The Cambridge History of English and American Literature

The Cambridge History of English and American Literature

An Encyclopedia in Eighteen Volumes


Edited by A. W. Ward & A. R. Waller



Chapter I. Defoe—The Newspaper and the Novel
By W. P. TRENT, LL.D., D.C.L., Professor of English Literature in Columbia University, New York

  1. Beginnings of the English Newspaper
  2. The Oxford, afterwards The London, Gazette
  3. Roger L’Estrange
  4. His activity as a pamphleteer before and after the Restoration
  5. The Observator
  6. L’Estrange’s late troubles and literary work
  7. Henry Care
  8. John Dunton
  9. The Flying Post and The Post Boy
  10. John Tutchin
  11. Defoe’s early and business life
  12. An Essay upon Projects
  13. The True-Born Englishman
  14. The Shortest Way with the Dissenters
  15. Defoe in the pillory
  16. The Review
  17. Defoe and Harley
  18. Mercator and commercial pamphlets
  19. The Secret History of the White Staff and An Appeal to Honour and Justice
  20. Discreditable later tracts
  21. Defoe’s evolution as a Novelist
  22. Robinson Crusoe and its sequel
  23. Miscellaneous later writings: Life and Adventures of Mr. Duncan Campbell, A Journal of the Plague Year, Captain Singleton, Moll Flanders, Colonel Jacque, Roxana, Memoirs of Captain George Carleton, The Complete English Tradesman
  24. Defoe’s last years
  25. His posthumous reputation


II. Steele and Addison
By HAROLD ROUTH, M.A., Peterhouse, Lecturer in English Literature in the Goldsmith’s College, University of London

  1. The New Civilisation in England and London
  2. Steele’s Christian Hero
  3. His Comedies
  4. Influence of the Coffeehouses
  5. Literature and Clubland
  6. Beginnings of The Tattler
  7. The Lucubrations of Isaac Bickerstaff
  8. The Tatler on Middle-class Life and Women
  9. The “Short Story” in germ
  10. Varied topics
  11. Collaboration of Addison
  12. His early Classical Training
  13. The Campaign
  14. Character of his contributions to The Tatler
  15. His style as an Essay-writer
  16. The Spectator and its Character-types
  17. The Coverly Group
  18. The Spectator and The Tatler compared
  19. The Spectator’s Correspondence
  20. Its Literary Criticism: Addison on Paradise Lost, and On the Pleasures of the Imagination
  21. Addison on Religion
  22. Cato
  23. The Guardian; Steele’s last Comedy
  24. Steele, Addison and the Essay


III. Pope
By EDWARD BENSLY, M.A., Trinity College, Professor of Latin, University College of Wales, Aberstwyth

  1. Pope’s Literary Consciousness, and his attitude towards Contemporary Literature
  2. His early Life and Studies
  3. His literary beginnings
  4. Pastorals
  5. Windsor Forest
  6. Messiah
  7. An Essay on Criticism
  8. The Rape of the Lock
  9. Eliosa to Abelard and Elegy to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady
  10. Epistles
  11. Pope’s Workmanship and Style
  12. His Homer
  13. His edition of Shakespeare
  14. Pope’s literary success and quarrels
  15. The Dunciad
  16. Influence of Bolingbroke
  17. Moral Essays
  18. An Essay on Man
  19. Imitations of Horace
  20. Other Satires
  21. The new Dunciad and Colley Cibber
  22. Influence of Warburton
  23. Pope’s Genius and Influence upon Literature


IV. Swift

  1. Swift’s parentage and descent
  2. Residences with Sir William Temple
  3. Esther Johnson (Stella)
  4. The Phalaris Controversy
  5. Swift Vicar of Laracor
  6. Swift in London; Association with Addison and the Whigs
  7. Intimacy with Harley and St. John
  8. Swift and The Examiner; The Conduct of the Allies and Some Remarks on the Barrier Treaty
  9. The Brothers’ Club
  10. Swift retires to Dublin
  11. Stella and Vanessa
  12. Irish Politics
  13. Swift’s Irish popularity
  14. His despondency and death
  15. His chief Satires: A Tale of a Tub; The Battle of the Books; Gulliver’s Travels
  16. Inception, contributory sources and original features of Gulliver
  17. Genteel Conversation, Directions to Servants, Argument against abolishing Christianity, and other Pamphlets
  18. Swift’s Religious and Political Writings
  19. Pamphlets on Irish affairs: Drapier’s Letters
  20. Swift’s Verse
  21. Baucis and Philemon; The Grand Question Debated; Cadenus and Vanessa; Later savage Satirical Verse: The Legion Club
  22. Swift On the Death of Dr. Swift
  23. The Journal to Stella
  24. Character of Swift’s life and work
  25. Swift a Master of Style and of Satire
  26. What he lacks


V. Arbuthnot and Lesser Prose Writers

  1. Arbuthnot’s early life and scientific work
  2. His association with Harley and the Court of Queen Anne
  3. His Tory pamphlets: The History of John Bull series; The Art of Political Lying
  4. Arbuthnot, the Tory Wits, and The Memoirs of Scriblerus
  5. His pamphlets after the crisis
  6. William King
  7. Literary criticism of the age: Rymer; Langbaine; Gildon
  8. John Dennis
  9. Colley Cibber’s Apology
  10. Hughes; Rowe; Edwards; Heath; Upton; Zachary Grey


VI. Lesser Verse Writers, I
By THOMAS SECCOMBE, M.A., Balliol College, Oxford

  1. Prior’s personal and literary beginnings
  2. The Country and the City Mouse
  3. His early official Life and Verse: Carmen Seculare
  4. Prior under Queen Anne
  5. His last years
  6. His lyrical verse: Henry and Emma
  7. Alma and Solomon
  8. His light Satirical Verse and its excellence
  9. His Versification
  10. His productions in Prose: Essays, and Dialogues of the Dead
  11. John Gay and his early literary efforts; Rural Sports; The Shepherd’s Week; The What D’ ye Call it; Trivia; Gay and the Queensberrys
  12. The Beggar’s Opera and Polly
  13. Gay’s love of ease; His Friends
  14. Ambrose Philips and his Pastorals; His “Namby-Pamby” poems
  15. Thomas Parnell
  16. His Homeric Scholarship; The Hermit
  17. Lady Winchilsea
  18. John Pomfret
  19. Thomas Tickell
  20. His attachment to Addison
Lesser Verse Writers, II
By GEORGE SAINTSBURY, LL.D., D.Litt., F.B.A., Merton College, Oxford, Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature in the University of Edinburgh

  1. Minor Versifiers of the Age
  2. Younger Contemporaries of Dryden: George Granville (Lord Lansdowne); William Walsh
  3. Duke, Stepney Yalden and William King
  4. Older contemporaries of Pope: Isaac Watts and his “Hymns.” Sir Samuel Garth
  5. The Dispensary: Significance of its Versification and Diction
  6. Sir Richard Blackmore: Creation
  7. The Spectator Group: John Philips; Broome and Fenton; Edmund (“Rag”) Smith; Hughes
  8. Henry Brooke’s poetry
  9. David Mallet
  10. Richard Savage
  11. Stephen Duck; Aaron Hill
  12. Other Lesser Verse Writers of the Age
  13. Robert Dodsley and his Collection


VII. Historical and Political Writers, I
By A. W. WARD, Litt.D., P.B.A., Master of Peterhouse

  1. Burnet’s Historical and Political Writings during his residence in Scotland
  2. Thoughts on Education
  3. Memoires of the Hamiltons
  4. Burnet in London
  5. The History of the Reformation of the Church of England
  6. Attacks upon it and Replies
  7. The Life and Death of Sir Matthew Hale
  8. Burnet in Exile
  9. Beginnings of Memoirs; and various Political Pamphlets
  10. A Memorial for the Electress Sophia
  11. The History of My Own Time and its genesis
  12. Characteristics of the Work
  13. Its pervading Purpose
  14. Historians Contemporary with Burnet: Strype
  15. Jeremy Collier
  16. His Ecclesiastical History of Great Britain
  17. Neal’s History of the Puritans
  18. Letters to Sir Joseph Williamson
  19. Memoirs of James II
  20. Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun; His Political Career and Discourses


VIII. Historical and Political Writers, II
By A. W. WARD, Litt. D., P.B.A.

  1. Henry St. John’s Earlier Life and Letters
  2. His Contributions to The Examiner
  3. A Letter to Sir William Wyndham
  4. Bolingbroke in France
  5. His political activity after his return home
  6. The Craftsman and its Contributors
  7. Bolingbroke’s Remarks upon the History of England
  8. Dissertation upon Parties
  9. Letters on the Study and Use of History
  10. Letter on the Spirit of Patriotism
  11. Idea of a Patriot King
  12. His last Political Pamphlets
  13. Qualities of his Style
  14. Historical and Political Writers contemporary with Bolingbroke: White Kennett; Echard; Rapin; Lediard; Tindal; Boyer; Oldmixon
  15. Roger North’s Lives of the Norths
  16. Merits of these Biographies


IX. Memoir-Writers, 1715–60

  1. English Society under the First Two Georges
  2. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu; The Story of her Life
  3. Her Turkish Letters
  4. Her other writings in Verse and Prose
  5. Lady Cowper’s Diary; Correspondence of Lady Suffolk
  6. Lord Hervey and Lady Mary
  7. His Political Career
  8. His Memoirs and their Character
  9. Memoirs of Lord Waldegrave and Melcombe (George Bubb Dodington)


X. Writers of Burlesque and Translators
By CHARLES WHIBLEY, M.A., Hon. Fellow of Jesus College

  1. The Underworld of Letters and its Vagabond Inhabitants
  2. Their love of Burlesque and Indebtedness to Scarron
  3. His Imitators in France and in England
  4. Charles Cotton’s, Monsey’s and John Phillips’s Travesties of Vergil, Scudamore’s of Homer and Alexander Radcliffe’s of Ovid
  5. Hudibras and Hudibrastic Verse
  6. Ned Ward’s Hudibras Redivivus, Vulgus Britannicus and London Spy
  7. Tom Brown’s Amusements for the Meridian of London
  8. The New Art of Translation
  9. Versions of Petronius
  10. John Phillips’s Literary Career
  11. His Don Quixote
  12. Motteux and his Translation of Rabelais
  13. Roger L’Estrange as a Translator
  14. His Selection of Originals
  15. His Aesop
  16. Charles Cotton and his Montaigne
  17. John Stevens and his Services to English knowledge of Spanish Literature


XI. Berkeley and Contemporary Philosophy
By W. R. SORLEY, Litt.D., F.B.A., Fellow of King’s College, Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy

  1. English Thought in the Period after the Death of Locke
    1. Berkeley’s Life and Authorship before and after his sojourn in America
    2. Alciphron, or the Minute Philosopher; Essay towards a New Theory of Vision
    3. The Merits of the Essay as a work of Psychological Analysis
    4. Treatise concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
    5. Berkeley’s Idealism
    6. His place in the History of Thought
    7. His Common-place Book
    8. Arthur Collier
    1. The Deistical Controversy in English Theology; Charles Blount; Charles Leslie as Champion of Orthodoxy
    2. Toland’s Christianity not Mysterious; His Literary Career and Philosophical Development: Letters to Serena; Pantheisticon
    3. Anthony Collins’s Discourse of Free-thinking
    4. Tindal’s Christianity as Old as the Creation
    5. Other Deistical Writers: Woolston; Chubb; Morgan; Henry Dodwell the younger
    6. Influence of Deism; Bolingbroke; Whiston’s Primitive Christianity Revived
    7. Opponents of the Deists: William Warburton
    1. Samuel Clarke and Rational Ethics
    2. Shaftesbury; his Characteristics of Men and Manners
    3. Hutcheson
    4. Mandeville’s Fable of the Bees
    5. Bishop Butler’s Fifteen Sermons and Analogy; Exhaustiveness of Butler’s Reasonings


XII. William Law and the Mystics
By CAROLINE F. E. SPURGEON, Dr. of the University of Paris, Fellow of King’s College for Women and Lecturer in English Literature at Bedford College, University of London

  1. Undercurrent of Mystical Thought in England in the Earlier Half of the Eighteenth Century
  2. Mysticism in the Seventeenth Century; “Children of Light” in Holland
  3. The “Behmenites” and the Founders of the Society of Friends
  4. Life and Writings of William Law
  5. Law’s Controversial Writings against Hoadly, Mandeville and Tindal
  6. Christian Perfection and A Serious Call
  7. Influence of Malebranche, the earlier German Mystics and the Seventeenth Century Quietists upon Law
  8. Jacob Boehme and the Essence of his Mysticism
  9. Boehme and Law
  10. An Appeal to all who Doubt and The Way to Divine Knowledge
  11. Character of Law’s Prose: Law and Mandeville; The Spirit of Prayer; A Serious Call
  12. Law’s Followers: John Byrom; Henry Brooke
  13. Later influence of Boehme on English Thought


XIII. Scholars and Antiquaries
By JAMES DUFF DUFF, M.A., Fellow and Lecturer in Classics of Trinity College

  1. Learning in England at the Time of Bentley’s Birth: Pearson; Fell; William Lloyd; Henry Dodwell; John Moore
  2. Bentley’s Earlier Life and Labours
  3. Epistola ad Millium
  4. His Lectures against Atheism
  5. The Phalaris Controversy: Bentley and his Adversaries
  6. Bentley Master of Trinity; The Troubles of his Mastership
  7. His Reforms at Cambridge
  8. Phileleutherus Lipsiensis
  9. Bentley’s Horace
  10. Remarks upon a late Discourse of Free-Thinking
  11. Editions of Terence and Manilius
  12. Bentley and Paradise Lost
  13. His Death
  14. Joseph Wasse; Conyers Middleton; Jeremiah Markland; John Taylor; Richard Dawes
By H. G. ALDIS, M.A., Peterhouse; Secretary of the University Library

  1. Oxford and the Bodleian
  2. Dugdale and Dodsworth; The Antiquities of Warwickshire and Monasticon Anglicanum
  3. Dugdale’s Other Labours
  4. Anthony Wood and Athenae Oxonienses
  5. Thomas Hearne
  6. John Tanner
  7. John Aubrey
  8. Local History and Topography: Burton; Plot; Stukeley; Gordon
  9. Chamberlayne’s Angliae Notitia and its Sequel
  10. Gibson’s Edition of Camden’s Britannia
  11. Ashmole and other County Antiquaries
  12. Baker’s collections: his History of St. John’s College, Cambridge
  13. Writers on Monastic and Cathedral Antiquities
  14. Old English Studies: Sir Henry Spelman
  15. Diplomatic: Thomas Madox; Heraldry; Ames’s Typographical Antiquities
  16. The Cottonian and the Harleian Libraries
  17. Osborne and Oldys
  18. Revival of the Society of Antiquaries


XIV. Scottish Popular Poetry before Burns

  1. The long Blight on Scottish Secular Verse; Exceptional popularity of Lyndsay
  2. Survival of Songs in the Puritan Period
  3. Peculiarity of the relation between English and Scottish Song in the Seventeenth Century
  4. Ane Compendious Booke of Godly and Spirituall Songs
  5. Original Scots Songs in The Tea-Table Miscellany: Lady Grizel Baillie, lady Wardlaw and William Hamilton of Gilbertfield
  6. Robert Sempill and The Life and Death of Habbie Simson
  7. Watson’s Choice Collection
  8. Allan Ramsay
  9. His earlier productions and The Gentle Shepherd
  10. Difficulty of estimating his Originality; His treatment of the Old Songs; The Tea-Table Miscellany and The Evergreen
  11. Alexander Pennecuick
  12. Robert Crawford
  13. William Hamilton of Bangour
  14. Sir John Clerk and George Halkett
  15. Alexander Ross
  16. Alexander Geddes
  17. Douglas Graham
  18. Mrs. Cockburn; Jane and Sir Gilbert Elliot
  19. Anonymous Songs
  20. Songs from David Herd’s Manuscript and other Collections
  21. Jacobite Songs in Hogg’s Jacobite Relics of Scotland; Hogg’s editorial methods
  22. Literary value of the Jacobite Songs
  23. Robert Fergusson: his personality and poetic qualities


XV. Education
By J. W. ADAMSON, Fellow of King’s College, London, and Professor of Education in the University of London

  1. The Seventeenth Century Curriculum
  2. Henry Wotton’s Essay on the Education of Children
  3. Proposed supersession of Oxford and Cambridge under the Commonwealth: Milton; Harrington; Hobbes
  4. Seth Ward’s Vindiciae Academiarum
  5. The Long Parliament and Education
  6. Projected Reforms of Schools
  7. Influence of John Amos Comenius
  8. Hartlib, Petty and Dury
  9. Educational Projects after the Restoration: Cowley’s Proposition
  10. The Ancients v. Moderns Controversy: Temple and Bentley
  11. Dissenting Academies: Secker’s Experience
  12. Courtly and Private Education: Comments of Clarendon, Peacham, Francis Osborne and others
  13. Cavils of Swift and Defoe
  14. Locke’s Thoughts on Education and Essay concerning Human Understanding
  15. Influence of the Essay on subsequent Educational Theory
  16. Education of Girls: Swift, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and others
  17. Elementary Education
  18. Private Schools
  19. Charity Schools: Mandeville
  20. The Public Schools: Eton and Westminster
  21. Subjects of Teaching
  22. The Universities
  23. Examinations at Cambridge
  24. The Oxford Tutorial System
  25. Foundation of the Royal Society
  26. Bentley’s Range of Studies
  27. Extension of University Learning
  28. New Chairs at Cambridge
  29. Gibbon’s Charges against the Oxford System; Difficulties in the way of Reform