The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume IX. From Steele and Addison to Pope and Swift.

XI. Berkeley and Contemporary Philosophy



Bagehot, W. Bp. Butler in Estimates of some Englishmen and Scotchmen. 1858.

Elton, O. The Augustan Ages. Edinburgh, 1899.

Farrar, A. S. Critical History of Free Thought. 1862.

Hunt, J. Religious Thought in England. 1870–2.

Lechler, G. V. Geschichte des englischen Deismus. Stuttgart, 1841.

Leland, J. View of the Principal Deistical Writers. 1754–6.

Lyon, G. L’idéalisme en Angleterre au XVIIIe siècle. 1888.

Millar, J. H. The Mid-Eighteenth Century. Edinburgh, 1902.

Pattison, M. In Essays and Reviews. 1860.

Robertson, J. M. Short History of Free Thought. 1906.

Stephen, Sir Leslie. English Thought in the Eighteenth Century. 2 vols. 1876.


Arithmetica absque Algebra aut Euclide demonstrata. Dublin, 1707.

Miscellanea Mathematica. Dublin, 1707.

An Essay towards a New Theory of Vision. Dublin, 1709.

A Treatise concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge. Part 1. Dublin, 1710. (2nd edn., with “Part 1” omitted from title, London, 1734.)

Passive Obedience: or, The Christian Doctrine of not resisting the Supreme Power, proved and vindicated, upon the Principles of the Law of Nature. 1712.

Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous. 1713.

De motu: sive de motus principio et natura, et de causa communicationis motuum. 1721.

An Essay towards preventing the ruin of Great Britain. 1721.

A Proposal for the better supplying of Churches in our Foreign Plantations and for converting the savage Americans to Christianity, by a College to be erected in the Summer Islands, otherwise called the Isles of Bermuda. 1725.

Alciphron, or the Minute Philosopher. 1732.

The Theory of Vision, or Visual Language … vindicated and explained. 1733.

The Analyst, or, A Discourse addressed to an infidel mathematician. 1734.

A Defence of Free-Thinking in Mathematics. 1735.

The Querist (three parts, Dublin, 1735, 1736, 1737; published together in revised form, 1750).

Siris, a chain of Philosophical Reflexions and Inquiries concerning the virtues of Tar-water and divers other subjects connected together and arising one from another. 1744.

Farther Thoughts on Tar-water (published in his Miscellany, 1752).

Collected Works

Editions appeared in 1784, 1820, 1837, 1843, 1871, 1897–8, 1901. The standard edition is that by Fraser, A. Cambbell, 4 vols., Oxford, 1871, revised, 1901. This is the first really complete edition, and contains the Commonplace Book, formerly unknown. Fraser has also published Selections from Berkeley, 1874 (frequently re-edited) and Berkeley (in Blackwood’s Phil. Classics), 1881. In these and in the 1901 edition of the Works copious bibliographical references will be found. On the text of the Commonplace Book, see Lorenz, T., in Mind, N. S., vol. XIII, and in Archiv für Ges. d. Phil., vol. XVIII. See, also, Balfour, A. J., biogr. introduction to edition by Sampson, G., vol. 1, 1897; Tyler, M. C. Three Men of Letters. (On G. B. and his American visit.) New York, 1895.

Vincent Alsop (d. 1703)

Antisozzo. [Against Bp. Sherlock.] 1675.

Duty and Interest united in praise and prayer for Kings. 1695.

God in the Mount. Sermon. 1696.

A Confutation of some of the Errors of D. Williams. 1698.

Peter Annet (1693–1769)

The Resurrection of Jesus considered. 3rd edn. 1744.

A Collection of the Tracts of a certain Free Enquirer. 1739–45.

John Balguy (1686–1748)

A Letter to a Deist concerning the Beauty and Excellency of Moral Virtue. 1726.

The Foundation of Moral Goodness. 1727. Part II, 1728.

A Collection of Tracts, Moral and Theological [containing the above and others]. 1734.

Essay on Redemption. 1741.

Andrew Baxter (1686–1750)

Enquiry into the nature of the Human Soul, wherein the Immateriality of the Soul is evinced from the principles of Reason and Philosophy. [1733.]

Richard Bentley

Matter and Motion cannot think; or, a Confutation of Atheism from the faculties of the Soul. 1692.

Remarks upon a late Discourse of Free-thinking. By Phileleutherus Lipsiensis. 1713.

See, also, bibliography to Chap. XIII, sec. 1, post.

Charles Blount

Anima Mundi. 1679.

Great is Diana of the Ephesians. 1680.

The Two First Books of Philostratus concerning the Life of Apollonius Tyaneus. 1680.

Miscellaneous Works, with preface by Charles Gildon. 1695.

Henry St. John, Viscount Bolingbroke

Philosophical Works. Ed. Mallet, D. 1754.

See, also, bibliography to Chaps. VII and VIII, sec. III, ante.

Peter Browne (d. 1735)

Letter in answer to a Book entitled Christianity not Mysterious. 1699.

Procedure, Extent, and Limits of the Human Understanding. 1728.

Things Divine and Supernatural conceived by Analogy with Things Natural and Human. 1733.

Joseph Butler

Fifteen Sermons preached at the Chapel of the Rolls Court. 1726.

The Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed, to the Constitution and Course of Nature. 1736.

Works. Ed. Halifax, S., Oxford, 1849; Gladstone, W. E., Oxford, 1896; Bernard, J. H., 1900.

Thomas Chubb (1679–1747)

The Supremacy of the Father asserted. 1715.

A Discourse concerning Reason. 1731.

The True Gospel of Jesus Christ. 1739.

Posthumous Works. 1748.

John Clarke (d. 1730)

An Examination of the [Wollaston’s] Notion of Moral Good and Evil. 1725.

The Foundation of Morality in theory and practice. York [1730]. [A criticism of Samuel Clarke.]

An Examination of what has been advanced relating to Moral Obligation. 1730.

An Examination of the Sketch or Plan of an Answer [by C. Middleton] to a Book entitled Christianity as old as the Creation. 1734.

John Clarke (dean of Salisbury) (1682–1757)

An Enquiry into the Cause and Origin of Evil. (Boyle Lecture, 1720.) [Defended the views of his brother, Samuel Clarke.]

Joseph Clarke (d. 1749)

Treatise of Space [a criticism of Samuel Clarke]. 1733.

A further examination of Dr. Clarke’s Notions of Space. 1734.

Samuel Clarke

Some Reflections on that part of a book called Amyntor, or a Defence of Milton’s Life, which relates to the Writings of the Primitive Fathers, and the Canon of the New Testament. 1699.

A Discourse concerning the Being and Attributes of God, the Obligations of Natural Religion, and the Truth and Certainty of the Christian Revelation. 1705, 1706. [Two courses of Boyle lectures, 1704 and 1705.]

A Letter to Mr. Dodwell, wherein all the arguments in his Epistolary Discourse are particularly answered. 1706.

The Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity. 1712.

A Collection of Papers which passed between the late learned Mr. Leibnitz and Dr. Clarke (to which are added Remarks upon a book entitled A Philosophical Enquiry concerning Human Liberty). 1717.

A Letter to Benjamin Hoadly, F.R.S., occasioned by the controversy relating to the proportion of Velocity and Force in Bodies in Motion. (Phil. Trans. No. 401.) 1728.

Cf. Le Rossignol, J. E., Ethical Philosophy of S. Clarke, Leipzig, 1892; Leroy, G. von, Die phil. Probleme in dem Briefwechsel zw. Leibniz und Clarke. Giessen, 1893.

Arthur Collier

Clavis Universalis: or, a New Inquiry after Truth. Being a Demonstration of the Non-Existence, or Impossibility, of an External World. 1713. (Rptd., Edinburgh, 1836 (with letters to Clarke, etc.); in Parr’s Metaphysical Tracts, 1837: Chicago, 1909.)

A Specimen of True Philosophy; in a Discourse on Genesis, the first chapter and the first verse. Sarum, 1730. (Rptd. in Parr’s Metaphysical Tracts, 1837.)

Logology, or a Treatise on the Logos or Word of God, in seven sermons on John, i. 1, 2, 3, 14. 1732.

Anthony Collins

Essay concerning the use of Reason in propositions the evidence whereof depends on Human Testimony. 1707.

Priestcraft in Perfection. 1709.

Vindication of the Divine Attributes. 1710.

A Discourse of Free-thinking, occasioned by the Rise and Growth of a Sect called Free-thinkers. 1713.

Inquiry concerning Human Liberty. 1715.

A Discourse of the Grounds and Reasons of the Christian Religion. 1724.

Scheme of Literal Prophecy considered. 1727.

Liberty and Necessity. 1729.

Richard Cumberland (the elder, bishop of Peterborough) (1631–1718)

De legibus Naturae. 1672.

A Brief Disquisition of the Law of Nature. 1692. (Abridged translation by Tyrrell, J., of Cumberland’s De Legibus Naturæ Disquisitio Philosophica.)

William Derham (1657–1735)

Physico-Theology (Boyle lectures). 1713.

Astro-Theology. 1715.

Christo-Theology. 1730.

Henry Dodwell (the elder) (1641–1711)

An Epistolary Discourse proving from the Scriptures and the first Fathers that the Soul is a principle naturally mortal, but immortalized actually by the pleasure of God. 1706.

A Preliminary Defence of the Epistolary Discourse. 1707.

The Natural Mortality of Human Souls clearly demonstrated. 1708.

Henry Dodwell (the younger)

Christianity not founded on argument. 1742.

James Hervey (1714–1761)

Collected Works. 6 vols. Edinburgh, 1769. 6 vols. Pontefract, 1805. 6 vols. 1825.

Meditations and Contemplations. 2 pts. 1746–7.

Theron and Aspasio, or a series of dialogues and letters upon the most important and interesting subjects. 3 vols. 1755.

Benjamin Hoadly (1676–1761)

Works. 3 vols. 1773.

The Reasonableness of Conformity to the Church of England. 1703.

A Persuasive to Lay-Conformity. 1704.

A Defence of the reasonableness of Conformity. 1705.

A Preservative against the principles and practices of the Non-jurors. 1716.

The nature of the Kingdom or Church of Christ. 1717.

An Answer to the Representation drawn up by the Committee of the Lower House of Convocation. 1718.

Francis Hutcheson

An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue, in two treatises. 1725.

An Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections, with Illustrations on the Moral Sense. 1728. (French trans., Amsterdam, 1749; German trans., Frankfort, 1762.)

Philosophiæ moralis institutio compendiaria. Glasgow, 1742. (English trans., Glasgow, 1747.)

Metaphysicæ Synopsis. Glasgow, 1742.

A System of Moral Philosophy. Glasgow, 1755.

Logicæ Compendium. Glasgow, 1756. Cf. Fowler, T., Shaftesbury and Hutcheson, 1882; Scott, W. R., Francis Hutcheson, Cambridge, 1900.

John Jackson (1686–1763)

The Existence and Unity of God proved from his Nature and Attributes [a defence of Clarke]. 1734.

Samuel Johnson (1649–1703)

Works. 1710. 2nd edn. 1713.

Julian the Apostate. 1682.

An Humble and hearty Address to all the English Protestants in the present army. 1686.

Julian’s Arts to undermine and extirpate Christianity. 1689.

An Argument proving that the abrogation of K. James from the regal throne [char] according to the Constitution. 1692.

Nathaniel Lardner (1684–1768)

Works, with life by A. Kippis. II vols. 1788. New edn. 10 vols. 1838.

The Credibility of the Gospel history. 17 vols. 1727–57.

A large collection of ancient Jewish and Heathen testimonies to the truth of the Christian Revelation. 4 vols. 1764–7.

Edmund Law (1703–1787)

An Essay on the Origin of Evil. By [Abp.] W. King. Translated from the Latin, with notes. 1731.

Inquiry into the Ideas of Space, Time, Immensity and Eternity. Cambridge, 1734.

William Law (1686–1761)

Remarks upon a late Book entituled the Fable of the Bees. 1723.

The Case of Reason, or Natural Religion, fairly and fully stated. 1732. See, also, bibliography to Chap. XII, post.

John Leland (1691–1766)

The Divine Authority of the Old and New Testament asserted. 2 vols. 1739–40.

Remarks on [H. Dodwell’s] Christianity not founded on Argument. 1744.

A Defence of Christianity. 2nd edn. 1753.

The Advantage and Necessity of the Christian Revelation. 2 vols. 1764.

Charles Leslie (1650–1722)

Theological works. 2 vols. 1721. 7 vols. Oxford, 1832.

The Snake in the Grass. 1696.

A Short and Easy method with the Deists. 1698. 5th edn. 1712.

Bernard Mandeville

Treatise of the Hypochondriack and Hysterick Passions. 1711.

The Fable of the Bees; or Private Vices, Public Benefits. 1714. (With An Essay on Charity and Charity Schools, and A Search into the Nature of Society, 1723.)

Free Thoughts on Religion. 1720.

The Origin of Honour, and the Usefulness of Christianity in War. 1732. Cf. Sakmann, P., Mandeville und die Bienenfabel-Controverse. Freiburg i/B., 1897.

John Mill (1645–1707)

Novum Testamentum cum lectionibus variantibus J. Millii. 1707.

Thomas Morgan (d. 1743)

Philosophical Principles of Medicine. 1725.

A Collection of Tracts. 1726.

The Moral Philosopher. In a Dialogue between Philalethes a Christian Deist, and Theophanes a Christian Jew. 1737.

—— Vol. II. Being a farther Vindication of Moral Truth and Reason. 1739.

—— Vol. III. Superstition and Tyranny inconsistent with Theocracy. 1740.

Anthony Astley Cooper, third Earl of Shaftesbury

Characteristics of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times, 1711; 2nd edn., 1713. (New reprint by J. M. Robertson, 1900; French trans., 1769; German trans., 1776–9.)

Letters to a Young Man at the University. 1716.

Cf. Brown, J., Essays on The Characteristics, 1751; Gi’zycki, G. v., Die Phil. Shaftesbury’s, Berlin, 1876; Zart, G., Einfluss d. engl. Phil. seit Bacon auf die deutsche Phil. d. 18ten Jahrhunderts, Berlin, 1881; Fowler, T., Shaftesbury and Hutcheson, 1882; Rand, B., Life, Letters, and Philosophical Regimen of Shaftesbury, 1900 [contains much material formerly unpublished].

Thomas Sherlock (1678–1761)

Works. Ed. Hughes, T. S. 5 vols. 1830.

The Use and Intent of Prophecy. 1725.

The Tryal of the Witnesses of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ. 1729. 16th edn. 1807.

Discourses at the Temple Church. 4 vols. 1754–8. Vol. V. Oxford, 1797.

Matthew Tindal

Essay of Obedience to the Supreme Powers. 1694.

Essay on the Power of the Magistrate and the Rights of Mankind in Matters of Religion. 1697.

The Liberty of the Press. 1698.

The Rights of the Christian Church. 1706.

Four Discourses on Obedience, Laws of Nations, Power of the Magistrate and Liberty of the Press. 1709.

A Defence of the Rights of the Christian Church. 2nd edn. 1709. [Burned by order of the House of Commons, 1710.]

Christianity as old as the Creation; or the Gospel a Republication of the Religion of Nature. 1730. (German trans., 1741.)

John Toland

Christianity not mysterious. 1696.

Life of Milton. 1698.

Amyntor, or a Defence of Milton’s Life. 1699.

The Art of Governing by Parties. 1701.

Anglia Libera. 1701.

Vindicius Liberius. 1702.

Letters to Serena. 1704.

An Account of the Courts of Prussia and Hanover. 1705.

Adeisidæmon. The Hague, 1709.

Origines Judaicæ. The Hague, 1709.

Nazarenus, or Jewish, Gentile and Mahometan Christianity. 1718.

Tetradymus. 1720.

Pantheisticon, sive Formula celebrandæ Sodalitatis Socraticæ. 1720.

A Collection of Several Pieces of Mr. John Toland (with life by Des Maizeaux). 1726. Cf. Berthold G., Johann Toland und der Monismus der Gegenwart. 1876.

William Wake (1657–1737)

Sermons. 1690.

The Genuine Epistles of the Apostolic Fathers.… Transl. with discussions by W. Wake. 1693.

Principles of the Christian religion. 1699.

The State of the Church and Clergy of England. 1703.

William Warburton (bishop of Gloucester)

Works. Ed. Hurd, R. (bishop of Worcester). 7 vols. 1788.

The Alliance between Church and State. 1736. 10th edn. 1846.

The Divine Legation of Moses demonstrated on the principles of a Religious Deist. In six books. 2 vols. 1738–41. 9th edn. 1765 (as vols III–V in continuation of the 2 vols. of the 4th edn. of the first part).

A Commentary on Mr. Pope’s Essay on Man. 1739. Remodelled as A Critical and Philosophical Commentary on Mr. Pope’s Essay.… 1742.

The Works of Shakespear … with Comments and Notes by Mr. Pope and Mr. Warburton. 8 vols. 1747.

A Letter to the Editor of the Letters on the Spirit of Patriotism. 1749.

A View of Lord Bolingbroke’s Philosophy in four Letters to a Friend. 1754–5.

The Doctrine of Grace, or the Office and Operation of the Holy Spirit vindicated from the Insults of Infidelity and the Abuses of Fanaticism. 2 vols. 1762.

Daniel Waterland (1683–1740)

Collected works, with life by W. van Mildert. 12 vols. Oxford, 1823–8.

A Vindication of Christ’s divinity. 1719. A Second Vindication. 1723. A Farther Vindication. 1724.

A Critical History of the Athanasian Creed. 1723.

William Whiston (1667–1752)

A New theory of the Earth. 1696.

A Short View of the Chronology of the Old Testament. Camb. 1702.

The Accomplishment of Scripture prophecies. Camb. 1708.

Primitive Christianity revived. 5 vols. 1711–12.

Historical memoirs of the life and writings of Dr. Samuel Clarke. 1730.

The Works of Josephus translated. 1737.

Memoirs of the life and writings of Mr. Whiston, written by himself. 2 vols. 1749–50.

William Wollaston (1660–1724)

The Religion of Nature Delineated. 1722.

Cf. Drechsler, Ueber Wollaston’s Moralphil. Erlangen, 1802.

Thomas Woolston

The Old Apology for the Truth of the Christian Religion … revived 1705.

The Moderator between an Infidel and an Apostate. 1725.

Discourses. 1727–9.