The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume IX. From Steele and Addison to Pope and Swift.

II. Steele and Addison



[For a good bibliography of Addison, see Selections from the writings of Joseph Addison, edited by Wendell, Barrett and Greenough, Chester Noues. Athenaeum Press Series, n.d.]

A. Collected Works

The Works of Joseph Addison, Esq. Collected by Tickell, T. 4 vols. 1721.

The Works of The Late Right Honourable Joseph Addison, Esq. Printed by Baskerville, J. With a Complete Index. 4 vols. Birmingham, 1761.

The Works of the Right Hon. Joseph Addison. A New Edition with Notes. By Hurd, Richard (bp. of Worcester). 6 vols. 1811. New ed. (Bohn’s Standard Library.) 6 vols. 1856.

The Works of Joseph Addison, including the whole contents of Bishop Hurd’s edition, with letters and other pieces not found in any previous collection; and Macaulay’s essay on his life and works. Ed., with critical and explanatory notes, Greene, G. W. 6 vols. New York, 1856.

B. Particular (including Dramatic) Works

Addison’s most important Latin poems are Sphaeristerium; Machinae Gesticulantes, Anglicè A puppet-show; Resurrectio delineata ad Altare Col. Magd.; Barometri Descriptio; Insignissimo viro Thomae Burnet (also translated in Mr. Addison’s fine ode to Dr. Thomas Burnet on his sacred theory of the earth done into English by the author of a late tale called Coffee, 1727); Praelium inter Pygmaeos et grues commissum. All these appeared in Examen Poeticum Duplex: sive Musarum Anglicanarum Delectus Alter; Cui subjicitur Epigrammatum seu Poematum Minorum Specimen Novum … 1698; and in Musarum Anglicanarum Analecta: Sive Poemata quaedam melioris notae, seu hactenus Inedita, seu sparsim Edita. 2 vols. 1699. (Vol. II.)

Translations of Praelium and of Machinae Gesticulantes appeared as Battle of the Pygmies and Cranes and The Puppet-Show, 1716, and were added to 4th edn of Miscellanies in Prose and Verse, 1721. All the above mentioned were rptd with translations in Miscellanea, 1818.

The Fourth Book of Georgics (except the story of Aristeus); the Song for St. Cecilia’s Day at Oxford; Story of Salmacis, from the Fourth Book of Ovid’s Metamorphoses; An Account of the Greatest English Poets, appeared in The Annual Miscellany: For the Year 1694. Being the Fourth Part of Miscellany Poems. Containing Great Variety of New Translations and Original Copies By the most Eminent Hands, 1694.

The Story of Phaeton, beginning the Second Book of Ovid’s Metamorphoses, and Europa’s Rape: translated from Ovid, both pieces followed by Notes on the foregoing Story; Milton’s Stile imitated, in a Translation of a Story out of the Third Aeneid; The Third Book of Ovid’s Metamorphoses, appeared in Poetical Miscellanies: The Fifth Part … 1704.

A Letter from Italy to Charles, Lord Halifax. Rptd in Tonson’s Miscellany, part V, 1704; separately, 1709. Transl. into Latin Hexameters by Murphy, A. 1799. [Wendell and Greenough suggest 1703 for its date; but see Addisoni Epistola, missa ex Italia ad illustrem Dominum Halifax anno 1701.]

The Campaign, A Poem, To His Grace the Duke of Marlborough. By Mr. Addison. 1705. With Latin version Expeditio militaris, by T. G. 1708.

Remarks On Several Parts of Italy in the Years 1701, 1702, 1703. 1705, and many subsequent edns. Rpts: Moore, J. H. in A New … Collection of Voyages, vol. II, 1785(?); Mayor, W. F. in General Collection of Voyages and Travels, 1810. French trans. by Misson, F. M.: Remarques sur divers endroits de l’Italie, 1722.

A Table of all the accurate remarks and surprising Discoveries of the most learned and ingenious Mr. Addison, 1706, [satirical]. See Somers, J., A Collection of Scarce and Valuable Tracts, vol. 1, 1748, and vol. XII in ed. 1809.

Le Clerc, J. Observations upon Mr. Addison’s Travels through Italy. 1715.

Most of Addison’s early work, including translations, was rptd. in Poems on Se eral occasions with a dissertation upon the Roman Poets, 1719; and, with Tentamen de Scriptis Addisonianis, by R. Young, with Engl. trans., in Poems on several Occasions by Mr. Addison, 1724.

Rosamond. An Opera. 1707. With the Opera of Operas: or Tom Thumb the Great, 1743.

Tickell, T. To Mr. Addison on his opera of Rosamond. In Works of the most celebrated Minor Poets, 1749.

Cato. A Tragedy. As it is Acted at the Theatre-Royal in Drury-Lane, By Her Majesty’s Servants. By Mr. Addison. MDCCXIII. Rpts. [without the love scenes] English and Latin, 1764; Bell’s British Theatre, vol. III, 1776; ptd.… from the prompt book. With remarks by Mrs. Inchbald, 1806; adapted to the stage by J. P. Kemble, 1811.

Translations: French: Guillemard, G., 1767; de La Bruère, C., 1789; Camarsac, G., 1814. German: Gottsched, L. A. V., 1735; anon., 1763; Gottsched J. C. (Louise G.’s husband), produced, 1731, Der Sterbende Cato, for the most part copied from Caton d’Utique by Deschamps, J. (1715), but with ending adapted from Addison’s drama. Italian: Salvini, A. M., 1715, 1725; Corinteo, P.-A. [i. e. Golt, G.], 1776.

Parodies: Parody on Cato’s Soliloquy (act IV, sc. 1), 1785, (?); Steere, W. Billing’s Gate, 1860.

Comments and criticisms: Dennis, J., Remarks upon Cato, 1713; The Life and Character of … Cato … Design’d for the Readers of Cato, a Tragedy, 1713; Cato examined: or, animadversions on the fable or plot … of the new tragedy of Cato. Dedicated to Joseph Addison, 1713; Mr. Addison turn’d Tory; or, the scene inverted, wherein it is made appear that the Whigs have misunderstood that author in his tragedy call’d Cato … to which are added some cursory remarks upon the play itself. By a gentleman of Oxford, 1713. [All four pamphlets were rptd. in one vol. in same year.] The Unfortunate general … together with a key or explanation of the new play called Cato, a tragedy, 1713(?). Sewell, G. A., Vindication of the English stage, exemplified in the Cato of Mr. Addison, 1716; Tickell, T., To Mr. Addison on his Tragedy of Cato. In Works of the most celebrated Minor Poets, vol. II, 1749. A parallel betwixt the Tragedy of Cato … by Mr. Addison and the Cato of Utica by Mr. Des Champs, 1719.

The Drummer; Or, the Haunted House. A Comedy. As it is Acted at the Theatre-Royal in Drury-Lane. 1716. 2nd edn, with preface by Sir R. Steele, Dedicated to William Congreve … occasioned by Mr. Tickell’s preface to Addison’s Works, 1721. Rptd in Bell’s British Theatre, vol. II, 1776. [Plot founded on story of the drummer of Tedworth, recounted in Sadducismus Triumphatus by Glanvil (see ante, Vol. VII, Chap. XVI).]

Translations: French: Destouches, N., 1733; Desgranges, D., 1737.

German: In Gottsched, J. C., Die deutsche Schaübuhne Bd. 2, 1742; Gottsched, L. A. V., Ein Lustspiel des Herrn Addison nach dem Französischen des Herrn Destouches übersetzt, 1764. Italian: anon., 1750.

Dialogues upon the Usefulness of Ancient Medals. [Probably composed 1703–5.] First published in Tickell’s ed. of Addison’s Works. Vol. 1. 1721.

French trans. in vol. II of De L’Allégorie, ou Traités sur cette matière par Winckelmann, Addison, Sulzer, an VII de la République Françoise. See, also, Remarques sur les Dialogues d’Addison by Gibbon, E., rptd. in the above. originally composed in French at Lausanne. [Miscellaneous Works of Edward Gibbon, 1696. Vol. II—Pièces Détachées.]

Of the Christian Religion. Ibid. vol. IV. Rptd. as Evidences of the Christian Religion by Joseph Addison … to which are added several discourses against atheism and infidelity and in defence of the Christian Revelation.… 1730. Latin trans. by Seigneux de Correvon, G. 1746.

A Discourse On Ancient and Modern Learning. By the late … Joseph Addison, Esq.; Now first published from an Original Manuscript. 1739. [Of doubtful authenticity.]

A … Collection of the Psalms … as imitated … by … Mr. Addison. 1756.

C. Essays

The Tatler. See under II. Steele.

The Spectator. Begun 1 March 1711; appeared daily in a series of 555 nos. till 6 Dec. 1712, surviving imposition of stamp duty, 1 Aug., 1712. [See No. 445.] Addison contributed 274 papers, all signed by one of the letters of C L I O. In 1714 The Spectator was revived 18 June–29 September, possibly by Budgell (D. N. B.), and Addison contributed 24 papers.

Rptd in seven octavo vols., 1712–13 (see Wendell and Greenough, below, on the chronological order of the vols.), vol. VIII being added in 1715. The complete edition, frequently rptd. in eighteenth century, also in British Classics, 1803, vols. V–XII; Chalmers, A., British Essayists, vols. VI–XV, 1817; vols. V–XII, 1823 and 1856; Lynam, R., British Essayists, vols. IV–IX, 1827; Smith, G. G. with introd. essay by Dobson, A., 1897–8; Aitken, G. A. [with introd., notes, etc.], 1898. See, also, C[ampbell], J. D., Some portions of Essays. Contributed to the Spectator by … Joseph Addison, now first printed from his MS. Note Book, 1864.

Translations: French, 1746. The Spectator inspired what were, virtually, imitations in German e. g. Diskurse der Maler, 1721–3; Bodmer and Breitinger, Die Maler der Sitten, Zürich, 1729; both rptd 1746, as Die Maler der Sitten; Neue Beiträge), zum Vergnügen des Verstancles und Witzes (generally called Bremer Beiträge Bremen und Leipzig, 1745–59; Gerstenberg, Der Hypochondrist, 1763; Moser, Justus, Osnabrückische Intelligenzblätter, 1768.

See Milberg E., Die moralischen Wochenschriften des 18 Jhts. Ein Beitrag zur deutschen Literaturgesch… Meissen; Kawcynski, M., Studien zur Literurgesch. des XVIII Jhts., Moralische Zeitschriften, Leipzig, 1880; Koch, M., Uber die Beiziehungen der Englischen Literatur zur deutschen in 18 Jht., Leipzig, 1883.

Selections and Commentaries: Arnold, T., Oxford, 1866; Auszug des Englischen Zuschauers, nach einer neuen Uebersetzung, 1782–3; Dobson, A., 1906; Ewald, A. C., 1887; Green, J. R., 1880, last edn 1910 (G.T.S.); Les Beautés du Spectateur … en anglais et en français, 1804; Mézières, M. L., Encyclopédie Morale, ou choix des Essais du Spectateur, du Babillard et du Tuteur, 1826; Wendell, B. and Greenough, C. N., 1905 (Athenaeum Press Series), n. d.

Mottos: Mottoes in Five Volumes of The Tatler and to the Two Volumes of Spectators, Latin and English, 1712; The Mottoes to the Spectators, Tatlers, and Guardians, translated into English, 2nd edn., 1737.

Milton Papers: Bodmer, J. J., Critische Abhandlung … des Gedichtes J. Milton’s von dem verlohrnen Paradiese; der beygefüget ist Joseph Addison’s Abhandlung von den Schönheiten in demselben Gedichte, 1740; Cook, A. S., Criticisms on P. L., 1892; Lille, J. de, Paradise Lost … (Remarques d’Addison sur le Paradis Perdu), 1805; Mariottini, F., Critiche di Mr. Addison al P. P., 1894; Morley, H., Criticisms on Milton by J. A., 1886; Paraiso Perdido … com o Paraiso Restaurado … e as observaçoes de M. Addison sobre o Paraiso Perdido, 1789; Paraiso Perdido … coñ notas de Addison, 1882; Rolli, P., Note sopra i dodici libri del Paradiso Perduto, 1742; Scolari, F., Saggio di Critica sul Paradiso Perduto … e sulle annotazioni di Giuseppe Addison, 1818.

Ballad Papers: See A Comment upon the history of Tom Thumb, 1711 (in ridicule of Addison’s essays on Chevy Chase).

Coverley Papers: Duke, R. E. H., Reflection on the Character and Doings of the Sir Roger le Coverley of Addison, 1990.

See Lillie, C., Original and Genuine Letters sent to the Tatler and Spectator, 1725.

The Medleys for the year 1711. To which are prefixed the five Whig-Examiners. 1712. [The Whig-Examiner was by Addison. The Medley appeared 5 Oct., 1710–27 Nov., 1711, ed. by Maynwarning, A. and Oldmixon, J.]

Addison also contributed 51 pages to The Guardian, two to The Lover (for both of which see post), and edited The Freeholder (1st no. 23 Dec., 1715, rptd. in book, 1716), containing among academic and political essays, the papers on The Tory Foxhunter.

D. Correspondence

Correspondence of J. Hughes and Mr. Addison, 1773.

Johnson, Brimley. Eighteenth Century Letters, 1897, vol. 1 with introd. by Lane-Poole, S.

Letters by several eminent persons deceased, 1772.

Letters of … Mr. Addison and Mr. Pope from 1711–1715, 1735.

Warner, Rebecca. Epistolary curiosities … consisting of unpublished letters … illustrative of the Herbert family … from … Joseph Addison, part 11, 1818.

E. Biography, Criticism and Addisoniana

Addison, Joseph, ou un attique en Angleterre. 1873.

Addison, Joseph, and Sir Andrew Fountaine; or the Romance of a Portrait. [Rptd. from the Athenaeum.] 1858.

Addisoniana. 2 vols. 1803.

Aikin, Lucy. Life of Joseph Addison. 2 vols. 1843. (See Macaulay’s Essay below.)

Ashton, J. Social Life in the Reign of Queen Anne. New edn. 1883.

Beljame, A. Le public et les hommes de lettres en Angleterre au dix-huitième siècle. 1881. [pp. 225–338.]

British Censor, The. 1712. [Poetical satire.]

Contrast, The; or, Addison and Hume; describing their respective feelings and opinions. 1831.

Courthope, W. J. Addison (English Men of Letters). 1884.

D. [Paul, A.]. Addison’s influence on the social reform of his age. 1876.

Dobson, A. Side-Walk Studies. 1902.

Drake, N. Essays, Biographical, Critical, and Historical, Illustrative of the Tatler, Spectator, and Guardian. 3 vols. 1805.

Elton, O. The Augustan Ages. Edinburgh, 1899.

General Dictionary. The Life of Addison extracted from … to which is prefixed the life of Lancelot Addison … his father. 1733.

Gosse, E. W. A History of Eighteenth Century Literature. 1887.

Hazlitt, W. Lectures on the English Comic Writers. Works, vol. VIII. Edd. Waller, A. R. and Glover, A. 1903.

J., G. Memoirs of the Life and Writings of the Right Hon. Joseph Addison, Esq.; with his Character by Sir Richard Steele. 1719.

Johnson, Samuel. Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets. 1779–81; ed. Cunningham, P., 1854; ed. Waugh, A. 1896.

Kippis, A. Addison. In Biographia Britannica. 2nd edn. 1778.

Macaulay, T. B. The Life and Writings of Addison. [Review of Life by Aikin, Lucy.] In Edinburgh Review, July, 1843. [See Hadow, G. E., Essay on Addison by Macaulay and Thackeray, with twelve essays by Addison, 1907.]

Memoirs of the life of … Addison, with a particular account of his writings. 1719.

Perry, T. S. English Literature in the Eighteenth Century, pp. 130–82. 1883.

Punchard, C. D. Helps to the study of Addison’s Essays. 1898.

Ramsay, A. Richy and Sandy, A Pastoral on the death of Addison. 1720.

Regel, E. Thackeray’s Lectures on the English Humourists of the Eighteenth Century, mit bibliographischem Material, litterarischer Einleitung und sachlichen Anmerkungen für Studierende. 1886.

Sande, C. L. E. Die Grundlagen der literarischen Kritik bei Joseph Addison. 1906.

Spence, J. Anecdotes, Observations and Characters of Books and Men. 1820.

Steele, R. Dedicatory Epistle to The Drummer. See ante, sec. B. [Rptd. in Arber’s English Garner, VI, 523.]

Swift, J. The Journal to Stella. [See index to edn. by Aitken, G. A. 1901.]

Thackeray, W. M. The History of Henry Esmond, Esq. 1852.

—— The English Humorists of the Eighteenth Century. 1853.

Thomson, Mrs. K. Celebrated Friendships. Vol. 1. 1861.

Tickell, T. To the Earl of Warwick on the Death of Mr. Addison. Works, vol. 1. 1721.

Tyers, T. An historical Essay on Mr. Addison. 1783.

Vetter, T. Der Spectator als Quelle der Discourse der Maler. 1887.

Young, E. A letter to Mr. Tickell, occasioned by the death of … Addison. 1719.


[For complete bibl. see Aitken, G. A., Life of Richard Steele, vol. II, appendix V, 1889.]

A. Collected Editions

[Collections of British essayists and dramatists are mentioned under individual works.]

Dramatic: First three comedies published 1712; Complete plays, with The Christian Hero, 1759. Best modern ed. by Aitken, G. A. (Mermaid Series), 1903.

Political: The Political Writings of Sir Richard Steele, 1715, 1723. Oeuvres Diverses de Mr. Richard Steele, sur les Affaires de la Grande Bretagne. Traduit de l’Anglois, Amsterdam, 1715.

Essays: Nichols, J.: (1) The Lover and Reader; to which are prefixed The Whig Examiner, and a selection from the Medley of Papers written by the principal authors of The Tatler, Spectator, and Guardian, 1789. (2) The Theatre, … The Anti-Theatre; the character of Sir John Edgar; Steele’s Case with the Lord Chamberlain; the Crisis of Property, with the Sequel, Two Pasquins, etc., 1791. (3) The Town Talk, the Fish Pool, The Plebeian, The old Whig, The Spinster … 1789, 1790.

B. Particular (including Dramatic) Works

The Christian Hero: an Argument proving that no Principles but those of Religion are sufficient to make a great man. 1701. [About 20 edns. up to 1820.]

The Funeral; or Grief a-la-Mode. Acted at Drury Lane and published 1701, but dated 1702. [About 20 edns up to 1811.] Modern rpts: Bell’s British Theatre, vol. VIII, 1776; vol. XXVII, 1794; The New Engl. Theatre, vol. VII, 1777; Modern British Drama, vol. IV—Comedies, 1811; Aitken, G. A., Dramatic Works of R. Steele (Mermaid Series), 1903.

Translations: French: Les Funérailles, 1749; vol. VIII of Le Théâtre anglois by La Place, P. A. de, 1746–9. Italian: Il Funerale, 1742.

See A Comparison between the two stages, with … some critical remarks on the Funeral … and others, April, 1702 [attributed to Gildon, C.].

The Lying Lover; or, The Ladies Friendship. Acted Dec., 1703, published 1704. 8th edn. 1776. Rpt, Aitken, G. A. (Mermaid Series), 1894.

The Tender Husband; or, The Accomplished Fools. Acted April and published May, 1705. 14th edn. 1799. Rpts: Bell, vol. VIII, 1778; vol. XX, 1791; Mod. Brit. Drama vol. IV—Comedies, 1811; Dibdin’s London Theatre, vol. XXVI, 1818; London Stage, vol. III., 1824 and 1826; Jones’s Brit. Drama, vol. II, 1824 and 1853; Dick’s Standard Plays, no. 139, 1884; Aitken, G. A. (Mermaid Series).

The Englishman’s Thanks to the Duke of Marlborough. Jan., 1712. [Signed Scoto-Britannus.]

Letter to Sir Miles Wharton concerning Occasional Peers. March, 1713. [Signed F. Hicks.]

Poetical Miscellanies. Consisting of Original Poems and Translations By the best Hands. Published by Mr. Steele. 1714 (actually Dec., 1713). [Contains two of Steele’s productions: To Mr. Congreve, occasion’d by his comedy called The Way of the World and Procession; a Poem on her Majesties Funeral. By a gentleman of the Army, 1695.]

The Importance of Dunkirk consider’d. In defence of the Guardian of August the 7th. In a Letter to the Bailiff of Stockbridge. By Mr. Steele. Sept., 1713. [4 edns the same year.]

French trans.: Réflexions sur l’importance de Dunkerque, 1715.

[Steele had urged the demolition of the fortifications of Dunkirk in no. 128 of the Guardian. The Examiner having retorted by accusing him of disloyalty, Steele replied with the above pamphlet, which Swift met with Importance of the Guardian consider’d.]

The Crisis: Or a Discourse representing, from the most authentic Records, the just causes of the late Happy Revolution … With some Seasonable Remarks on the Danger of a Popish Successor. Jan., 1714. 3 more edns same year. Republication of a portion, 1745, as The Wisdom of our Fore Fathers recommended to the present times, shewing the noble stand made by them at the Revolution, and their care to provide against a Popish Succession, and 1746 as Extracts from Sir Richard Steele’s Crisis, adapted to the present more dangerous and more important Crisis.

Translations: French: La Crise, London and Amsterdam, both in 1714.

German: Des Herrn Richard Steele Crisis, 1714; Rpt., Famous Pamphlets [Morley’s Universal Lib.], 1886.

[Treats of the Hanoverian Succession. Answered by Swift’s Public Spirit of the Whigs, Feb., 1714, which stirred up a formidable paper war, and was the chief cause of Steele’s expulsion from the House of Commons, 18 March, 1714.]

Romish Ecclesiastical History of late years. May, 1714.

French trans.: L’Histoire ecclésiastique de Rome. (By Sallengre, A. H. de.)

Letter to a Member of Parliament concerning the Bill for preventing the Growth of Schism, June, 1714. 3 more edns. same year. Answered by Schism destructive of the Government … being a defence of the Bill … 1714.

The Ladies’ Library. Written by a Lady. Published by Mr. Steele. 3 vols. 1714.

French trans.: Janiçon, F. M. La Bibliothèque des Dames, 1717, 1719, 1724 (Amsterdam). Dutch: De Boekzaal der Juffers. Uit het Engelsch vertaalt (Amsterdam), 1764.

See Mr. Steele Detected: Or, the poor and oppressed Orphan’s Letters … Complaining of the great injustice done … by the Ladies’ Library … 1714. [By Meredith, R.]

Mr. Steele’s Apology for himself and his Writings. Oct., 1714. [A defence of his political character, containing allusions to his literary works.]

The Court of Honour; or, the laws, rules and ordinances establish’d for the suppression of Duels in France … With some observations thereon by Sir Richard Steele. 1720.

The Crisis of Property. An Argument proving that the Annuitants for ninety-nine years, as such, are not in the condition of other subjects of Great Britain, but by compact with the Legislature are exempt from any new direction relating to the said estates. 1 Feb., 1720; 2nd edn. same year. [Answered by Meres, Sir J., The Equity of Parliaments … vindicated; and The Crisis of Honesty, both in 1720. On 27 Feb. appeared a sequel by Steele, A Nation a Family.]

Preface to 2nd edn. of The Drummer (see ante, sec. I. B), 1721. [Addressed to William Congreve in reply to Tickell’s preface to Addison’s Works, 1721. Rptd. in Arber’s English Garner, vol. VI.]

The State of the Case between the Lord-Chamberlain of His Majesty’s Household, and the Governor of the Royal Company of Comedians. With the opinions of Pemberton, Northey and Parker, concerning the Theatre. 1720.

The Conscious Lovers. Acted Nov., 1722. Published in vol. 1 of Select Collection of English Plays. Edinburgh, 1755. Rpts. by Bell, Mrs. Inchbald, Brit. Theatre, vol. XII, 1808, and Dibdin, and in Modern British Drama and in London Stage. Ed. with notes, introduction, etc. by Aitken, G. A. (Mermaid Series).

Translations: French: Quétant, F. A., Les Amans réservés, Paris, 1778;

Vasse, Mme. de, Les Amants généreux. Théâtre Anglois, Paris, 1784. German: Ober-Elbe, Geandern von der [i. e. Müldener, J. E.], The Conscious Lovers, das ist: Die sich mit einander verstehenden Liebhaber … Dresden, 1752.

See, also, Victor, B., An Epistle to Sir Richard Steele, on his play call’d The Conscious Lovers, 1722, and Dennis, J., Remarks on … The Conscious Lovers, 1723.

The School of Action and The Gentleman. Fragments printed by Nichols, 1809, and Aitken, as above.

C. Essays

The Tatler. By Isaac Bickerstaff, Esq., appeared tri-weekly, 12 April, 1709–2nd Jan., 1711, 271 nos., about 188 by Steele. Rptd. in 4 vols., 1710–11. About 25 edns. up to 1797. Re-ed. Nichols, J., with notes, etc., 1786, 1789, 1797; Bisset, R., 1797; Chalmers, A., 1803, 1806, 1808; Sharpe’s Brit. Classics, vols. I–IV, 1804, 1815. Also in Chalmers’ and Lynam’s Brit. Ess. as above. Ed. Aitken, G. A., with notes, introduction, etc., 4 vols. 1898–9. [Standard edn.]

[Swift’s pamphlet, from which Steele borrowed the name, was Predictions for the Year 1708. Followed by other Predicitions, of uncertain authorship.]

Translations: French: Le Babillard, 2 vols., Amsterdam, 1723, 1725, 1734–5, 1737 (twice), See, also, Annotations on the Tatler, written originally in French, by Mons. Bournelle, and translated into English by Walter Wagstaffe, Esq. (W. Oldisworth) 1710. Dutch: De Snapper of de britsche Tuchtmeester. Door den Ridder Richard Steele. Uit het Engelsch vertaalt door P. le Clerc. 4 vols. Amsterdam, 1733–52.

Selection: Dobson, A., 1896.

Mottos: see under Spectator.

The Spectator: See under Addison. Steele contributed 236 papers.

The Guardian. Appeared daily 12 March–1 Oct., 1713. 175 nos. 2 vols. Dec., 1713 (dated 1714). [About 26 edns. by 1797.] Rpts. by Sharpe, Chalmers, Ferguson, Lynam, etc.

Translations: French: Le Mentor Moderne, Rouen, 1725, Amsterdam, 1727 and 1728, Bâle, 1737. Dutch: De Guardiaen of de britsche Zedenmeester, Amsterdam, 1723 [incomplete]. All these trans. by Van Effen, J. Also by Clercq, P. de, Rotterdam, 3 vols., 1730–1, 1734. German: Der getreue Hofmeister, sorfältige Vormund und neue Mentor, oder einige Discurse über die Sitten der gegenwärtigen Zeit.… Frankfort und Leipzig, 1725; Der Engländische Guardian oder Aufseher, 1749, by Gottsched, L. A. V.

Mottos: The Mottoes to the Two Volumes of Guardians, translated into English, 1713.

The Englishman; Being the Sequel to the Guardian. 56 nos., 6 Oct., 1713–11 Feb., 1714; 57th No. appeared 15 Feb., 1714, as The Englishman. Being the Close of the Paper so called. Revived 11 July–21 Nov., 1715.

The Lover. By Marmaduke Myrtle, Gent. 40 nos., 25 Feb.–27 May, 1714. Rpt., Nichols, J., 1789; Harrison’s Brit. Classics, vol. VIII, 1797; Lewin, W. (Camelot Series). 1887.

The Reader. 9 nos. 22 April–10 May, 1714; Rpt, Nichols, J., 1789.

Town Talk. In a Letter to a Lady in the Country. 9 nos., 17 Dec., 1715–13 Feb. 1716. Rpt, Nichols, J., 1789, 1790.

The Tea-Table. 3 nos., 2 Feb.–March, 1716.

Chit-Chat. In a Letter to a Lady in the Country. 3 nos., March, 1716.

Plebeian. To be continued weekly. 4 nos., 14 March–6 April, 1719. [Started to denounce Lord Sunderland’s bill for limiting the power of creating peers. Addison replied in The Old Whig (rptd. by Nichols, J., 1790); also met by The Patrician … In answer to the Plebeian. 4 nos., 1719.]

The Theatre. By Sir John Edgar. 28 nos., 2 Jan.–5 April, 1720. Rpt., Nichols, J., 1791.

D. Correspondence

Letters of … Mr. Steele … and Mr. Pope. 1735. Nichols, J. The Epistolary Correspondence of Sir Richard Steele … with literary and historical anecdotes. 1787. 2nd edn. [including his familiar letters to his wife and daughters; to which are prefixed fragments of three Plays… ]. 1809. Johnson, B. Eighteenth Century Letters, vol. 1. 1897.

E. Biography, Criticism and Ana
See, also, I. E ante

Aitken, G. A. Life of Richard Steele. 2 vols. 1889.

Dennis, J. Studies in English Literature. 1883.

Dilke, C. W. Papers of a Critic. 1875.

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[Hoffmann, F.] Two Very Odd Characters tho’ the Number be Even. 1714.

John Dennis, the Sheltring Poet’s Invitation to Richard Steele, The Secluded Party-Writer, and Member; to come and live with him in the Mint … 1714. (Imitation of Horace’s Epp. bk 1, ep. 1.)

Kawczynski, M. von. I. Einleitung und Verzeichniss der englischen, deutschen, französischen … moralischen Zeitschriften. II. Über den Tatler. Studien zur Literaturgeschichte des XVIIIten Jhts. Leipzig, 1880.

Lacy, J. The Steeleids, or the Tryal of Wit. 1714.

Lewis. L. The Advertisements of the Spectator. With intr. note by Kittredge, G. L. 1909.

Montgomery, H. R. Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Sir Richard Steele, … with his correspondence and notices of his Contemporaries, the Wits and Statesmen of Queen Anne’s Time. 1865.

Ricken, W. Bemerkungen über Anlage und Erfolg der wichtigsten Zeitschriften Steeles und den Einfluss Addisons auf die Entwicklung derselben. 1885.

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For bibliographies of Tickell, Ambrose Philips and Henry Carey see bibl. to Chap. VI. For bibl. of Budgell see bibl. to Chap. VIII, post.