The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume IX. From Steele and Addison to Pope and Swift.

I. Defoe—The Newspaper and the Novel


For the history of English journalism prior to and contemporary with Defoe, see Nichols, J., Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century, vol. 1, pp. 6, 312; vol. IV, pp. 33–97; Hunt, F. Knight, The Fourth Estate, 1850; Andrews, A., History of British Journalism, 1859; Fox Bourne, H. R., English Newspapers, 1887, vol. 1, pp. 1–130; Ames, J. Griffith, The English Literary Periodical of Morals and Manners, Mt. Vernon, Ohio, 1904; and the chief authority for the earliest period (to 1666), Williams, J. B., A History of English Journalism to the Foundation of the Gazette, 1908.

For the history of English fiction prior to and contemporary with Defoe, see Dunlop, J. C., History of Prose Fiction, ed. Wilson, H., 1896, vol. II, chaps. IX–XIV; Tuckerman, Bayard, A History of English Prose Fiction, New York, 1882; Raleigh, Sir W., The English Novel, 1894; Cross, W. L., The Development of the English Novel, New York, 1899; Millar, J. H., The Mid-Eighteenth Century, Edinburgh, 1902; and Morgan, Charlotte E., The Rise of the Novel of Manners, Columbia University Studies in English, New York, 1911, which contains a full bibliography


For L’Estrange’s life, see a satisfactory article by Sir Sidney Lee in Dictionary of National Biography, vol. XXXIII. For information as to his writings, see this article; also Watt, R., Bibliotheca Britannica, vol. 1, Edinburgh, 1824; Halkett and Laing, Dictionary of Anonymous and Pseudonymous Literature, 4 vols., Edinburgh, 1882–8.

A. Original Writings

(1) To a Gentleman, a Member of the Honourable House of Commons [a signed broadside]. July 8, 1646. (2) L’Estrange His Appeale from the Court Martiall to the Parliament, etc. April, 1647. Rptd in Truth and Loyalty Vindicated, pp. 38–45. (3) Lestrange His Vindication to Kent, etc. 1649. (4–23) The Declaration of the City, to the men at Westminster.—The Engagement and Remonstrance of the City of London. December 12, 1659.—The Final Protest, and Sense of the City.—The Resolve of the City. December 23, 1659.—A Free Parliament Proposed by the City to the Nation. Dated Dec. 6, 1659, but apparently combined with a letter To the Honorable the Commissioners of the City of London, for the Liberties and Rights of the English Nation, which is dated Jan. 3, 1659 (i.e. 1660). —A Plain Case. January 24, 1659.—To His Excellency, General Monck. A Letter from the Gentlemen of Devon in Answer to his Lordships of January 23 to them directed from Leicester. D. Jan. 18, 1659.—The Sense of the Army. D. Feb. 2, 1659.—The Citizens Declaration for a Free Parliament (same date).—For his Excellency Generall Monck. D. Feb. 4, 1659.—A Narrative. D., without title, Feb. 12, 1659.—A Word in Season, To General Monck (with his officers, etc.), To the City, and To the Nation. D. February 18, 1659.—A Seasonable Word—Quære for Quære, etc.—No Fool to the Old Fool. D. March 16, 1659.—A Paper against the Faction. D., without title, March 24, 1659.—A Necessary and Seasonable Caution, Concerning Elections. A Sober Answer to a Jugling Pamphlet, Entituled, A Letter Intercepted, etc. D. March 27, 1660.—Treason Arraigned, In Answer to Plain English. 1660.—An Answer to An Alarum to the Armies of England, Scotland and Ireland. D. April 4, 1660. [Nos. 4–23, together in some copies with Nos. 24 and 25, are rptd. in No. 26, L’Estrange His Apology, and in almost every case are said to have been ptd.] (24) No Blinde Guides, In Answer To a seditious Pamphlet of J. Milton’s, Intituled Brief Notes upon a late Sermon, etc. April 20, 1660. (25) Physician Cure thy Self: or, an Answer To a Seditious Pamphlet, Entitled Eye-Salve for the English Army, etc.… April 23, 1660. (26) L’Estrange His Apology: with A Short View of Some Late and Remarkable Transactions, etc. 1660. (27) An Appeal in the Case Of the late King’s Party. 1660. (28) A Plea for a Limited Monarchy, etc. 1660. Rptd. in Harleian Miscellany, vol. 1. 1744. (29) A Caveat to the Cavaliers.… Dedicated to the Author [James Howell] of A Cordial for the Cavaliers. 1661. (30) A Modest Plea Both for the Caveat, and The Author of It. With some Notes upon Mr. James Howell, etc. August, 1661. (31) Interest Mistaken, or, The Holy Cheat.… By way of Observation upon a Treatise, Entituled, The Interest of England in the Matter of Religion, etc. 1661. (32) The Relaps’d Apostate: or Notes upon A Presbyterian Pamphlet, Entituled, A Petition for Peace, etc. November, 1661. (33) To the Right Hon. Edward Earl of Clarendon, Lord High Chancellor of England: The Humble Apology of Roger L’Estrange. December 3, 1661. (34) State Divinity; or a Supplement to The Relaps’d Apostate, etc. Dec. 4, 1661. (35) A Memento: Directed To all Those That Truly Reverence the Memory of King Charles the Martyr; And as Passionately wish the Honour … of his Royall Successour … Charles the II. The First Part. April, 1662. New ed. omitting the three last chapters and entitled A Memento treating of the Rise, Progress, and Remedies of Sedition. 1682. (36) Truth and Loyalty Vindicated, From the Reproaches and Clamours of Mr. Edward Bagshaw, etc. June 7, 1662. (37) A Whipp For the Schismaticall Animadverter [Bagshaw] Upon the Bishop of Worcester’s Letter, etc. February, 1662. (38) Toleration Discuss’d. 1663. (39) Considerations and Proposals In Order to the Regulation of the Press: together with Diverse Instances of Treasonous, and Seditious Pamphlets, Proving the Necessity thereof. June 3, 1663. (40) The Intelligencer. Published for the satisfaction and information of the people. With Privilege. From Aug. 31, 1663, on Mondays, to January 29, 1666. (41) The Newes. Published for the satisfaction and information of the people. With Privilege. From September 3, 1663, on Thursdays, until January 29, 1666. [Beginning with 1664, these two periodicals were numbered and paged together.] (42) Publick Intelligence. With sole Privilege. [A single number.] Nov. 28, 1665. (43) Publick Advertisements (with Privilege). [One number (?).] June 25, 1666. (44) A Discourse of the Fishery, etc. 1674. (45) The Parallel or, An Account of the Growth of Knavery, Under the Pretext of Arbitrary Government and Popery. With some Observations upon a Pamphlet [by Andrew Marvell], Entitled, An Account of the Growth of Popery, etc. 1677. 3rd ed., 1681, with a new title, An Account of the Growth of Knavery, under the Pretended Fears of Arbitrary Government, and Popery. With A Parallel betwixt the Reformers of 1677 and those of 1641, etc. (46) Tyranny and Popery Lording it Over the Consciences, Lives, Liberties and Estates both of King and People. 1678. (47) The History of the Plot: Or a Brief and Historical Account of the Charge and Defence of Edward Coleman, Esq. [and 16 others] … By Authority. 1679. (48) An Answer to the Appeal [by Charles Blount] from the Country to the City. 1679. (49) The Case Put, Concerning the Succession of his Royal Highness the Duke of York. With Some Observations upon The Political Catechism, And Two or Three Other Seditious Libels. 1679. (50) The Reformed Catholique: or, the True Protestant. 1679. (51) The Free-born Subject: or, the Englishman’s Birthright, etc. 1679. (52) Citt and Bumpkin. In a Dialogue over A Pot of Ale, concerning Matters of Religion and Government. 1680. (53) Citt and Bumpkin. The Second Part. Or, a Learned Discourse upon Swearing And Lying, and other Laudable Qualities tending to a Thorow Reformation. 1680. (54) A Seasonable Memorial in some Historical Notes upon the Liberties of the Presse and Pulpit, etc. 1680. (55) A Further Discovery of the Plot, etc. 1680. (56) L’Estrange’s Narrative of the Plot. Set Forth for the Edification Of His Majesties Liege People. 1680. (57) The Casuist Uncas’d in a Dialogue Betwixt Richard and Baxter, With a Moderator Between Them For Quietnesse Sake. 1680. (58) Discovery upon Discovery, In Defence of Dr. Oates against B. W’s Libellous Vindication of him, in his Additional Discovery; and in Justification of L’Estrange against the same Libell. In a Letter to Doctor Titus Oates. 1680. (59) A Letter to Miles Prance. 1680. (60) L’Estrange’s Case In a Civil Dialogue Betwixt ’Zekiel and Ephraim. 1680. (61) A Short Answer to a whole Litter of Libels. 1680. [Some copies read “Libellers.”] (62) To the Rev. Dr. Thomas Ken. February 1, 1680. (63) The Character of a Papist in Masquerade; Supported by Authority and Experience. In Answer to the Character of a Popish Successor. 1681. (64) A Reply To the Second Part of the Character of a Popish Successor. 1681. (65) L’Estrange his Appeal Humbly Submitted to the Kings most Excellent Majesty And the Three Estates Assembled in Parliament. 1681. (66) L’Estrange No Papist: In Answer to a Libel Entituled L’Estrange a Papist, etc. In a Letter to a Friend. With Notes and Animadversions upon Miles Prance, Silver-smith, etc. 1681. (67) The Observator, etc. April 13, 1681, to Mar. 19, 1686–87. (68) The Dissenter’s Sayings, In Requital for L’Estrange’s Sayings. Published in Their Own Words, for the Information of the People. 1681. (69) Dissenters Sayings. The Second Part … Dedicated to the Grand-Jury of London, August 29, 1681. 1681. (70) Notes upon Stephen College. Grounded Principally upon his own Declarations and Confessions, etc. 1681. (71) The Reformation Reformed; or a Short History of New-fashioned Christians, etc. 1681. (72) A Word concerning Libels and Libellers, Humbly Presented To the Right Hon. Sir John Moor, Lord-Mayor of London, etc. 1681. (73) The Shammer Shamm’d: In a Plain Discovery, Under Young Tong’s Own Hand, of a Designe to Trepann L’Estrange Into a Pretended Subornation against the Popish Plot. 1681. (74) The Accompt clear’d: In Answer to a Libel Intituled A True Account from Chichester, etc. 1682. (75) The Apostate Protestant. A Letter to a Friend, occasioned By the late Reprinting of a Jesuites Book. About Succession to the Crown of England. Pretended to have been written by R. Doleman. July, 1682. (76) Remarks on the Growth and Progress of Non-Conformity, etc. 1682. (77) Considerations upon a Printed Sheet Entituled the Speech Of the Late Lord Russel to the Sheriffs: together With the Paper delivered by Him to Them … on July 21, 1683. [Rptd by Clarendon Historical Soc., 1882.] (78) The Observator Defended. By the Author of the Observators, etc 1685. (79) An Answer to a Letter to a Dissenter [Halifax’s], Upon Occasion of His Majesties Late Gracious Declaration of Indulgence. 1687. (80–82) A Brief History of the Times, etc. 3 parts. 1687–8. (83) A Reply to the Reasons of the Oxford Clergy against Addressing. 168–. [Rptd in Scott’s Somers Tracts, vol. IX, 1809.] (84) Two Cases submitted to Consideration, etc. 1687.

L’Estrange wrote the Notice to the Reader in an edition of Fairfax’s Godfrey of Bulloigne, 1687; and, in 1715, A Key to Hudibras, attributed to him, was printed in Butler’s Posthumous Works.

[L’Estrange has been frequently credited with works which he, probably or certainly, did not write.]

See, also, Le Breton, A., Le Roman au dix-huitième Siècle, Paris, 1898; Texte, Joseph, Rousseau et les origines du Cosmopolitisme Littéraire, Paris, 1895; Warner, G. F., An Unpublished Political Paper by Daniel De Foe, Engl. Hist. Rev., January, 1907.

B. Translations

(1) The “Visions” of Quevedo. 1667. (2) Five Love Letters from a [Portuguese] Nun to a Cavalier, from the French. 1678. (3) The Gentleman ’Pothecary; a true Story done out of the French. 1678. (4) Tully’s Offices. 1680. (5) Cardinal J. Bona’s “A Guide to Eternity” (from the Latin). 2nd ed. 1680. (6) Seneca’s Morals by way of Abstract. 5th ed. 1693. (7) Twenty Select Colloquies of Erasmus, etc. 1680. With two additional colloquies, 1689. (8) An Apology for the Protestants; Being A full Justification of their Departure from The Church of Rome.… Done out of French into English. 1681. (9) The Fables of Aesop and other Eminent Mythologists; with Morals and Reflexions. 1692. (10) Five Love Letters written by a Cavalier in Answer [to No. (2) above]. 1694. (11) Terence’s Comedies made English, etc. [revised by J. Eachard and L’Estrange]. 2nd ed. 1698. (12) Fables and Storyes Moralized. Being a Second Part of the Fables of Aesop and other Eminent Mythologists. 1699. (13) The Works of Flavius Josephus. 1702. (14) The Spanish Pole-Cat: or, the Adventures of Seniora Rufina, etc. [from the Spanish of A. del Castillo Solorzano, begun by L’Estrange and finished by Ozell]. 1717. Reissued in 1727 as Spanish Amusements, etc.


The chief biographies of Defoe are those by Chalmers, George (1790), which marks the beginning of serious study of the man and his works; Wilson, W. (3 vols. 1830), still valuable, particularly as a history of Defoe’s times; Lee, W., in vol. 1 of Life and Newly Discovered Writings of Daniel Defoe (1869), which contains much new material badly handled and fixes Defoe’s bibliography at the point at which it has stood almost to the present time; Minto, W., in English Men of Letters (1879), still valuable for the critical acumen displayed; Wright, T. (1894), which contains new material, but occasionally indulges in extravagant theories. Other biographers on a larger or a smaller scale, such as Towers, Dr. Hazlitt, William, the younger, Forster, John, Morley, Henry, and Whitten, W. (1900), deserve to be mentioned, as well as Stephen, Sir Leslie, and, for a good essay, Rannie, D. W. (Oxford, 1890). Cf. also, Lamb, Charles, Works, 1, Miscellaneous Prose, ed. Lucas, E., 1903; Dennis, John, Studies in English Literature, 1883; York Powell, F., Occasional Writings, ed. Elton, O., 1906. The most important recent student of Defoe is Aitken, George A., in his contributions to periodicals and his introductions to his edition of Defoe’s novels. Cf. four articles, chiefly bibliographical, contributed by the present writer to The Nation (New York, 1907–8).

No edition of Defoe’s writings has yet been worthy of the name. In 1703 and 1705, he collected some of his tracts and poems, but soon his pen outran the capacity of his contemporaries to identify his work, and there was comparatively little interest in him as a writer from his death to the end of the eighteenth century. In 1810, the edition of the novels with which the name of Scott is connected appeared in 12 vols. Thirty years later, Hazlitt, William, the younger, began an elaborate edition which reached only three volumes. Simultaneously, an edition in 20 vols. was printed at Oxford. This, despite serious defects, remains the only edition giving access to some of the more important miscellaneous books. It is, however, utterly inadequate on the side of Defoe’s political writings. There is also an edition in 6 vols. in Bohn’s British Classics (1854–5); but the novels and shorter narratives and a few tracts may now be read in the excellent edition of the Romances and Narratives in 16 vols. (1895–6) due to the care of Aitken, G. A. An edition but slightly differing from this in contents was prepared for American readers in 1903 by Maynadier, G. H. (16 vols. New York).

A. Writings

[In chronological order, except where otherwise indicated. When ascertainable the actual date of publication is always given, not the date on the titlepage.]

A New Discovery of an Old Intreague: A Satyr, etc. 1691.

Ode to the Athenian Society. In Gildon’s History of the Athenian Society. 1692.

An Essay upon Projects. 1697. Reissued, 1702.

The Character of the late Dr. Samuel Annesley, by Way of Elegy. 1697.

Some Reflections On a Pamphlet lately Publish’d, Entituled, An Argument Shewing that A Standing Army, etc. 1697.

An Argument Shewing, That a Standing Army, With Consent of Parliament, Is not Inconsistent with a Free Government, etc. 1698.

An Enquiry into the Occasional Conformity of Dissenters in Cases of Preferment. With a Preface to the Lord Mayor. 1698.

An Enquiry into the Occasional Conformity of Dissenters. With a Preface to Mr. How. 1700. 2nd ed. of the above, with another preface.

A Brief Reply to the History of Standing Armies in England, etc. 1698.

The Poor Man’s Plea … for a Reformation of Manners, etc. 1698.

Lex Talionis: or, an Enquiry into The Most Proper Ways to Prevent the Persecution of the Protestants in France. 1698.

The Pacificator. A Poem. 1700.

The Two Great Questions Consider’d, etc. 1700.

The Two Great Questions Further Considered, etc. 1700.

The Six distinguishing Characters of a Parliament man, etc. 1701.

The Danger of the Protestant Religion Considered from the Present Prospect of a Religious War in Europe. 1701.

The Free-Holders Plea against Stock-Jobbing Elections of Parliament Men. 1701.

The True-Born Englishman. A Satyr. 1701. First ed. dated 1700.

Tutchin, John. The Foreigners. A Poem. 1700.

A Letter to Mr. How, etc. 1701.

Considerations upon Corrupt Elections of Members To Serve in Parliament. 1701.

The Villainy of Stock-Jobbers Detected, etc. 1701.

The Succession to the Crown of England, Considered. 1701.

Legion’s Address. 1701.

The History of the Kentish Petition. 1701.

The Present State of Jacobitism Considered, etc. 1701.

Reasons against a War with France, etc. 1701.

The Original Power of the Collective Body of the People of England, Examined and Asserted. 1701.

Legion’s New Paper, etc. 1702.

The Mock Mourners. A Satyr, By Way of Elegy on King William. 1702.

Reformation of Manners, A Satyr. 1702.

A New Test of the Church of England’s Loyalty, etc. 1702.

Good Advice to the Ladies, etc. 1702. [Verse.] Reissued as A Timely Caution; or Good Advice, etc. 1728.

The Spanish Descent. A Poem. 1702.

An Enquiry into Occasional Conformity. Shewing that the Dissenters Are no Way Concern’d in it. 1702. Reissued as An Enquiry into the Occasional Conformity Bill. 1704.

The Shortest Way with the Dissenters: or, Proposals for the Establishment of the Church. 1702.

A Brief Explanation of A late Pamphlet, entitul’d, The shortest Way with the Dissenters. 1703.

Tutchin, J. A Dialogue between A Dissenter and the Observator. 1703.

King William’s Affection to the Church of England, Examin’d. 1703.

More Reformation. A Satyr upon Himself By the Author of the True Born English-Man. 1703.

A true Collection of the Writings of the Author of the True-Born English-Man. 1703. [This was preceded by a spurious collection.]

The Shortest Way to Peace and Union. 1703.

A Hymn to the Pillory. 1703.

The Case of Dissenters As Affected by the Late Bill Proposed in Parliament, For Preventing Occasional Conformity. 1703.

The Sincerity of the Dissenters Vindicated, From the Scandal of Occasional Conformity, with Some Considerations on a late Book, Entitul’d, Moderation a Vertue. 1703.

An Enquiry into the Case of Mr. Asgil’s General Translation, etc. 1703.

A Challenge of Peace, Address’d to the Whole Nation, etc. 1703.

The Liberty of Episcopal Dissenters in Scotland, as it stands by the Laws there, truly Represented. 1703.

Some Remarks On the First Chapter in Dr. Davenant’s Essays. 1703. Reissued as Original Right … Being an Answer to the first Chapter, etc., 1704.

Peace without Union. By Way of Reply to Sir H[umphrey] M[ackworht]’s Peace at Home. 1703.

The Dissenters Answer to the High-Church Challenge. 1704.

An Essay on the Regulation of the Press. 1704.

A Serious Inquiry into this Grand Question: Whether a Law to prevent the Occasional Conformity of Dissenters would not be Inconsistent with the Act of Toleration, etc. 1704.

The Parallel: or, Persecution of Protestants the Shortest Way to prevent the Growth of Popery in Ireland. 1704.

Royal Religion; Being some Enquiry after the Piety of Princes, etc. 1704.

Moderation Maintain’d, in Defence of a Compassionate Enquiry Into the Causes of the Civil War, etc. In a Sermon Preached … by White Kennet, etc. 1704.

The Christianity of the High-Church Consider’d, etc. 1704.

More Short-Ways with the Dissenters. 1704.

The Dissenters Misrepresented and Represented. 1704.

A New Test of the Church of England’s Honesty. 1704.

The Storm: or, a Collection Of the most Remarkable Casualties and Disasters which happen’d in the Late Dreadful Tempest, both by Sea and Land. 1704.

An Elegy on the Author of the True-Born-English-Man. With an Essay On the late Storm. 1704.

A Hymn to Victory. 1704.

The Protestant Jesuite Unmask’d, etc. 1704.

Giving Alms no Charity, and Employing the Poor A Grievance to the Nation, etc. 1704.

Queries upon the Bill agaisnt Occasional Conformity. 1704.

The Double Welcome. A Poem to the Duke of Marlbro. 1705.

Persecution Anatomiz’d: or, An Answer [to 4 questions]. 1705.

The Consolidator: or, Memoirs of Sundry Transactions from the World in the Moon, etc. 1705.

The Experiment: or, the Shortest Way with the Dissenters Exemplified. Being the Case of Mr. Abraham Gill, etc. 1705. Reissued as The Modesty and Sincerity of those Worthy English Gentlemen, commonly called High Churchmen, etc. 1706.

A Journey to the World in the Moon, etc. 1705.

A Letter from the Man in the Moon, to the Author of The true Born Englishman, etc. 1705.

A Second and more strange Journey to the World in the Moon, etc. 1705.

Advice to all Parties. 1705.

The Dyet of Poland. A Satyr. 1705.

The High-Church Legeon: or, the Memorial Examin’d, etc. 1705.

The Ballance: or, A New Test of the High-Fliers of all Sides, etc. 1705.

A Second Volume of the Writings of the Author of the True-Born Englishman, etc. 1705.

Party-Tyranny: or, An Occasional Bill in Miniature; As now Practised in Carolina, etc. 1705.

An Answer to the Lord Haversham’s Speech. 1705.

A Hymn to Peace, etc. 1706.

A Reply to a Pamphlet Entituled, the L[or]d H[aversham]’s Vindication of his Speech. 1706.

The Case of Protestant Dissenters in Carolina, etc. 1706.

Remarks on the Bill to Prevent Frauds Committed by Bankrupts, etc. 1706.

Remarks on the Letter to the Author of the State-Memorial. 1706.

An Essay At Removing National Prejudices against a Union with Scotland. 1706.

The same. Part II. 1706.

The same. Part III. Edinburgh, 1706.

A Fourth Essay At Removing National Prejudices, etc. Edinburgh, 1706.

A Fifth Essay At Removing National Prejudices, etc. Edinburgh, 1707.

Two Great Questions Considered … Being A Sixth Essay At Removing, etc. Edinburgh, 1707.

Preface to De Laune’s Plea for the Non-Conformists, etc. 1706.

This is said to have been reprinted by Defoe in 1710 as Dr. Sacheverell’s Recantation, etc.

A Sermon Preach’d by Mr. Daniel Defoe: On the fitting up of Dr. Burges’s late Meeting-House, etc. 1706.

A True Relation of the Apparition of one Mrs. Veal … to one Mrs. Bargrave at Canterbury, etc. 1706.

This tract was often printed with Drelincourt’s The Christian’s Defence against the Fears of Death.

Jure Divino: A Satyr. In Twelve Books. 1706.

Observations on the Fifth Article of the Treaty of Union, etc. Edinburgh, 1706.

The Vision, A Poem. Edinburgh, 1706. [Erroneously ascribed to the earl of Haddington.]

A Reply to the Scot’s Answer, To the British Vision. Edinburgh, 1706.

A Short Letter to the Glasgow-Men. Edinburgh, 1706.

The Rabbler Convicted, etc. Edinburgh, 1706.

Caledonia, A Poem in Honour of Scotland, and the Scots Nation. Edinburgh, 1706.

An Enquiry into the Disposal of the Equivalent. Edinburgh, 1706.

The Dissenters in England Vindicated from some Reflections in a late Pamphlet called Lawful Prejudices, etc. Edinburgh, 1707.

A Short View of the Present State of the Protestant Religion in Britain, etc. Edinburgh, 1707. 2nd ed. as The Dissenters Vindicated; or, a Short View, etc. London, 1707.

A Modest Vindication of the Present Ministry, etc. 1707. [Against lord Haversham.]

A Voice from the South, etc. Edinburgh (?), 1707.

The Trade of Britain Stated, etc. Edinburgh, 1707.

Dyers News Examined as to his Sweddish Memorial against the Review. Edinburgh, 1707.

De Foe’s Answer, To Dyers Scandalous News Letter. Edinburgh, 1707.

An Historical Account of The Bitter Sufferings, and Melancholly Circumstances of the Episcopal Church in Scotland, etc. Edinburgh, 1707. Also, same place and date, as Presbyterian Persecution Examined. With an Essay on the Nature and Necessity of Toleration in Scotland.

Reflections on the Prohibition Act, etc. 1708.

Advice to the Electors of Great Britain; occasioned by the intended Invasion from France. 1708.

An Answer to a Paper concerning Mr. De Foe, against his History of the Union. Edinburgh, 1708.

The Scots Narrative Examin’d; or, the Case of the Episcopal Ministers in Scotland Stated, etc. 1709.

The History of the Union of Great Britain. Edinburgh, 1709. As a Collection of Original Papers and Material Transactions, Concerning the late Great Affair of the Union, etc. 1711, 1712.

A Commendatory Sermon Preach’d November the 4th, 1709. Being the Brith-Day of King William of Glorious Memory. 1709.

Advertisement From Daniel De Foe, To Mr. Clark. 1710.

A Letter from Captain Tom to the Mobb, Now Rais’d for Dr. Sacheverell. 1710.

A Speech without Doors. 1710.

Instructions from Rome, In Favour of the Pretender, Inscribed to the most Elevated Don Sacheverellio, etc. 1710.

A New Test of the Sence of the Nation, etc. 1710.

An Essay upon Publick Credit. 1710.

An Essay upon Loans. 1710.

A Word Against a New Election. 1710.

A Supplement to the Faults on Both Sides. 1710.

R[ogue]s on Both Sides. 1711.

Atalantis Major. Edinburgh, 1711.

A Spectator’s Address to the Whigs, on the Occasion of the Stabbing Mr. Harley. 1711.

A Letter to the Whigs, etc. 1711. [In part a reprint of the preceding.]

The Secret History of the October Club. Part 1. 1711.

The same. Part II. 1711.

The British Visions: or, Isaac Bickerstaff’s Twelve Prophecies for the Year 1711. 1711.

The Succession of Spain Consider’d. 1711.

Eleven Opinions about Mr. H[arle]y; with Observations. 1711.

An Essay upon the Trade to Africa. 1711.

The Re-Representation: or, a Modest Search After the Great Plunderers of the Nation. 1711.

A True Account of the Design and Advantages of the South-Sea Trade. 1711.

A Speech for Mr. D[unda]sse Younger of Arnistown. 1711.

An Essay on the South-Sea Trade. 1711.

The True State of the Case between the Government and the Creditors of the Navy. 1711.

Reasons why this Nation Ought to put a Speedy End to this Expensive War. 1711.

The Ballance of Europe: or, an Enquiry into the Respective Dangers Of giving the Spanish Monarchy to the Emperour As well as to King Philip, etc. 1711.

Armageddon: or, the Necessity of Carrying on the War, etc. 1711.

An Essay At a Plain Exposition of that Difficult Phrase A Good Peace. 1711.

Reasons Why a Party Among us, and also among the Confederates, Are obstinately bent against a Treaty of Peace with the French at this time. 1711.

The Felonious Treaty. 1711.

A Defence of the Allies and the Late Ministry: or, Remarks on the Tories New Idol.… The Conduct of the Allies, etc. 1711.

An Essay on the History of Parties, and Persecution in Britain. 1711.

No Queen: or, No General. An Argument Proving the Necessity.… to Displace the D—of M[arl]borough. 1712.

The Conduct of Parties in England, More especially of those Whigs Who now appear Against the New Ministry, and a Treaty of Peace. 1712.

Plunder and Bribery Further Discover’d, in a Memorial Humbly Offer’d To the British Parliament. 1712.

Peace or Poverty. Being A Serious Vindication of Her Majesty and Her Ministers Consenting to a Treaty for a General Peace. 1712.

No Punishment No Government: and No Danger Even in the Worst Designs. 1712.

The Highland Visions or the Scots New Prophecy: Declaring in Twelve Visions what Strange Things shall come to Pass in the Year 1712. 1712.

Wise as Serpents: Being an Enquiry into the Present Circumstances of the Dissenters, etc. 1712.

The Present State of Parties in Great Britain. 1712.

Reasons against Fighting. 1712.

A Farther Search into the Conduct of the Allies, and the late Ministry, as to Peace and War. 1712.

The Present Negotiations of Peace Vindicated from the Imputation of Trifling. 1712.

The Validity of the Renunciations of Former Powers Enquir’d into, and the Present Renunciation of the Duke of Anjou, Impartially Consider’d, etc. 1712.

An Enquiry into the Danger and Consequences of a War with the Dutch. 1712.

The Justice and Necessity of a War with Holland, In Case the Dutch Do not come into Her Majesty’s Measures, Stated and Examined. 1712.

An Enquiry into the Real Interest of Princes in the Persons of their Ambassadors, etc. 1712.

A Seasonable Warning And Caution Against the Insinuations Of Papists and Jacobites In Favour of the Pretender. 1712.

Hannibal at the Gates; or, the Progress of Jacobitism. 1712.

A Strict Enquiry Into the Circumstances of a late Duel [Hamilton and Mohun], With some Account of the Persons Concern’d on Both Sides, etc. 1713.

Reasons against the Succession of the House of Hanover. 1713.

Not[tingh]am Politicks Examined. Being An Answer to … Observations upon the State of the Nation. 1713.

The Second-Sighted Highlander … Being Ten New Visions for the Year 1713. 1713.

A Brief Account of the Present State of the African Trade. 1713.

And What if the Pretender should come? 1713.

An Answer to a Question That No body thinks of, Viz. But what if the Queen should die? 1713.

An Essay on the Treaty of Commerce with France. 1713.

Union and No Union. Being an Enquiry Into the Grievances of the Scots, etc. 1713.

A General History of Trade, and Especially Consider’d as it Respects the British Commerce, etc. 4 Parts. 1713.

A Letter from a Member of the House of Commons to his Friend in the Country, Relating to the Bill of Commerce, etc. 1713.

Considerations upon the Eighth and Ninth Articles of the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation, etc. 1713.

Memoirs Of Count Tariff, etc. 1713.

Some Thoughts upon the Subject of Commerce with France. 1713.

A Letter To the Dissenters. 1713.

Whigs turn’d Tories, and Hanoverian Tories, From their Avow’d Principles, prov’d Whigs, etc. 1713.

A Letter to the Whigs, Expostulating with Them upon Their Present Conduct. 1714.

The Scots Nation and Union Vindicated; from the Reflections cast on them, in an Infamous Libel. Entitl’d, The Publick Spirit of the Whigs, etc. 1714.

A View of the Real Danger of the Protestant Succession. 1714.

Reasons for Im[peaching] the L[or]d H[igh] T[reasure]r, And some others of the P[resent] M[inistry]. 1714.

A Letter to Mr. Steele, Occasion’d by his Letter to a Member of Parliament, Concerning The Bill for preventing the Growth of Schism. By a Member of the Church of England. 1714.

The Remedy Worse than the Disease: or, Reasons Against Passing the Bill For Preventing the Growth of Schism. 1714.

A Brief Survey of the Legal Liberties of the Dissenters, etc. 1714.

The Weakest go to the Wall, or the Dissenters Sacrific’d by all Parties. 1714.

Advice To the People of Great Britain, with Respect to Two Important Points in their Future Conduct, etc. 1714.

The Secret History of the White-Staff, etc. Part I. 1714.

The same. Part II. 1714.

The same. Part III. 1715.

The three parts were included in one pamphlet, 1715.

Impeachment, or No Impeachment. 1714.

A Secret History of One Year. 1714.

Strike while the Iron’s Hot, or, Now is the Time To Be Happy. 1714.

The Secret History of State Intrigues In the Management of the Scepter, In the late Reign. 1715. Also published as The Secret History of the Scepter, or the Court Intrigues in the Late Reign.

The Secret History of the Secret History of the White Staff, Purse And Mitre. Written by a Person of Honour. 1715.

Memoirs of the Conduct of Her Late Majesty And Her Last Ministry, Relating to the Separate Peace with France. By the Right Honourable the Countess of—. 1715.

Treason Detected, in an Answer to that Traiterous and Malicious Libel, Entitled, English Advice to the Freeholders of England. 1715.

A Reply to a Traiterous Libel, Entituled, English Advice to the Freeholders of England. [By bishop Atterbury?] 1715.

A Letter from a Country Whig, to his Friend in London; Wherein Appears, Who are the Truest Friends To their King and Country. 1715.

A Letter to a Merry Young Gentleman, Intituled, Tho. Burnett, Esq.; In Answer to One writ by him to the Right Honourable the Earl of Halifax, etc. 1715. [Attributed, also, to William Oldisworth.]

Burnet and Bradbury, or the Confederacy of the Press and the Pulpit for the Blood of the Last Ministry. 1715.

A Friendly Epistle By Way of Reproof From one of the People called Quakers, to Thomas Bradbury, A Dealer in many Words. 1715.

An Appeal to Honour and Justice, Tho’ it be of His Worst Enemies. By Daniel De Foe. Being A True Account of his Conduct in Publick Affairs. 1715.

Some Reasons Offered by the Late Ministry In Defence of their Administration. 1715.

The Folly and Vanity of Impeaching the Late Ministry Consider’d. 1715.

A Remonstrance from some Country Whigs to a Member of a Secret Committee. 1715.

The Fears of the Pretender Turn’d into the Fears of Debauchery … with a Hint to Richard Steele, Esq. 1715.

A Sharp Rebuke From one of the People called Quakers to Henry Sacheverell, The High-Priest of Andrew’s Holborn. 1715.

The Family Instructor. In Three Parts. 1715. In Two Parts, vol. II, 1718.

The Second-Sighted Highlander. Being Four Visions of the Eclypse, And something of what may follow. 1715.

Some Methods To supply the Defects Of the late Peace, without entring into a New War. 1715.

A Second Letter from a Country Whig, etc. 1715. [See A Letter from a Country Whig, ante.]

Bold Advice: or Proposals For the Entire Rooting out of Jacobitism in Great Britain, etc. 1715.

Some Considerations on the Danger of the Church From her own Clergy, etc. 1715.

An Attempt towards a Coalition of English Protestants … To which is added, Reasons for Restraining the Licentiousness of the Pulpit and Press. 1715.

A Seasonable Expostulation with, and Friendly Reproof unto, James Butler, who, by the Men of this World, is Stil’d Duke of O[rmon]d, etc. 1715.

An Account of the Conduct of Robert Earl of Oxford. 1715. Reissued in 1717 as Memoirs of some Transactions during the late Ministry of Robert E. of Oxford.

The History of the Wars, Of his Present Majesty Charles XII. King of Sweden, etc. 1715. Continued in a second edition, 1720.

A Hymn to the Mob. 1715.

An Humble Address to our Soveraign Lord the People. 1715.

An Apology for the Army. In a Short Essay on Fortitude, etc. Written by an Officer. 1715.

An Account of the Great and Generous Actions of James Butler, (Late Duke of Ormond). Dedicated to the Famous University of Oxford. 1715.

A View of the Scots Rebellion, etc. 1715.

The Traiterous and Foolish Manifesto of the Scots Rebels, Examin’d and Expos’d Paragraph by Paragraph. 1715.

A Trumpet Blown in the North, And sounded in the Ears of John Erskine, Call’d by the Men of the World, Duke of Mar. 1715.

A Letter from One Clergy-Man to Another, upon the Subject of the Rebellion. 1715.

A Letter To the Right Hon. Robert Walpole, Esq.; Occasioned by His late Promotion, etc. 1715. Cf. post.

An Essay towards Real Moderation. 1716.

Some Thoughts of an Honest Tory In the Country, upon the Late Dispositions of some People to Revolt, etc. 1716.

The Conduct of some People, about Pleading Guilty, etc. 1716.

Some Considerations on a Law for Triennial Parliaments, etc. 1716.

Arguments about the Alteration of Triennial Elections of Parliament. 1716.

The Triennial Act Impartially Stated, etc. 1716.

A True Account Of the Proceedings at Perth, etc. 1716.

Rptd in vol. II of The Spottiswoode Miscellany (1845), where it is erroneously attributed to the Master of Sinclair.

An Essay upon Buying and Selling of Speeches. 1716.

Some Account of the Two Nights Court at Greenwich. 1716.

A Second Letter to the Right Hon. Robert Walpole, Esq. 1716.

Remarks on the Speeches of William Paul Clerk, and John Hall of Otterburn, Esq.; Executed at Tyburn for Rebellion, the 13th of July, 1716, etc. 1716.

The Layman’s Vindication of the Church of England, As well against Mr. Howell’s Charge of Schism, As against Dr. Bennett’s Pretended Answer to it. 1716.

Secret Memoirs of the New Treaty of Alliance with France. 1716.

Secret Memoirs of a Treasonable Conference at S[omerset] House, For Deposing the Present Ministry, etc. 1716.

Some National Grievances … Considered … in a Letter to R[obert] W[alpole] Esq. 1717.

An Expostulatory Letter, to the B[ishop] of B[angor] concerning A Book lately publish’d by his Lordship, Entitul’d, A Preservative Against the Principles and Practices of the Nonjurors. 1717.

The Danger of Court Differences: or, the Unhappy Effects of a Motley Ministry: Occasion’d by the Report of Changes at Court. 1717.

The Quarrel of the School-Boys at Athens, As lately Acted at a School near Westminster. 1717.

An Impartial Enquiry into the Conduct Of the Right Honourable Charles Lord Viscount T[ownshend]. 1717.

An Argument Proving that the Design of Employing and Ennobling Foreigners, Is a Treasonable Conspiracy against the Constitution, etc. 1717.

A Curious Little Oration, Deliver’d by Father Andrew, Concerning the Present Great Quarrels That divide the Clergy of France. 1717.

Fair Payment No Spunge, etc. 1717.

What if the Swedes Should Come? With some Thoughts About Keeping The Army on Foot, Whether they Come or not. 1717.

The Repeal of the Act against Occasional Conformity, Consider’d. 1717.

The Question Fairly Stated, Whether Now is not the Time to do Justice to the Friends of the Government, as well as to its Enemies, etc. 1717.

The Danger and Consequences of Disobliging the Clergy consider’d, etc. 1717.

Reaons for a Royal Visitation … Shewing The Absolute Necessity of Purging the Universities, and Restoring Discipline to the Church. 1717.

Memoirs of the Church of Scotland, In Four Periods. 1717.

A Farther Argument against Ennobling Foreigners, in Answer To the Two Parts of the State Anatomy, etc. 1717. [By Toland. Cf. An Argument, etc. ante.]

The Conduct of Robert Walpole, Esq., etc. 1717.

The Report Reported: or, the Weakness and Injustice of the Proceedings of the Convocation in their Censure Of Ld. Bp. of Bangor, Examin’d and Expos’d. 1717.

A Short View of the Conduct of the King of Sweden. 1717.

A General Pardon Considered in its Circumstances and Consequences, etc. 1717.

Observations on the Bishop’s Answer to Dr. Snape. By a Lover of Truth. 1717.

A Vindication of Dr. Snape, in Answer to Several Libels lately publih’d against him, etc. 1717.

Mr. Benjamin Hoadly. Against The Right Rev. Father in God Benjamin Lord Bishop of Bangor, etc. 1717.

Minutes of the Negotiations of Monsr. Mesnager at the Court of England, Towards the close of the last Reign, etc. 1717.

A Reply to the Remarks upon the Lord Bishop of Bangor’s Treatment of the Clergy and Convocation. Said to be Written by Dr. Sherlock. 1717.

A Declaration of Truth to Benjamin Hoadly, One of the High Priests of the Land, and Of the Degree whom Men call Bishops, etc. 1717.

The Old Whig And Modern Whig Revived, in the Present Divisions at Court. 1717.

A Letter to Andrew Snape, etc. 1717.

The Conduct of Christians made the Sport of Infidels. In a Letter From a Turkish Merchant at Amsterdam To the Grand Mufti at Constantinople: On Occasion Of some of our National Follies, but especially of the late scandalous Quarrel among the Clergy. 1717.

Mr. De La Pillonniere’s Vindication: being an Answer to the Two Schoolmasters, and their Boy’s Tittle Tattle, etc. 1717.

The Case of the War in Italy Stated. 1717.

Memoirs of the Life and Eminent Conduct Of that Learned and Reverend Divine, Daniel Williams, D.D. 1718.

Some Persons Vindicated against the Author of the Defection [Tindal] etc. And that Writer Convicted of Malice and Falshood, R—W—, Esq. 1718.

The Defection Farther Consider’d, wherein the Resigners, As some would have them stil’d, Are really Deserters. 1718.

Considerations on the Present State of Affairs in Great Britain. 1718.

A Vindication of the Press: or, an Essay on the Usefulness of Writing, on Criticism, and the Qualification of Authors, etc. 1718.

Memoirs of Publick Transactions In the Life and Ministry Of his Grace the D. of Shrewsbury, etc. 1718.

A Continuation of Letters Written by a Turkish Spy at Paris, etc. 1718.

A Brief Comment upon His Majestys Speech: Being Reasons for strengthening the Church of England, by taking off the Penal Laws against Dissenters. 1718.

A History of the Last Session of the Present Parliament. With a Correct List of Both Houses. 1718.

A Friendly Rebuke to one Parson Benjamin [Hoadly], Particularly relating to his quarrelling with his own Church, and Vindicating the Dissenters. 1719.

The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, Of York, Mariner.… Written by Himself. 1719. Facsimile rpt., ed. Dobson, A., 1883.

The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe: Being the Second and Last Part of his Life, etc. 1719.

Serious Reflections during the Life and Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe: With his Vision of the Angelick World. 1720.

Among anticipations of Robinson Crusoe may be noted Marivaux, P. C. de, Les Avantures de * * * ou les effects surprenans de la sympathie, 5 vols., 1715; [Tyssot de Patot, S.], Les voyages et aventures de Jacques Massé. 1710. Cf. Howell, John, Life and Adventures of Alexander Selkirk, Edinburgh, 1829.

The History of the Reign of King George, From the Death of her late Majesty Queen Anne, to the First of August, 1718. 1719.

A Letter to the Dissenters. 1719.

The Anatomy of Exchange-Alley: or, A System of Stock-Jobbing. 1719.

Some Account of the Life, and most Remarkable Actions, of George Henry Baron de Goertz, Privy-Counsellor and Chief Minister of State, to the Late King of Sweden. 1719.

The Just Complaint of the Poor Weavers Truly Represented. 1719.

A Brief State of the Question, Between the Printed and Painted Callicoes and the Woollen and Silk Manufacture. 1719.

The Dumb Philosopher; or, Great Britain’s Wonder, containing I. A Faithful and very Surprizing account how Dickory Cronke, a Tinner’s Son in the County of Cornwal, was born Dumb, and continued so for 58 Years; and how some Days before he died, he came to his Speech, etc. 1719.

The King of Pirates: Being an Account of the Famous Enterprizes of Captain Avery, The Mock King of Madagascar. 1719.

The Chimera: or, the French Way of Paying National Debts, Laid Open. 1720.

The Trade to India Critically and Calmly consider’d, And prov’d to be destructive to the General Trade of Great Britain, as well as to the Woollen and Silk Manufactures in particular. 1720.

The Case Fairly Stated between the Turky Company and the Italian Merchants. By a Merchant. 1720.

The Compleat Art of Painting. A Poem. Translated from the French of M. Du Fresnoy. By D. F. Gent. 1720.

An Historical Account of the Voyages and Adventures of Sir Walter Raleigh … Humbly proposed to the South-Sea Company. 1720, but dated 1719.

The History of the Life and Adventures of Mr. Duncan Campbell, A Gentleman, who, tho’ Deaf and Dumb, writes down any Stranger’s Name at first Sight; with their future Contingencies of Fortune, etc. 1720. Reissued as The Supernatural Philosopher by Bond, William, 1728.

It seems clear that Defoe wrote the History; but his work was probably revised by Bond. Defoe also wrote, in 1726, The Friendly Daemon (see post), and he may have had some hand in the posthumous Secret Memoirs of 1732.

Memoirs of a Cavalier: or, a Military Journal of The Wars in Germany, and The Wars in England, etc. 1720.

The Life, Adventures, and Pyracies, Of the Famous Captain Singleton. 1720.

A Letter To the Author of the Independent Whig. Wherein The Merits of the Clergy are consider’d, etc. 1720.

A Letter to the Independent Whig Occasioned by his Considerations of the Importance of Gibraltar to the British Empire. 1720.

A True State of Publick Credit; or, a Short View of the Condition of the Nation, with respect to our present Calamities … As also Some necessary Observations on the Conduct of the Bank, in this Critical Juncture. 1721.

A Vindication of the Honour and Justice of Parliament Against a most Scandalous Libel, Entituled, The Speech of John A[islabie], Esq. 1721.

Brief Observations on Trade and Manufactures; And particularly of our Mines, and Metals, and the Hard-Ware Works, etc. 1721.

A Collection of Miscellany Letters, Selected out of Mist’s Weekly Journal. 2 vols. 1722.

Defoe contributed to these volumes and probably edited them.

The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders, etc. Who was Born in Newgate.… Twelve Year a Thief, Eight Year a Transported Felon in Virginia.… Written from her own Memorandums. 1722.

Due Preparations for the Plague, As well for Soul as Body. 1722.

Religious Courtship: Being Historical Discourses, on the Necessity of Marrying Religious Husbands and Wives only … With an Appendix Of the Necessity of taking none but Religious Servants, and a Proposal for the better managing of Servants. 1722.

A Journal of the Plague Year … Written by a Citizen, etc. 1722. Ed. Brayley, E. W. 1839.

Austin, William, (fl. 1662). ’[char] or the Anatomy of the Pestilence. A Poem in three parts, describing the deplorable condition of the city of London under its merciless dominion, 1665. 1666.

An History of the Archbishops and Bishops, Who have been Impeach’d and Attainted of High Treason, from William the Conqueror to this time … Extracted from the Best Historians, Ancient and Modern. 1722.

An Impartial History of the Life and Actions of Peter Alexowitz, the Present Czar of Muscovy: From his Birth to this Present Time.… Written by a British Officer in the Service of the Czar. 1722. Reissued, with additions, as A True, Authentick and Impartial History.… The Whole Compil’d from the Russian, High Dutch and French Languages, State Papers, and other Publick Authorities, 1725.

The History and Remarkable Life Of the truly Honourable Colonel Jacque, Commonly Call’d Col. Jack, etc. 1722.

Considerations on Publick Credit. In a Letter to a Member of Parliament. 1724.

The Fortunate Mistress: or, a History of the Life and Vast Variety of Fortunes of Mademoiselle de Beleau, Afterwards Call’d The Countess de Winselsheim, in Germany. Being the Person known by the Name of the Lady Roxana, in the Time of King Charles II. 1724. With a continuation, 1745. Abridged by Noble, F., 1775.

The Great Law of Subordination consider’d; Or, The Insolence and Unsufferable Behaviour of Servants in England duly enquir’d into.… In Ten Familiar Letters, etc. 1724. The same year as The Behaviour of Servants in England Inquired into, etc.

A Tour Thro’ the whole Island of Great Britain, Divided into Circuits or Journies. Giving a Particular and Diverting Account of Whatever is Curious, etc. Vol. I, 1724; vol. II, 1725; vol. III, 1726. [Defoe’s work was much altered in later editions.]

The Royal Progress: or, a Historical View of the Journeys, or Progresses, which several Great Princes have made to visit their Dominions, etc. 1724.

A Narrative of the Proceedings in France, for Discovering and Detecting the Murderers of the English Gentlemen, September 21, 1723, near Calais, etc. 1724.

The History Of the remarkable Life of John Sheppard, Containing A particular Account of his many Robberies and Escapes, etc. 1724.

A New Voyage round the World, by a Course never sailed before, etc. 1724 (dated 1725).

A Narrative Of all the Robberies, Escapes, etc. of John Sheppard; Giving an Exact Description of the Manner of his wonderful Escape from the Castle in Newgate, etc. 1724.

Some farther Account of the Original Disputes in Ireland, about Farthings and Half-pence. In a Discourse with a Quaker of Dublin. 1724. [No place.]

Every-Body’s Business, Is No-Body’s Business; or Private Abuses, Publick Grievances: Exemplified In the Pride, Insolence and Exorbitant Wages of our Women-Servants, Footmen, etc.… By Andrew Moreton, Esq. 1725.

The True and Genuine Account of the Life and Actions of the Late Jonathan Wild. 1725.

The Life of Jonathan Wild, from his Birth to his Death. Containing His Rise and Progress in Roguery … By H. D. late Clerk to Justice R—. 1725.

An Account of the Conduct and Proceedings of the late John Gow alias Smith, Captain of the late Pirate, etc. 1725.

The Complete English Tradesman, in Familiar Letters, etc. Vol. I. 1725. 2nd ed. with Appendix. 1726. Vol. II. 1727.

A General History of Discoveries and Improvements, In Useful Arts, Particularly in the Great Branches of Commerce, Navigation, and Plantation, in all Parts of the Known World, etc. 1725–26. Four monthly parts, Oct., Nov., 1725; Feb., Dec.(?), 1726, as The History of the Principal Discoveries and Improvements, In the Several Arts and Sciences, 1727.

A Brief Case of the Distillers, and of the Distilling Trade in England … Humbly recommended to the Lords and Commons of Great Britain, in the present Parliament Assembled. 1726.

A Brief Historical Account of the Lives of the Six notorious Street-Robbers, etc. 1726.

An Essay upon Literature: or, an Enquiry into the Antiquity and Original of Letters; Proving That the two Tables, written by the Finger of God in Mount Sinai, was the first Writing in the World; and that all other Alphabets derive from the Hebrew, etc. 1726.

The Political History of the Devil, as well Ancient as Modern: In Two Parts, etc. 1726.

Unparallel’d Cruelty: or, the Tryal of Captain Jeane Of Bristol. Who was convicted at the Old Bailey for the Murder of his Cabbin-Boy, Who he put to Death in the most horrid and barbarous Manner, etc. 1726.

The Friendly Daemon; or, The Generous Apparition. Being a True Narative of a Miraculous Cure newly performed upon.… Dr. Duncan Campbell, By a familiar Spirit, that appeared to him in a white surplice, like a Cathedral Singing Boy. 1726.

The Four Years Voyages of Capt. George Roberts; Being a Series of Uncommon Events, Which befell him In a Voyage to the Islands of the Canaries, Cape de Verde, and Barbadoes, etc. 1726.

Mere Nature Delineated; or, a Body without a Soul. Being Observations upon the Young Forester Lately brought to Town from Germany, etc. 1726.

Some Considerations upon Street-Walkers. With A Proposal for Lessening the Present Number of them. In Two Letters to a Member of Parliament. To which is added, A Letter from One of those unhappy Persons, when in Newgate, and who was afterwards executed, for picking a Gentleman’s Pocket, to Mrs.—in Great P—ney Street. 1726.

The Protestant Monastery: or, a Complaint against the Brutality of the present Age. Particularly the Pertness and Insolence of our Youth to aged Persons … By Andrew Moreton, Esq., etc. 1726.

A System of Magick; or, a History of the Black Art. Being an Historical Account of Mankind’s most early Dealing with the Devil, etc. 1726. 2nd ed. as by Andrew Moreton. 1731.

The Evident Approach of a War; And Something of The Necessity of It, In Order to Establish Peace, and Preserve Trade, etc. 1727.

The Evident Advantages to Great Britain and its Allies from the Approaching War, etc. 1727.

Conjugal Lewdness: or, Matrimonial Whoredom. 1727. Reissued the same year as A Treatise Concerning the Use and Abuse of the Marriage Bed, etc.

A Brief Deduction of the Original, Progress, and Immense Greatness of the British Woollen Manufacture, etc. 1727.

An Essay on the History and Reality Of Apparitions, etc. 1727. Reissued 1728 (dated 1729) as The Secrets of the Invisible World Disclos’d: or An Universal History of Apparitions Sacred and Prophane.… By Andrew Moreton, Esq.

A New Family Instructor; in Familiar Discourses between a Father and his Children, on the most Essential Points of the Christian Religion. In Two Parts, etc. 1727.

Parochial Tyranny: or, the House-Keeper’s Complaint against The insupportable Exactions, and partial Assessments of Select Vestries, etc. 1727.

Some Considerations on the Reasonableness and Necessity of Encreasing and Encouraging the Seamen, etc. 1728.

Augustus Triumphans: or the Way to Make London The Most Flourishing City in the Universe. First by establishing an University where Gentlemen may have Academical Education under the Eye of their Friends, etc. 1728. Abridged as The Generous Projector or a Friendly Proposal to prevent Murder and other enormous Abuses, By erecting an Hospital for Foundlings and Bastard Children, etc., 1730 (dated 1731).

A Plan of the English Commerce. Being a Compleat Prospect of the Trade of this Nation, As well the Home Trade as the Foreign. In three Parts, etc. 1728.

The Memoirs of an English Officer … By Capt. George Carleton. 1728. Reissued the same year as The Military Memoirs of Captain George Carleton, etc. Rptd. 1808, with an introduction by Scott, Sir Walter; included in some modern editions of Defoe.

[Notwithstanding the arguments of Col. A. Parnell, English Historical Review, January 1891, Defoe seems to have had a large share in the composition of this book.]

An Impartial Account Of the late Famous Siege of Gibraltar … By an Officer who was at the Taking and Defence of Gibraltar by the Prince Hesse, of Glorious Memory; and served in the Town, during the last Siege. 1728.

Second Thoughts are Best: or, a Further Improvement Of a Late Scheme to prevent Street Robberies. By Andrew Moreton, Esq. 1728.

Street-Robberies, Consider’d: The Reason of their being so Frequent. With Probable Means to Prevent ’em. To which is added, Three Short Treatises.… Also a Caution of delivering Goods: With the Relation of several Cheats practiced lately upon the Publick. Written by a Converted Thief, etc. 1728.

Reasons for a War, In Order to Establish the Tranquility and Commerce of Europe. 1729.

An Humble Proposal to the People of England, For the Encrease of their Trade, And Encouragement of their Manufactures … By the Author of the Compleat Tradesman. 1729.

An Enquiry Into the Pretensions of Spain to Gibraltar, etc. 1729.

The Advantages of Peace and Commerce; with Some Remarks on the East India Trade. 1729.

Some Objections Humbly offered to the Consideration of the Hon. House of Commons, Relating to the present intended Relief of Prisoners. 1729.

Madagascar: or, Robert Drury’s Journal, during Fifteen Years Captivity on that Island … Written by Himself, etc. 1729.

[There is a strong probability that Defoe had a large share in this book.]

The Perjur’d Free Mason Detected; And yet The Honour and Antiquity of the Society of Free Masons Preserv’d and Defended. By a Free Mason. 1730.

An Effectual Scheme, for the immediate Preventing of Street Robberies, etc. 1730. [Dated 1731.]

A Brief State of the Inland or Home Trade of England, etc. 1730.

The Compleat English Gentleman. By Daniel Defoe. Edited for the First Time … By Bülbring, K. D. 1890.

Of Royall Education. A Fragmentary Treatise By Daniel Defoe. Ed. Bulbring, K. D. 1895.

B. Periodicals with which Defoe was connected

A Review of the Affairs of France: and of all Europe, etc. 8 vols. 1705–12. With several changes of name, finally as A Review of the State of the British Nation; with at least one volume and part of another reprinted at Edinburgh.

News from the Moon. A Review of the State of the British Nation, etc., Boston, Mass., 1721, is a curiously belated reprint of the Review for 29 April, 1710, Edinburgh edition.

The Review—a continuation of the above—from 2 August, 1712 to II June, 1713.

The London Post. 1704–5. [Defoe was charged, probably with justice, with contributing to this paper.]

The Edinburgh Courant. 1711. [Although Defoe had an interest in this paper, it is not known certainly that he ever wrote for it.]

The Protestant Post Boy. 1711–12.

Mercator: or, Commerce Retrieved, etc. 26 May, 1713–20 July, 1714.

The Monitor. Edited by Defoe. 22 April–7 August, 1714.

The Flying Post and Medley. 27 July–21 August, 1714.

Mercurius Politicus: Being Monthly Observations on the Affairs of Great Britain, etc. May, 1716–December, (?) 1720.

Dormer’s News Letter. June, 1716–August, 1718. [No copies of this have been found.]

The Weekly Journal; or Saturday’s Post. [Printed by Nathaniel Mist.] 1717–24.

The Wednesday Journal Being an Auxiliary Packet To the Saturday’s Post, etc. 25 September–23 October, 1717.

Mercurius Britannicus. 1718–(?).

The Whitehall Evening Post. 1718–(?). 18 September, 1718–June, 1720 (?).

The Daily Post. 4 October, 1719–27 April, 1725 (?).

The Manufacturer: or The British Trade truly Stated. Wherein The Case of the Weavers, and the Wearing of Callicoes, are Consider’d. 30 October, 1719–17 February, 1720 (?).

The Original Weekly Journal [Applebee’s]. 25 June, 1720–12 March, 1726.

The Director. 5 October, 1720–16 January, 1720/21 (?).

The Universal Spectator. No. 1, 12 October, 1728. [Ed. by Defoe’s son-in-law, Henry Baker.]

Fog’s Weekly Journal. II January, 1729.

Vols. II and III of Lee’s Life and Newly Discovered Writings of Daniel Defoe, 1869, contain selections, for the most part unquestionably authentic, from Defoe’s contributions to periodicals during the reign of George I.

Defoe’s Letters and Memoranda in print number about two hundred and thirty and are chiefly to be found in vols. IV and V (1897, 1899) of the Fifteenth Report of the Historical MSS. Commission, MSS. of the duke of Portland. Sporadic letters are to be found in other reports of the commission, in Notes and Queries, and in the chief biographies, notably Wright’s; but the letters to Harley contained in the Portland MSS. give the best idea of Defoe as a correspondent.

The above list of Defoe’s writings does not take account of nearly three hundred books and pamphlets which have been ascribed to him, but for the authenticity of which I cannot vouch with entire confidence. Many of these are almost as much entitled to be received into the accredited list as are most of the items that have been accepted since the time of Chalmers and Wilson; but, for one reason or another, it has seemed best to treat them as plausible ascriptions only and to omit enumerating them here.

It may be added that there is a reason to believe that two inaccessible pamphlets one vouched for by several bibliographers, including Lee, and one by Crossley, will, when found, have to be added to Defoe’s practically certain writings. These are The Layman’s Sermon upon the Late Storm, 1704, and A Brief Debate upon the Dissolving the late Parliament, 1722.

Cf. bibliography to Vol. VII, Chap. XV.

Amhurst, Nicholas (1697–1742). Terrae Filius. 11 January to 6 July, 1721.

—— The Craftsman. 1726 to 1736. 14 vols. 7131–7. [Under the signature of Caleb d’Anvers.] [Cf. bibliography to Chap. VIII, post.]

Arnall, William (1715?–1741?). The Free Briton. 1730–3.

—— The British Journal. [Under the signature of Francis Walsingham.] [Wrote in Walpole’s pay against Bolingbroke, Pulteney and The Craftsman.]

Baker, Henry (1698–1774). The Universal Spectator. [See under II B, ante.]

Boyer, Abel (1667–1729). The Political State of Great Britain. (Monthly.) 38 vols. 1711–29.

—— The Postboy. 1705–9. [On the Whig side.]

—— The True Postboy. 1709. [See, also, bibliography to Chap. VIII, post.]

Concanen, Matthew (1701–1749). The London Journal. 1700–44. B.M. [Probably began 1698.]

—— The Speculatist. 1730. 1725–28. B.M. [This is a collection of letters under the above title, published as a book in 1730.]

—— The Daily Courant. 1702–35. B.M. [Wrote against Bolingbroke and the tories.]

Ridpath, George (d. 1726). The Flying Post. 1695–1714. B.M.

Roper, Abel (1665–1726). The Post Boy. 1695–1710. B.M.

Mercurius Latinus. Autore Agricola Candido, Gen. March–October, 1746.