1 of the Transactions of the Congregational Historical Society. In addition to these, Edward Arber’s invaluable Introductory Sketch to the Martin Marprelate Controversy contains a list of the most important tracts connected with the subject.

ii. Manuscripts

Most of the original documents connected with the Marprelate press and printers are among the Harleian MSS. at the British Museum, and have been reprinted in Arber’s Introductory Sketch (see below).

The Scotch State Papers at the Record Office contain information about Penry and Waldegrave after their flight from England.

Many interesting papers concerning the Martinist group are collected under the title: A Second Part of a Register, in the library of Dr. Williams, Gordon Square, London.

The Manchester Papers at the Record Office contain the examination of Symmes and Tomlyn after their capture in August, which gives information, not found in Arber, as to the movements of the Marprelate press in the summer of 1589.

The Yelverton MSS. (vol. 70) in the possession of lord Calthorpe contain some unpublished letters of John Penry and other documents of interest.

iii. Tracts and other contemporary material

Admonition to the people of England, An. By T[homas] C[ooper, bp of Winchester]. An Admonition to the people of England: Wherein are answered, not onely the slaunderous untruethes, reprochfully uttered by Martin the Libeller, but also many other Crimes by some of his broode, objected generally against all Bishops, and the chiefe of the Cleargie, purposely to deface and discredite the present state of the Church. Seene and allowed by authoritie. Imprinted at London by the Deputies of Christopher Barker.… 1589. [Entered at Stationers’ Hall, 10 Jan. Possibly two editions.] Rptd. John Petheram, Puritan Discipline Tracts, 1847; Arber, E., 1883.

Advertisement for Papp-Hatchett, An. By Gabriel Harvey. Dated 5 Nov., 1589, but published as the second book of Pierce’s Supererogation. John Wolfe, 1593. Rptd., Brydges, Sir S. E., Archaica, vol. II, 1815; Grosart, A. B., Harvey’s Works, vol. II, Huth Library, 1884.

Advertisement touching the Controversies of the Church of England, An. Published in Resuscitatio of Francis Bacon, 1657. Rptd., Spedding, J., Ellis, R. L. and Heath, D. D., The Works of Francis Bacon, 7 vols., 1857–74; Arber, E., Introductory Sketch, 1895.

Aequity of an Humble Supplication, The. [By John Penry.] A Treatise containing the aequity of an humble supplication which is to be exhibited unto hir gracious majesty, and this high Court of Parliament in the behalfe of the Countrey of Wales, that some order may be taken for the preaching of the Gospell among those people.… At Oxford Printed by Joseph Barnes.… 1587. Rptd., Grieve, Alex. J., Congregational Historical Society, 1905.

Almond for a Parrat, An. [Author unknown.] An Almond for a Parrat, or Cutbert Curryknaves Almes. Fit for the knave Martin, and the rest of those impudent Beggers, that can not be content to stay their stomakes with a Benefice, but they will needes breake their fastes with our Bishops.… Imprinted at a Place, not farre from a Place, by the Assignes of Signior Some-body, and are to be sold at his shoppe in Trouble-knave Street, at the signe of the Standish. [No date or printer’s name. No entry in Stationers’ register. Privately printed, London, early in 1590.] Rptd., John Petheram, op. cit., 1846; McKerrow, R. B., The works of Thomas Nashe, vol. III (among “Doubtful Works”), 1905.

Answer to a Certain Libel, An. By Matthew Sutcliffe. An Answere to a certaine libel supplicatorie, or rather Diffamatory, and also to certaine Calumnious Articles and Interrogatories, both printed and scattered in secret corners, to the slaunder of the Ecclesiasticall state, and put forth under the name and title of a Petition directed to her Majestie: … by Matthew Sutcliffe.… Imprinted at London by the Deputies of Christopher Barker, … 1592. [Ded. epistle dated 20 Dec.]

Answer to Job Throckmorton. By Matthew Sutcliffe. An Answere unto a certaine calumnious letter published by M. Job Throkmorton, and entituled, A defence of J. Throkmorton against the slaunders of M. Sutcliffe, Wherein the vanitie both of the defence of himselfe, and the accusation of others is manifestly declared by Matthew Sutcliffe. Imprinted at London by the Deputies of Christopher Barker, … 1595. [“Probably printed by G. Bishop,” Sayle, Early Printed Books, no. 1703.]

Anti-Martinus. [Author unknown.] Antimartinus, sive Monitio cuiusdam Londinensis, ad Adolescentes utriusque Academiae, contra personatum quendam rabulam, qui se Anglicè Martin Marprelat Hoc est, Martinum Ma[char] [char]á[char] vocat. Londini, Excudebant Georgius Bishop, et Radulphus Newbery Anno Domini 1589. [Signed at the end.] Totus Vester A. L. [Entered at Stationers’ Hall. 3 July, 1589.]

Appellation, Th’. By John Penry. Th’ Appellation of John Penri, unto the Highe court of Parliament, from the bad and injurious dealing of th’ Archb. of Canterb. &other his colleagues of the high commission: Wherin the complainant, humbly submitting himselfe and his cause unto the determination of this honorable assembly: craveth nothing els, but either release from trouble and persecution, or just tryall.… Anno Dom. 1589. [No printer’s name. Dedication signed “March 7.” Printed by Waldegrave at Rochelle, early summer of 1589.]

Commission sent to the Pope, A. [Author unknown.] A Commission sente to the Pope, Cardynales, Bishops, Friers, Monkes, with all the rable of that Viperous Generation by the highe and mighty Prince, and king Sathanas the Devill of Hell 1586. Imprinted at London by Thomas Purfoote, and are to be sold at his shoppe without New-gate over against Sainct Sepulchers Churche. [Copy at Lambeth Library.]

Counter-Cuffe given to Martin Junior, A. [By Thomas Nashe?.] A Counter-cuffe given to Martin Junior: by the venturous, hardie, and renowned Pasquill of England, Cavaliero.… Printed, Betweene the skye and the grounde, Within a myle of an Oake, and not many fields of, from the unpriviledged Presse of the Assignes of Martin Junior. Anno Dom: 1589. [No entry in Stationers’ register. Privately printed, London, Aug. 1589. Possibly two simultaneous editions.] Rptd., Grosart, A. B., Nashe’s works, vol. 1, Huth Library, 1883; McKerrow, R. B., Nashe, vol. 1, 1904.

Defence of Job Throkmorton, The. By Job Throckmorton. The Defence of Job Throkmorton, against the slaunders of Maister Sutcliffe, taken out of a Copye of his owne hande as it was written to an honorable Personage.… 1594. [No printer’s name.]

Defence of the Church of England, A. By John Bridges. A Defence of the Government established in the church of Englande for ecclesiasticall matters .… by John Bridges Deane of Sarum. At London, Printed by John Windet, for Thomas Chard. 1587.

Demonstration of Discipline, A. [By John Udall.] A Demonstration of the trueth of that Discipline which Christe hath prescribed in his worde for the government of his Church, in all times and places, untill the ende of the worlde.… [No author’s name or imprint. Printed on the Marprelate press by Waldegrave at East Molesey, and issued with The Epistle, Oct. or Nov. 1588.] Rptd., in A parte of a register, 1593(?); Arber, E., op. cit., 1880.

Dialogue … strife of our Church, A. [By John Udall?.] A Dialogue concerning the strife of our Churche: Wherein are aunswered divers of those unjust accusations, wherewith the godly preachers and professors of the Gospell, are falsly charged; with a briefe declaration of some such monstrous abuses, as our Byshops have not bene ashamed to foster.… At London; Printed by Robert Waldegrave, 1584.

Dialogue … the tyrannicall dealing, A. [Author unknown.] A Dialogue. Wherin is plainly laide open, the tyrannicall dealing of L. Bishopps against Gods children: with certaine points of doctrine, wherein they approove themselves (according to D. Bridges his judgement) to be truely the Bishops of the Divell. [No author’s name or imprint. Printed by Waldegrave, at Rochelle (?), summer of 1589.] Rptd. under the title of The character of a Puritan and His Gallimaufrey of the Antichristian clergie; prepared with D. Bridges Sawce for the present time to feed on. By the worthy Gentleman D. Martin Mar-Prelat, Doctor in all the Faculties, Primate and Metropolitan. Printed in the time of Parliament, 1643.

Diotrephes. [By John Udall.] The state of the Church of Englande, laide open in a conference betweene Diotrephes a Bishop, Tertullus a Papist, Demetrius an usurer, Pandocheus an In-keeper, and Paule a Preacher of the word of God.… [No author’s name or imprint. Printed without authority by Waldegrave at London (?), April 1588. Another impression with different title-page arrangement is extant.] Rptd. in A parte of a register, 1593 (?); Arber, E., op. cit., 1879.

Friendly Admonition, A. By Leonard Wright. A Friendly Admonition to Martine Marprelate, and his Mates. By Leonard Wright. London printed by John Wolfe 1590. [Entered at Stationers’ Hall, 19 Jan.]

Harborowe, An. [By John Aylmer.] An harborowe for faithfull and trewe subjectes, agaynst the late blowne Blaste, concerninge the Government of Wemen, wherin be confuted all such reasons as a straunger of late made in that behalfe, with a breife exhortation to obedience. Anno. M.D. lix … At Strasborowe the 26. of Aprill.

Lamb of God, The. [By Richard Harvey.] A Theologicall discourse of the Lamb of God and his enemies: Contayning a briefe Commentarie of Christian faith and felicitie together with a detection of old and new Barbarisme, now commonly called Martinisme.… London Imprinted by John Windet for W. P. Anno. 1590.

Mar-Martine. [Author unknown.]


  • I know not why a trueth in rime set out
  • Maie not as well mar Martine and his mates,
  • As shamelesse lies in prose-books cast about
  • Marpriests, &prelates, and subvert whole states.
  • For where truth builds & lying overthroes,
  • One truth in rime, is worth ten lies in prose.

  • [No date, author’s name or printer. Privately printed, May-June 1589. London. Rptd. (partially), Bond, R. W., Works of John Lyly, vol. III, among “Doubtful Works,” 1902.

    Marre Mar-Martin. [Author unknown.] Marre Mar-Martin: or Marre-Martins medling, in a manner misliked.
  • Martins vaine prose, Marre-Martin doth mislike,
  • Reason (forsooth) for Martin seekes debate:
  • Marre-Martin will not so; yet doth his patience strike:
  • Last verse, first prose, conclude in one selfe hate:
  • Both maintaine strife, unfitting Englands state.
  • Martin, Marre-Martin, Barrow joyned with Browne
  • Shew zeale: yet strive to pull Religion downe.

  • Printed with Authoritie (N. B. “with Authoritie” is cut out in the Lambeth copy). [No date or imprint. Privately printed in London, May-June 1589.] Rptd., Brydges, Sir S. E., Censura Literaria, vol. II, Art. lxxiii, 10 vols, 1805–9.

    Martin Marprelate Tracts (in chronological order).

    (i) The Epistle

    Oh read over D. John Bridges, for it is a worthy worke: Or an epitome of the fyrste Booke, of that right worshipfull volume, written against the Puritanes, in the defence of the noble cleargie, by as worshipfull a prieste, John Bridges, Presbyter, Priest or elder, doctor of Divillitie, and Deane of Sarum. Wherein the arguments of the puritans are wisely prevented, that when they come to answere M. Doctor, they must needes say something that hath bene spoken. Compiled for the behoofe and overthrow of the Parsons. Fyckers, and Currats, that have lernt their Catechismes, and are past grace: By the reverend and worthie Martin Marprelate gentleman, and dedicated to the Confocationhouse. The Epitome is not yet published, but it shall be when the Bishops are at convenient leysure to view the same. In the meane time, let them be content with this learned Epistle. Printed oversea, in Europe, within two furlongs of a Bounsing Priest, at the cost and charges of M Marprelate, gentleman. [Secretly printed at East Molesey, by Waldegrave, and issued in Oct. or early in Nov. 1588.] Rptd., John Petheram, op. cit., 1842; Arber, E., op. cit., 1880.

    (ii) The Epitome

    Oh read over … (as in The Epistle) … bene spoken. Compiled for the behoofe and overthrow of the unpreaching Parsons, Fyckers, and Currats, that have lernt their Catechisms, and are past grace: By the reverend and worthie Martin Marprelat gentleman, and dedicated by a second Epistle to the Terrible Priests. In this Epitome, the foresaide Fickers, &c. are very insufficiently furnished, with notable inabilitie of most vincible reasons, to answere the cavill of the puritanes. And lest M. Doctor should thinke that no man can write without sence but his selve, the senceles titles of the several pages, and the handling of the matter throughout the Epitome, shewe plainely, that beetleheaded ignoraunce must not live and die with him alone. Printed on the other hand of some of the Priests. [Secretly printed at Fawsley, by Waldegrave, in Nov., 1588, and issued before 6 Dec.] Rptd., John Petheram, op. cit., 1843.

    (iii) The Minerall Conclusions (a broadside)

    Certaine Minerall, and Metaphisicall Schoolpoints, to be defended by the reverende Bishops, and the rest of my cleargie masters of the Convocation house, against both the universities, and al the reformed Churches in Christendome. Wherin is layd open, the very Quintessence of al Catercorner divinities. And with all, to the preventing of the Cavels of these wrangling Puritans, the persons by whom, and the places where these misteries are so worthely maintayned, are for the most part, plainly set downe to the view of all men, and that to the ternall prayse of the most reverend Fathers. [Secretly printed by Waldegrave at Coventry, and issued about 20 Feb., 1589. Copy at Lambeth.]

    (iv) Hay any worke for Cooper

    Hay any worke for Cooper: Or a briefe Pistle directed by waye of an hublication to the reverende Byshopps, counselling them, if they will needs be barrelled up, for feare of smelling in the nostrels of her Majestie & the State, that they would use the advise of reverend Martin, for the providing of their Cooper. Because the reverend T. C. (by which misticall letters, is understood, eyther the bousing Parson of Eastmeane, or Tom Coakes his Chaplaine) hath shewed himself in his late Admonition to the people of England to bee an unskilfull and beceytfull tubtrimmer. Wherein worthy Martin quits himselfe like a man I warrant you, in the modest defence of his selfe and his learned Pistles, and makes the Coopers hoopes to flye off, and the Bishops Tubs to leake out of all crye. Penned and compiled by Martin the Metropolitane. Printed in Europe, not farre from some of the Bouncing Priestes. [Secretly printed by Waldegrave at Coventry, and issued about 20 March, 1589.] Rptd. under the title: Reformation no enemie. Or a true Discourse, betweene the Bishops and the Desirers of Reformation: Wherein Is plainely laid open the present corrupt government of our Church, and the desired forme of Government plainely proved by the word of God. Printed in the yeare, 1641; John Petheram, op. cit., 1845.

    (v) Theses Martinianae, or Martin Junior

    Theses Martinianae: That is, Certaine Demonstrative Conclusions, sette downe and collected (as it should seeme) by that famous and renowmed Clarke, the reverend Martin Marprelate the great: serving as a manifest and sufficient confutation of al that ever the Colledge of Catercaps with their whole band of Clergie-priests, have, or can bring for the defence of their ambitious and Antichristian Prelacie. Published and set foorth as an after-birth of the noble Gentleman himselfe, by a prety stripling of his, Martin Junior, and dedicated by him to his good neame and nuncka, Maister John Kankerbury: How the youngman came by them, the Reader shall understande sufficiently in the Epilogue. In the meane time, whosoever can bring mee acquainted with my father, Ile bee bounde hee shall not loose his labour. Printed by the assignes of Martin Junior, without any priviledge of the Catercaps. [Secretly printed by Hodgkins in Mistress Wigston’s house at Wolston, and issued about 22 July, 1589.]

    (vi) The just censure and reproofe or Martin Senior

    The just censure and reproofe of Martin Junior. Wherein the rash and undiscreete headlines of the foolish youth, is sharply mette with, and the boy hath his lesson taught him, I warrant you, by his reverend and elder brother Martin Senior, sonne and heir unto the renowmed Martin Mar-prelate the Great. Where also, least the springall shold be utterly discouraged in his good meaning, you shall finde, that hee is not bereaved of his due commendations. [Secretly printed by Hodgkins in Mistress Wigston’s house at Wolston, and issued about 29 July, 1589.]

    (vii) The Protestation

    The Protestatyon of Martin Marprelat Wherin not with standing the surprizing of the printer, he maketh it known unto the world that he feareth, neither proud priest, Antichristian pope, tiranous prellate, nor godlesse catercap: but defiethe all the race of them by these presents and offereth conditionally, as is farthere expressed hearin by open disputation to apear in the defence of his caus aginst them and theirs. Which chaleng if they dare not maintaine aginst him: then doth he alsoe publishe that he never meaneth by the assistaunce of god to leave the assayling of them and their generation untill they be uterly extinguised out of our church. Published by the worthie gentleman D martin mar prelat D in all the faculties primat and metroPolitan. [Secretly printed in Job Throckmorton’s house at Hasely (?) before 20 Oct., 1589, probably by Waldegrave.]

    Martins Months Mind. [Author unknown.] Martins Months minde, That is A certaine report, and true description of the Death and Funeralls, of olde Martin Marreprelate, the greate makebate of England, and father of the Factious. Contayning the cause of his death, the manner of his buriall, and the right copies both of his Will, and of such Epitaphs, as by sundrie his dearest friends, and other of his well willers were framed for him.… 1589. [No entry in Stationers’ register. Privately printed, London, Aug., 1589. “The Epistle Dedicatorie” is signed Mar-phoreus.] Rptd., Grosart, A. B., Nashe’s Works, vol. 1, 1883.

    Myrror for Martinists, A. [By Thomas Turswell.] A Myrror for Martinists, And all other Schismatiques, which in these dangerous daies doe breake the godlie unitie, and disturbe the Christian peace of the Church. Published by T. T. London Printed by John Wolfe. 1590. [Entered Stationers’ Hall, 22 Dec., 1589.]

    M. Some laid open in his coulers. [By Job Throckmorton?.] M. Some laid open in his coulers: Wherein the indifferent Reader may easily see, howe wretchedly and loosely he hath handeled the cause against M. Penri. Done by an Oxford man, to his friend in Cambridge. [No date or imprint. Signed on the last page, I. G. Printed by Waldegrave, at Rochelle, in the summer of 1589.]

    New Discovery, A. [Author unknown.] A New Discovery of old Pontificall Practises for the maintenance of the Prelates Authority and Hierarchy. Evinced By their Tyrannicall persecution of that Reverend, Learned, Pious, and worthy Minister of Jesus Christ, Mr John Udall, in the Raigne of Queen Elizabeth.… London, Printed by Stephen Bowtell. 1643.

    Pappe with a Hatchet. [By John Lyly.] Pappe with a Hatchet. Alias, A figge for my God sonne. Or Cracke me this nut. Or A Countrie cuffe, that is, a sound boxe of the eare, for the idiot Martin to hold his peace, seeing the patch will take no warning. Written by one that dares call a dog, a dog, and made to prevent Martins dog daies. Imprinted by John Anoke, and John Astile, for the Baylive of Withernam, cum privilegio perennitatis, and are to bee sold at the signe of the crab tree cudgell in thwackcoate lane. [No date, etc. Privately printed in London, 2nd or 3rd week in October, 1589. Dedicatory epistle signed “Double V.”] Rptd., John Petheram, op. cit., 1844; Saintsbury, G., Elizabethan and Jacobean Pamphlets, 1892; Bond, R. W., Lyly’s Works, vol. III, Oxford, 1902.

    Parte of a register, A. [Compilation.] A parte of a register, contayninge sundrie memorable matters, written by divers godly and learned in our time, which stande for, and desire the reformation of our Church, in Discipline and Ceremonies, accordinge to the pure worde of God, and the Lawe of our Lande.… See the contentes of this Booke on the next leafe. [No imprint. Printed 1592–3 at Middleburgh by Richard Schilders.]

    Pasquil’s Apology. [By Thomas Nashe?.] The First parte of Pasquils Apologie. Wherin he renders a reason to his friends of his long silence: and gallops the fielde with the Treatise of Reformation lately written by a fugitive, John Penrie. Printed where I was, and where I will bee readie by the helpe of God and my Muse, to send you the May-game of Martinisme for an intermedium, betweene the first and seconde part of the Apologie. Anno. Dom. 1590. [Privately printed by Charlewood (?) London.] Rptd., Grosart, A. B., Nashe’s Works, vol. 1, 1883; McKerrow, R. B., Nashe’s Works, vol. 1, 1904.

    Petition Directed, A. [Author unknown.] A petition directed to her most excellent Majestie, wherein is delivered 1. A meane howe to compound the civill dissention in the church of England. 2. A proofe that they who write for Reformation, doe not offend against the stat. of 23 Eliz. and therefore till matters bee compounded, deserve more favour.… [No printer’s name or date. 1591 or early in 1592.]

    Plaine Percevall. [By Richard Harvey?.] Plaine Percevall the Peace-Maker of England. Sweetly indevoring with his blunt persuasions to botch up a Reconciliation between Mar-ton and Mar-tother.… Printed in Broad-streete at the signe of the Pack-staffe. [Dedication signed P. P. P. No date, probably published early in 1590.] Rptd., John Petheram, op. cit., 1860.

    Returne of Pasquill, The. [By Thomas Nashe?.] The Returne of the renowned Cavaliero Pasquill of England, from the other side of the Seas, and his meeting with Marforius at London upon the Royall Exchange.… Printed by Pepper Allie. 1589. [Privately printed by Charlewood (?), London, Oct. 1589.] Rptd., Grosart, A. B., Nashe’s Works, vol. 1, 1883; McKerrow, R. B., Nashe’s Works, vol. 1, 1904.

    Sermon at Paul’s Cross, A. By Richard Bancroft. A sermon preached at Paules Crosse the 9. of Februarie, being the first Sunday in the Parleament, Anno 1588. by Richard Bancroft D. of Divinitie, and Chaplaine to the right Honorable Sir Christopher Hatton Knight L. Chancelor of England.… Imprinted at London, by E. B. for Gregorie Seton … Aldersgate. 1588. [Entered Stationers’ Hall, 3 March, 1589, A second and corrected impression extant.] Rptd., Bibliotheca scriptorum ecclesiae Anglicanae, 1709.

    Whip for an Ape, A. [By John Lyly?.] A whip for an Ape: Or Martin displaied. [No imprint or date. Privately printed in London, April 1589.] Another edition entitled: Rythmes against Martin Marre-Prelate (also without date or imprint). Rptd., Disraeli’s Quarrels of Authors, vol. III, London, 1814; The Bibliographical Miscellany, No, 5, 20 March, London, 1854; Bond, R. W., Lyly’s Works, vol. III (among Doubtful Works), 1902.

    It is an extremely difficult, if not impossible, task to determine the authorship of the various anti-Martinist productions. Hitherto, students of Nashe, without hesitation, have assigned to him the Pasquill tracts. R. B. McKerrow, however, whose edition of Nashe is now passing through the press, has expressed to the present writer the opinion that there is really no ground whatever for identifying Nashe with Pasquill. That Nashe was engaged one way or another in the anti-Martinist crusade is certain. We have his own word for it. (McKerrow’s Nashe, vol. 1, p. 270.) But it is as yet impossible to say anything definite as to the extent and nature of his contributions to the controversy. All that can be done here is to record, for what they are worth, a personal impression that Martins Months Minde and An Almond for a Parrat are by the same hand and that not the hand of Pasquill, and a suspicion that Bancroft may have lent his pen as well as his countenance to the making of these lampoons.

    iv. Modern Works

    Alnutt, W. A. The Marprelate Press, 1588–89. Bibliographica, vol. II, p. 172. 1896.

    Arber, Edward. An Introductory Sketch to the Martin Marprelate Controversy. English Scholar’s Library. 1895. Reprints, with introductions and notes, of Diotrephes, Demonstration of Discipline, The Epistle, Admonition to the People of England.

    Bond, R. W. The Complete Works of John Lyly. 3 vols. Oxford, 1902.

    Brook, B. The Lives of the Puritans. 3 vols. 1813.

    Dexter, H. M. The Congregationalism of the last three hundred years, as seen in its Literature, with special reference to certain recondite, neglected or disputed passages. New York, 1880.

    Disraeli, Isaac. Quarrels of Authors. 1814.

    Frere, W. H. The English Church in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. Vol. V of W. R. W. Stephens and W. Hunt’s History of the English Church. 1904.

    Grieve, Alex. J. The Aequity of an humble supplication by John Penry, with introduction, etc. Congregational Historical Society. 1905.

    Grosart, A. B. The works of T. Nashe. 1883.

    —— The works of G. Harvey. The Huth Library. 1884.

    Lee, Sidney. The Last Years of Elizabeth, in The Cambridge Modern History, vol. III, chap. X. Cambridge, 1904. Also in the D. of N. B. on Penry, Throckmorton, Udall, Waldegrave.

    Maskell, W. History of the Martin Marprelate Controversy. 1845. Also see Christian Remembrancer, vol. IX, Martin Marprelate, 1845.

    McKerrow, R. B. The Works of Thomas Nashe. 4 vols. 1904 ff.

    Neal, D. The History of the Puritans. 3 vols. 1837.

    Petheram, John. Reprints with introductions, etc. of The Epistle, The Epitome, Hay any worke for Cooper, Pappe with a Hatchet, An Almond for a Parrat, An Admonition to the People of England, and Plaine Percevall. Puritan Discipline Tracts. 1842–6. [Republished, 1860.]

    Pierce, William. The Date of the second Marprelate Tract. Journal of the Northamptonshire Nat. Hist. Soc., vol. XIII, No. 103, Sept. 1905. The Marprelate Tracts. Trans. of the Congregational Hist. Soc., vol. II, No. 2, May 1905.

    Powicke, F. J. Henry Barrowe, Separatist. 1900.

    Saintsbury, G. Elizabethan and Jacobean Pamphlets. (Pocket Library of Eng. Lit.) 1892.

    Strype, John. Annals of the Reformation. 4 vols. Oxford, 1824.

    —— Life of John Whitgift. 3 vols. Oxford, 1822.

    Waddington, John. John Penry the Pilgrim Martyr. 1854.

    Wilson, John Dover. A Date in the Marprelate controversy. The Library, Oct., 1907.

    Both in writing the chapter and in compiling this bibliography the author has been assisted by suggestions ungrudgingly offered by the Rev. William Pierce of Northampton, who is preparing an edition of the Marprelate tracts.

    [The concluding phases of the Greene, Harvey and Nashe controversy (see ante, pp. 449 ff.) may be read, by those who care to follow the various stages of a scurrilous and somewhat wearisome personal squabble, in the Huth library edition of the works of Greene (ed. Grosart), the Huth library edition of the works of Harvey (ed. Grosart) and the excellent edition of the works of Nashe now in course of publication (ed. McKerrow).

    The extant copies of Greene’s Quip for an upstart Courtier (licensed 20 July, 1592) do not contain the offensive passage which annoyed Gabriel Harvey (see Nashe’s Strange Newes, referred to below).

    In Pierce Penilesse His Supplication to the Divell (entered in the Stationers’ register 8 August, 1592), Nashe virulently attacked the Harveys, and (in some of the issues of the same pamphlet during 1592) spoke somewhat scurvily of Green’s Groats-worth of Wit as “a scald trivial lying pamphlet.”

    Greene died 3 September, 1592, and Gabriel Harvey published in the same year Foure Letters, and certaine Sonnets: Especially touching Robert Greene, and other parties, by him abused: But incidentally of divers excellent persons, and some matters of note. To all courteous mindes that will voutchsafe the reading. (Epistle Dedicatorie dated 16 September, licensed 4 December). The adjective applied on the title-page to the readers, and at the head of the Dedication, would seem to have been forgotten during the writing of the Letters, the author of Pierce Pennylesse being stigmatised as “the Divels Oratour by profession and his Dammes Poet by practise,” while the mildest terms applied to Greene are “A rakehell: A makeshift: A scribling foole”; and John Harvey’s Welcome to Robert Greene (a sonnet put in the mouth of Gabriel’s physician brother who had died in July, 1592) begins with the lines:
  • Come, fellow Greene, come to thy gaping grave:
  • Bid Vanity and Foolery farewell:
  • Thou over-long hast plaid the madbrain’d knave:
  • And over-loud hast rung the bawdy bell.
  • Vermine to vermine must repair at last …
  • These hungry wormes thinke longe for their repast.

  • Henry Chettle, the editor of Greene’s Groats-worth of Wit, in his Kind-Hart’s Dreame (licensed December, 1592) introduces the spirit of Greene, who asks Nashe to remember his wrongs. Nashe, in his preface to Greene’s Menaphon (1589), headed “To the Gentlemen Students of Both Universities,” had spoken appreciatively of Gabriel Harvey as a Latin poet; and, as we have seen, he had not scrupled to speak contemptuously of one of Greene’s pamphlets. But he was more than willing to take sides in a controversy, and, on 12 January, 159 2/3, a pamphlet was entered in the Stationers’ register entitled The Apologie of Pierce Pennylesse or strange newes of the intercepting certen letters, and a convoy of verses as they were goinge to victuall the Lowe Cuntries. The first six words of the entry are omitted from the title-page of the extant editions. “Gabriel, and not onely Gabriel, but Gabrielissime Gabriel, no Angell but Angelos, id est Nuntius” is called upon to “Behold, here stands he that will make it good, on thy foure Letters bodie, that thou art a filthy vaine foole” and the author proceeds to make good his boast, so far as words can accomplish his will. Harvey’s reply was Pierces Supererogation or A New Prayse of the Old Asse. A Preparative to certaine larger Discourses, intituled Nashes S. Fame (1593), and so the miserable game went on. For a time, Nashe wearied, or he found other work for his pen. He appears in pleasanter guise in the preface to his Christs Teares over Jerusalem Wherunto is annexed, a comparative admonition to London, (entered 8 September, 1593), in which he avows his laudable desire “to be at peace with all men, and make submissive amends where I have most displeased. Not basely feare-blasted or constraintively over-ruled, but purely pacifycatorie suppliant, for reconciliation and pardon doe I sue to the principallest of them, gainst whom I profest utter enmity. Even of Maister Doctor Harvey, I hartily desire the like.” True to his quarrelsome and selfish nature, Gabriel Harvey rejected the proffered olive-branch, stating, in A New Letter of Notable Contents (dated 16 September, 1593), his unwillingness “to be coosened with the legerdemaine of a jugling convert … what say you, to a Spring of rankest Villany in February: and a Harvest of ripest Divinity in May?” His offered hand being refused, Nashe set to work to compose a fresh preface to Christs Teares (1594) “whereas I thought to make my foe a bridge of golde, or faire words, to flie by, he hath used it as a high way to invade me.… Henceforth, with the forenamed Machiavel, for an unrefutable principle I will hold it, that he is utterly undone which seekes by new good turnes to roote out old grudges.… Was never whore of Babylon so betrapt with abhominations as his stile (like the dog-house in the fields) is pestred with stinking filth” and so on and so on. Not content with this, Nashe published in 1596 “Have with you to Saffron-Walden, or, Gabriell Harveys Hunt is up. Containing a full answere to the eldest sonne of the Halter-maker. Or, Nashe his Confutation of the sinfull Doctor. The Mott or Posie, instead of Omne tulit punctum: Pacis fiducia nunquam. As much to say, as I sayd I would speake with him.” Here, at last, the reader gains some reward for turning over reams of sheer vituperation. The Epistle Dedicatorie to the “speciall supervisor of all excrementall superfluities for Trinitie Colledge in Cambridge,” in other words, to the college barber, is a delightful piece of fooling. The rest of the pamphlet is an admirable example of Nashe’s force as a satirist, and is, perhaps, the best of contemporary lampoons.

    Harvey’s reply, The Trimming of Thomas Nashe, Gentleman, by the high-tituled patron Don Richardo de Medico campo, Barber Chirurgion to Trinitie Colledge in Cambridge, was published in the following year and ended the controversy, for, before the close of the century, “all Nashe’s bookes and Dr. Harvey’s bookes” were ordered, by those in authority, to “be taken, wheresoever they may be, and that none of the same bookes be ever printed hereafter.” A. R. W.]