The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume IX. From Steele and Addison to Pope and Swift.

XII. William Law and the Mystics


A. Collected Works

Works. 9 vols. Printed for J. Richardson, 1753–76. [All references have been given to this edition, as it is the one usually in libraries.] Ed. Morgan, G. B. Privately ptd. for Moreton, G. (i.e. Morgan, G. B.), Setley, Brockenhurst, New Forest, Hampshire, 1892–3.

B. Separate Works

A Sermon Preach’d at Hazelingfield, … On Tuesday, July 7, 1713.… By W. Law, M. A. [Not reprinted in the collected editions of Law’s works.]

The Bishop of Bangor’s late Sermon and his Letter to Dr. Snape in Defence of it, Answer’d.… 1717.

A Second Letter to the Bishop of Bangor.… 1717.

A Reply to the Bishop of Bangor’s Answer to the Representation of the Committee of Convocation.… 1719.

Remarks upon A Late Book, Entituled, The Fable of the Bees.… 1724.

The Absolute Unlawfulness of the Stage-Entertainment Fully Demonstrated. 1726.

A Practical Treatise upon Christian Perfection.… 1726.

A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life. Adapted to the State and Condition of All Orders of Christians.… 1729.

The Case of Reason, or Natural Religion, Fairly and Fully Stated. In Answer to a Book, Entitul’d Christianity as old as the Creation.… 1731.

A Demonstration of the Gross and Fundamental Errors Of a late Book, called A Plain Account of the Nature and End of the Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper, & c.… 1737.

The Grounds and Reasons of Christian Regeneration, or, the New-Birth.… 1739.

An Earnest and Serious Answer to Dr. Trapp’s Discourse of the Folly, Sin, and Danger, of being Righteous over-much.… 1740.

An Appeal to all that Doubt, or Disbelieve The Truths of the Gospel.… To which are added, Some Animadversions upon Dr. Trapp’s Late Reply.… 1740.

The Spirit of Prayer; or, The Soul rising out of the Vanity of Time, into the Riches of Eternity. In Two Parts. Part I. 1749. Part II. 1750.

The Way to Divine Knowledge.… 1752.

The Spirit of Love. Part the First. 1752. The Second Part. 1754.

A Short but Sufficient Confutation of … Warburton’s Projected Defence (As he calls it) of Christianity, in his Divine Legation of Moses.… 1757.

Of Justification by Faith and Works. A Dialogue between A Methodist and A Churchman.… 1760.

A Collection of Letters.… 1760. [In which is included (pp. 141–62) a tract called Christian Piety, freed from The many Delusions of Modern Enthusiasts.… By Philalethes, 2nd edn., 1756.]

An Humble, Earnest, and Affectionate Address to the Clergy.… 1761.

Letters to a Lady inclined to enter into the Communion of the Church of Rome.… 1779.

[These were written in 1731–2, to Miss Dodwell, daughter of Henry Dodwell, the nonjuror, but were not published until 1779. They are therefore not in the collected edition of the Works, 1762. See Morgan’s edition, 1892–3.]

[Three more letters written by Law [to Langcake?] in 1749, 1750, and 1753, were printed in]

A Serious and Affectionate Address to All Orders of Men.… Bath: … 1781.

C. Modern Reprints of Single Works (Selected List)

Remarks on the Fable of the Bees, with an Introduction by Maurice, F. D. Cambridge, 1844.

A Serious Call. Ed. Overton, J. H. 1898. Ed. Bigg, C. 1899.

Liberal and Mystical Writings of William Law. Edd. Scott Palmer, W. and Du Bose, W. P. 1908.

D. Unpublished MSS.

The Walton Collection in Dr. Williams’s Library, Gordon Square, W. C. [This is a unique and valuable collection, made by Christopher Walton (1809–77), an ardent admirer of Law and Boehme. It consists (a) of MSS., (b) of printed books. The MSS. are principally: unpublished MSS. and letters of Law (see 1146. 1. 1. 75; 11. 10, 11. II); letters written to Law by various people; Freher’s writings and drawings, of which there are duplicates in the B. M. (see under Freher, below); copies of Freher’s works in Law’s handwriting; Dr. Francis Lee’s MSS. (see under Lee, below); a mass of Walton’s own MSS., preparatory to his projected work on Law, Boehme, Freher, Lee and other mystics. The printed books are a valuable collection of mystical writings, of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries principally.]

E. Controversial Works answered by Law or connected with his Writings

(1) Bangorian Controversy.

Hickes, George. The Constitution of the Catholick Church, and the Nature and Consequences of Schism.… 1716.

Hoadly, Benjamin (bp. of Bangor and of Winchester). A Preservative against the Principles and Practices of the Nonjurors.… 1716.

—— The Nature of the Kingdom, or Church, of Christ.… 1717.

—— An Answer to the Representation drawn up by the Committee of the Lower-House of Convocation.… 1718.

—— A Plain Account of the Nature and End of the Sacrament of the Lord’s-Supper.… 1735.

—— The Works of Benjamin Hoadly, D.D. 3 vols.… 1773.

Philanagnostes Criticus. An Account of the Pamphlets in the Bangorian Controversy (1719). Hoadly’s Works, vol. II, pp. 381–401.

Prat, D. A review of the writers in the controversy with the Bishop of Bangor.… 1717.

For further literature on this subject, see B. M. catalogue, under Hoadly, also under Gilbert Burnet, Thomas Pyle, John Jackson and A. Snape; and cf. Figgis, J. Neville, Hoadly and the Bangorian Controversy, The Guardian, 11 Oct., 1905, p. 1679.

(2) Attack on the Stage.

Dennis, John. The Stage Defended, … Occasion’d by Mr. Law’s late Pamphlet against Stage-Entertainments.… 1726.

Law Outlaw’d: Or, A Short Reply to Mr. Law’s Long Declamation against the Stage.… 1726.

(3) Reply to Mandeville.

Mandeville, Bernard de. The Fable of the Bees: or, Private Vices Publick Benefits.… 1714.

[The poem was first printed in 1705, in a 6d. pamphlet, under the title The Grumbling Hive; or Knaves turn’d Honest.]

(4) The Deist Controversy.

[Tindal, Matthew.] Christianity as old as the Creation. Vol. I. 1730. [The second volume was destroyed in MS. by bp. Gibson, to whom it had been bequeathed.]

(5) Answer to Dr. Trapp.

Trapp, Joseph. The Nature, Folly, Sin, and Danger of being Righteous overmuch; with a particular view to the Doctrines and Practices of certain Modern Enthusiasts. 3rd edn.… 1739.

(6) Warburton.

Warburton, William (bp. of Gloucester). The Divine Legation of Moses.… 2 vols. 1738–41.

—— The Works of William Warburton. 7 vols.… 1788. [For Warburton’s remarks about Law, see specially The Doctrine of Grace, Works, vol. IV, pp. 565, 624, 626, 699–707.]

Payne, John. A Letter occasioned by the Lord Bishop of Gloucester’s Doctrine of Grace.… 1763.

Hartley, Thomas. A Short Defence of the Mystical Writers; against some Reflections in a late Work, intitled The Doctrine of Grace; [appended to] Paradise Restored.… 1764.

Horne, George (bp. of Norwich). Cautions to the Readers of Mr. Law. (c. 1750?) [Printed in Appendix to] Memoirs of George Horne, … by William Jones.… 1795, pp. 198–204.

—— A Letter to a Lady on the Subject of Jacob Behmen’s Writings. April 8, 1758. [In Appendix, ibid. pp. 205–21, see, also, ibid. pp. 73–4.]

F. Biographical and Critical Works

A Letter to Mr. Law; Occasion’d by reading his Treatise on Christian Perfection: By a Lover of Mankind.… 1728.

A Short Account of the two charitable Foundations at Kings-Cliffe, Stamford. 1755.

Article on Law in Chalmers’s Biographical Dictionary, vol. XX, 1815.

Four Letters on Law and his works (by W. Hamilton Reid, Z. Cozens, “Ouranius” and “Theophilus”) in The Gentleman’s Magazine, Nov. 1800, pp. 1038–41.

[Langcake, Thomas.] A Serious and Affectionate Address to all orders of Men … in which are earnestly recommended the Works of .… William Law.… Bath … 1781.

[Moreton, G.] Memorials of the Birthplace and Residence of … Law at King’s Cliffe.… Guildford, 1895.

Overton, J. H. The Nonjurors, their lives, principles and writings. 1902.

—— William Law, Nonjuror and Mystic. 1881.

Tighe, Richard. A Short account of the Life and Writings of … Law.… 1813.

[Walton, Christopher.] Notes and Materials for an adequate Biography of … Law.… 1854.

[A mine of information in all that relates to Law and Boehme, as well as to many other mystics, principally of the eighteenth century. The part more directly relating to Law will be found imbedded in a footnote, which runs from p. 334 to p. 628.]

A. John Byrom

An Epistle to a gentleman of the Temple.… 1749.

Enthusiasm; a Poetical Essay. 1751.

Miscellaneous Poems. 2 vols. Manchester. 1773. Rptd. at Leeds, 1814.

Francis Okely collected and printed those of Byrom’s poems which are paraphrased from Law, under the title:

Seasonably Alarming and Humiliating … Truths … in a Metrical Version of certain select passages taken from the works of … William Law.… 1774.

The Private Journal and Literary Remains of John Byrom. Ed. Parkinson, R. 4 vols. Chetham Society. 1854–7.

The Poems of John Byrom. Ed. Ward, A. W. 2 vols. Chetham Society. Manchester, 1894–5. [A third volume is about to appear.]

A Catalogue of the Library of the late John Byrom.… 1848. [Contains a valuable list of contemporary and earlier mystical and theological books, tracts and pamphlets.]

Stephen, Sir Leslie. John Byrom. Studies of a Bibliographer, vol. I. 1898.

B. Henry Brooke

The Fool of Quality; or the History of Henry Earl of Moreland. In four volumes.… 1766. Vol. V, 1770. Ed. Kingsley, Charles. 2 vols. 1859. Rpt. in one vol. Routledge, 1906. [All references are given to this latter edn.]

The History of Henry, Earl of Moreland. 1781. [Abridged and edited by John Wesley.]

Poetical Works. 3rd edn. 4 vols. Dublin, 1792. [With life of Brooke.]

Brooke, Richard Sinclair. Article on Henry Brooke in Dublin University Magazine, Feb., 1852.

A. Thomas Bromley (d. 1691)

The Way to the Sabbath of Rest, or the Soul’s Progress in the work of the New-Birth.… 1710. [First published c. 1678?, a 2nd edn. in 1692.]

B. George Cheyne (1671–1743)

Philosophical Principles of Natural Religion.… 1705; 2nd edn., corrected and enlarged.… 1715.

Dr. Cheyne’s own Account of Himself and of his writings.… 1743.

C. Jane Lead (1623–1704)

[For list of works, published between 1681 and 1704, see D. of N. B. See, also, art in British Quarterly Review, vol. LVIII, pp. 181–7.]

D. Francis Lee (1661–1719)

AIIOEIIIOMENA[char], or, Dissertations. 2 vols.… 1752.

[A paraphrase or enlargement of Boehme’s Supersensual Life, printed in “Law’s edn.” of Boehme, and said by the editors to be by Law, vol. IV, 1781, q. v., below. The MS. of this, in Lee’s writing, is in Dr. Williams’s library, II. 8.]

The Last Hours of Jane Lead, by an Eye and Ear Witness. [No English edn. of this is now to be found, although a German translation of it was published at Amsterdam. A MS. re-translation into English is in Dr. Williams’s library, C. 5. 30.]

Mystical poems [in Jane Lead’s works]. These are almost certainly by Lee. See Notes and Queries, Ser. IV, vol. XII, p. 381.

For many other books by Lee published anonymously, see Dictionary of National Biography, vol. XXXII.

Unpublished MSS. from his hand are preserved in Dr. Williams’s library, C. 5, 30, II. 8, II. 6.

Secretan, C. F. Memoirs of the Life and Times of the pious Robert Nelson. 1860 [pp. 69–71, and chap. III].

[Though Law had little sympathy with the “Philadelphians” (see below) of which society Lee was a member, he was deeply interested in Lee’s writings. He obtained Lee’s MSS. about 1740, and copied out many of them, and the MSS. were found among Law’s papers after his death. Walton procured them from Miss Gibbon’s successors, and deposited them in Dr. Williams’s library, where they now are. See Walton’s Notes, pp. 225, 505. For an account of Lee, see Overton’s William Law, pp. 408–10, as well as Lee’s Dissertations, and Secretan’s Life of Nelson.]

E. Morgan Llwyd (1619–1659)

[A Welsh puritan divine and mystic writer, who, during the civil war, was with the Parliamentary forces in England, probably as chaplain. He must undoubtedly have known Boehme, and he wrote many books in Welsh which are full of Boehme’s philosophy; more especially:]

Llyfr y tri Aderyn (Book of the Three Birds). 1653. Rptd. by Dent, MCM. Ed. Owen Jones. 1889.

An English translation of the above by Parry, L. J., was published in the Transactions of the National Eisteddfod of Wales, Llandudno, 1896, pp. 195 ff.

[One book in English is attributed to Llwyd:]

Lazarus and his Sisters Discoursing of Paradise: … 1655. [A MS. copy of this in Francis Lee’s writing was found among Law’s papers, and is now in Dr. Williams’s library.]

For an account of Morgan Llwyd and his writings, with extracts from the Three Birds, see Palmer, A. N., A History of the Older Nonconformity of Wrexham and its Neighbourhood, Wrexham, 1888.

For a fine appreciation of him by a contemporary, see A Winding Sheet for Mr. Baxter’s Dead … being an Apology for several ministers.… 1685.

F. Philadelphian Society (1697–1703)

Propositions … extracted from the Reasons for the Foundation … of a Philadelphian Society.… 1697.

The State of the Philadelphian Society.… 1697. [By Philadelphus, i. e. Francis Lee.]

Theosophical Transactions of the Philadelphian Society. Nos. 1–5.… 1697.

See a good article on the Philadelphian Society in The Dawn (London), Dec., 1862, pp. 236–42.

[This society, founded in 1697, and dissolved in 1703, was formed in order “to cultivate spiritual and practical piety, founded on the study of Jacob Behmen.” Its principal members were Mrs. Jane Lead; Dr. Francis Lee, q. v., and Thomas Bromley. For Law’s views on it see Animadversions, Works, VI, p. 313, and Walton’s Notes, p. 370, also letter to Langcake, ibid. pp. 45–6. See also correspondence of Henry Dodwell and Francis Lee, 1698–9, in Walton’s Notes, pp. 188–232.]

G. Richard Roach (1662–1730)

The Great Crisis.… 1725. [Published 1726.] [Interesting for an account of contemporary mystics, the Philadelphian Society, etc.]

The Imperial Standard of Messiah Triumphant.… [1727.]

H. Thomas Tryon (1634–1703)

The Way to Health.… 1691. Tryon’s Letters.… 1700. The Knowledge of a Man’s Self.… 1703. Some Memoirs of the Life of Mr. Tho. Tryon [mostly by himself]. 1705. And other works.

Gordon, Alex. A Pythagorean of the seventeenth century. [A paper.] 1871.

[Tryon is an interesting person, a student of Pythagoras and of Boehme. He was read by Byrom (Journal, vol. I, pt. 2, p. 615), and was doubtless known to Law.]

A. Jacob Boehme (1575–1624)

[Although Boehme wrote some 32 works, only one small volume, Weg zu Christo (=(13), (14), (15) in list below), was published during his lifetime. His MSS. went to Holland, and were printed one by one at Amsterdam, principally by Heinrich Beets, a Dutch merchant, between the years 1633–76. Beets’s editions date from 1656–77. Three of his works, Christ’s Testaments, the Book of Prayer, and 177 Theosophic Questions, were also printed at Dresden, 1641, 1642. The first collected edition of Boehme was edited by Gichtel, J. G., Amsterdam, 1682. His works—which must have been circulated in MS.—were translated into English, by John Sparrow, John Ellistone, Humphrey Blunden and Charles and Durand Hotham, and published in London between the years 1645–62. Some of his books have rather long titles, and, in the various lists given of them, are not always called by the same name, nor are the same treatises always published together, which is confusing. Below is given a complete list of his works in the order in which he wrote them, followed by the titles of the English translations. For the best account of Boehme’s writings, see Hamberger’s Jacob Böhme, 1844.]

(1) Collected Editions


Des Gottseeligen Hoch Erleuchteten Jacob Böhmens Teutonici Philosophi Alle Theosophische Wercken. [Ed. Gichtel, J. G.] Amsterdam, 1682 and 1715.

Theosophia revelata. Das ist: Alle göttliche Schriften … J. Böhmens. Anbey mit … J. G. Gichtels … Summarien … ausgezieret. 7 vols. Amsterdam, 1730–1. [This is the best and fullest edn. of Boehme.]

Jakob Böhme’s sämmtliche Werke herausgegeben von K. W. Schiebler. 7 vols. Leipzig, 1831–46.


[There is no complete English edition of Boehme’s works, although the various translations published between 1644–62 make up a complete edition, with several works duplicated. The 4 vols. 4 to of 1764–81, generally called “Law’s edition,” contain only 17 out of Boehme’s 32 works. This edition was not edited by Law, but by his friends George Ward and Thomas Langcake, who published it after Law’s death, at the cost of Mrs. Hutcheson. They rptd. it in the main, with some few alterations, from the earlier English editions by Sparrow. Below is the title of this edition, and its contents.]

The works of Jacob Behmen, The Teutonic Theosopher. Volume I containing, I The Aurora. II The Three Principles. To which is prefixed, The Life of the Author. With Figures, illustrating his Principles, left by the Reverend William Law, M. A. 1764. [Vol. III. 1772. Vol. IV. 1781.]

On pp. v-vi of vol. I there is A Dialogue between Zelotes, Alphabetus, Rusticus and Theophilus, almost certainly by Law.

Altogether, the following works are printed in this edition (see complete list): vol. I, (1), (2); vol. II, (3), (4), (5), (31); vol. III, (19), (20); vol. IV, (9), (17), (13), (14), (15), (21), (24), (10), (23).

A complete reprint of Boehme’s works in English is now in hand, ed. by Barker, C. J., the first two volumes of which, The Threefold Life of Man, and The Three Principles, have already been published.

(2) Complete list of Jacob Boehme’s Works in the order in which he wrote them

(1) 1612. The Aurora [unfinished]. With Notes added by his own hand, in 1620. (2) 1619. The Three Principles of the Divine Essence. With an Appendix Concerning the Threefold Life of Man. (3) 1620. The Threefold Life of Man. (4) 1620. Answers to Forty Questions Concerning the Soul, proposed by Dr. Balthasar Walter. With an Appendix Concerning the Soul and its Image, and of the Turba. (5) 1620. The Treatise of the Incarnation; in 3 parts. (i) Of the Incarnation of Jesus Christ. (ii) Of the Suffering, Dying, Death, and Resurrection of Christ. (iii) Of the Tree of Faith. (6) 1620. A Book of the Great Six Points. Also a small book of other Six Points. (7) 1620. Of the Earthly and of the Heavenly Mystery. (8) 1620. Of the Last Times. [2 Epistles to P[aul] K[eym], included in (32) i.] (9) 1621. De Signatura Rerum. (10) 1621. Of the Four Complexions. (11) 1621. Two Apologies to Balthasar Tylcken: (i) for the Aurora, (ii) for Predestination and the Incarnation. (12) 1621. Considerations upon Esaiah Stiefel’s Book concerning the Threefold State of Man, and the New Birth. (13) 1622. A Book of True Repentance. (14) 1622. A Book of True Resignation. (15) 1622. A Book of Regeneration. (16) 1622. The Apology in answer to Esaiah Stiefel concerning Perfection. (17) 1623. A Book of Predestination and Election. (18) 1623. A Short Compendium of Repentance. (19) 1623. Mysterium Magnum. (20) 1623. A Table of the Divine Manifestation, or an Exposition of the Threefold World. (21) 1624. The Super-sensual [or superrational] life. (22) 1624. Of Divine Contemplation or Vision [unfinished]. (23) 1624. Of Christ’s Testaments, viz.: Baptism and the Supper. (24) 1624. A Dialogue between an enlightened and unenlightened Soul [or the Discourse of Illumination]. (25) 1624. An Apology in Answer to Gregory Richter [i. e. for the Books of True Repentance and True Resignation]. (26) 1624. 177 Theosophic Questions, with answers to 13 of them [unfinished]. (27) 1624. An Epitome of the Mysterium Magnum. (28) 1624. The Holy Week or a Prayer Book [unfinished]. (29) 1624. A Table of the Three Principles. (30) 1624. A Book of the Last Judgment [lost]. (31) 1624. The Clavis. (32) 1618–24. Sixty-two Theosophic Epistles. (i) 35 Epistles. (ii) 25 Epistles. (iii) 2 other Epistles (nos. 7 and 20 in German edn.), one forefixed to The Super-sensual Life (21), the other forms the Preface to the second Apology to B. Tylcken (11).

(3) English Translations
(For corresponding numbers see IV, A, (2), ante.)

Two Theosophicall Epistles: … Whereunto is added, A Dialogue between an Enlightened and a Distressed Soule.… 1645. Epistles 1 and 10 of (32) i and (24).

XL Questions concerning the Soule. Propounded by Dr. Balthasar Walter. And Answered, By Jacob Behmen.… 1647 [reissue slightly altered in] 1665. [Translated by Sparrow.] (4).

The Clavis, or Key, or, An Exposition of some principall Matters, and words in the writings of Jacob Behmen.… 1647. (31).

The Second Booke. Concerning The Three Principles of The Divine Essence.… 1648. [With] An Appendix or … Description of the Threefold Life in Man. [Translated by Sparrow, with preface by him.] (2).

The Way to Christ Discovered.… 1648, and 1654. (13), (14), (15), Epistle 1 of (32) iii, (21), (24), (18), chap. XV of (3) and Epistle 32 of (32) i, are all included here. [Translated by Blunden.]

The Fourth Epistle. A Letter to Paul Keym: Being An answer to him concerning Our Last Times.… The Fifth Epistle. Another Letter to Paul Keym.… 1649. [Translated by Sparrow.] Epistles 4 and 5 in (32) i.

The Epistles of Jacob Behmen.… 1649. [35 Epistles translated by Ellistone.] (32) i.

The High and Deep Searching Out of The Threefold Life of Man through [or according to] The Three Principles.… Englished by J. Sparrow.… 1650. (3).

Signatura Rerum: … 1651. [Translated by Ellistone.] (9).

Of Christs Testaments, viz.: Baptisme and the Supper. Englished by John Sparrow.… 1652. (23).

A Consideration Upon the Book of Esaias Stiefel of the Threefold State of Man and his New Birth.… 1653. (12).

Mysterium Magnum or An Exposition of the First Book of Moses called Genesis.… 1654. Fol. [Trans. Ellistone and Sparrow.] (19) and (27).

The Tree of Christian Faith.… MDCXLIV (1654?). iii of (5).

Four Tables of Divine Revelation.… Englished by H. B.… 1654. Fol. [The first of these Tables is (20), the second, third and fourth are (29).]

A Consolatory Treatise of the Four Complexions.… 1654. [Preface by Ch. Hotham.] (10).

Jacob Behme’s Table, Of the Divine Manifestation. Or An Exposition of The Threefold World.… 1655. [Sparrow.] (20).

Concerning the Election of Grace.… 1655. [With] An Appendix To the Book of Election. [Preface by Sparrow.] (17).

Aurora. That is, the Day-Spring.… By Jacob Behme.… 1656. [Preface by Sparrow.] (1).

The Fifth Book of the Authour.… 1659. [Preface by Sparrow.] (5).

Several Treatises of Jacob Behme.… Englished by John Sparrow.… 1661. (6), (26), (7), (28), (22), (29), letter 6 of (32) i, re-translated.

The Remainder of Books written By Jacob Behme. Englished by John Sparrow.… 1662. (32) iii and (11), (10), (12), (16), (25), (32), ii.

The Way to Christ Discovered.… Manchester.… 1752. [A reprint by Byrom of Blunden’s edn., 1648.]

The Way to Christ … also … the Four Complexions. Bath, 1775. [With preface; a different translation from H. Blunden’s, 1648 and 1654.]

(4) Biographical and Critical

[The earliest (and best) life of Boehme is that written by his friend Abraham von Franckenberg, in the printed editions always dated 1651, but written by Franckenberg (in Latin) in 1637. It reached Amsterdam, and was translated into German as early as 1638—and probably was circulated in MS. (see a letter from “E. H.” from Görlitz, 21 Feb., 1669, printed by Francis Okely, in his Memoirs of J. B., 1780, p. 122). It is printed in many editions of Boehme’s works, as, for instance, in the Forty Questions, pub. 1665 in London, or in German, in the 1682 edition, Amsterdam, and it forms the basis of all the other lives, such as the earliest English one below, or that prefixed to “Law’s edition.” For a collection (translated into English) of all documents giving firsthand information as to Boehme’s life and work, see Francis Okely’s Memoirs, 1780, below.]

Anderdon. J. One Blow at Babel in those of the People called Behmenites. Whose Foundation is … upon their own Carnal Conceptions, begotten in their Imaginations upon Jacob Behmen’s Writings.… 1662.

Boutroux, E. Le Philosophe allemand Jacob Boehme. Paris, Alcan, 1888.

Brockhaus’ Konversations-Lexikon. Leipzig, 1892. New edn. 1901. Article, Böhme.

Deussen, Paul. Jakob Böhme. Über sein Leben und seine Philosophie. Kiel, 1897.

Ederheimer, E. Jakob Böhme und die Romantiker. [Heidelberg, 1904.] [J. B.’s influence on Tieck and Novalis.]

Fechner, H. A. Jakob Böhme, sein Leben und seine Schriften, in Neues Lausitzches Magazin, vol. XXXIII, pp. 313–446. Görlitz, 1857. [Reviewed in Saturday Review, 12 July, 1873.]

Hamberger, Julius. Die Lehre des deutschen Philosophen Jakob Böhme.… Munich, 1844.

Harless, G. C. A. von. Jakob Böhme und die Alchymisten.… Berlin, 1870.

Hartmann, F. The Life and Doctrines of … Jacob Boehme, 1891.

Hotham, Charles. Ad Philosophiam Teutonicam Manuductio.… 1648. Translated under title: Introduction to the Teutonick Philosophie. Being a Determination concerning the Original of the Soul.… By C. Hotham, one of the Fellows of Peter-House.… 1650. [Hotham later (1654) translated the Four Complexions.]

Hotham, Durand. The Life of Jacob Behmen, written by Durand Hotham, Esquire, Novemb., 1653.… 1654.

As to Charles Hotham and his brother, see Mullinger, J. Bass, The University of Cambridge, vol. III, p. 418.

Life, The, of one Jacob Boehmen: Who although he were a Very Meane man, yet wrote the most Wonderful deepe Knowledge in Naturall and Divine Things That any hath been knowne to doe since the Apostles Times.… 1644.

Martensen, H. L. Jacob Boehme: his life and teaching … translated from the Danish by T. Rhys Evans. 1885. [Reviewed in Saturday Review, 26 June, 1886, pp. 895–6.]

Mecurius Teutonicus.… Being Divers Prophetical Passages … Gathered out of the mysticall Writings of … Behmen.… 1649 and 1656.

[More, Henry.] Philosophiæ Teutonicæ Censura. 1670.

Okely, Francis. Memoirs of the Life, Death, Burial and Wonderful Writings of Jacob Behmen.… Northampton, 1780.

Penny, Mrs. A. J. An Introduction to the Study of Jacob Boehme’s writings. New York, 1901. [Essays collected from Light and Life, Nov., Dec., 1885, and Feb., 1887, and from Light, and printed privately by Grace Shaw Duff. Most valuable for serious study, but unfortunately not in the B. M.]

Poiret, Pierre. Petri Poiret Bibliotheca Mysticorum selecta.… Amsterdam, 1708. [Jacob Boehme, pp. 162–76, 186.]

P[ordage], J. A Treatise of Eternal Nature with Her seven Essential Forms, … J. P. M.D.… 1681. [An account of Boehme’s philosophy by Dr. Pordage, bound up with “Theologia Mystica.… By J. P. M. D.… 1683,” and not separately catalogued in B. M.]

Taylor, E. J. Behmen’s Theosophick philosophy unfolded. 1691.

Theological and Practical Divinity: with Extracts of several Treatises written by Jacob Behmen.… Published By a Gentleman retired from Business.… 1769.

Theological and Practical Divinity: A Compendious View Of the Grounds of the Teutonick Philosophy. With considerations, by way of Enquiry into the … writings of Jacob Behmen.… Published by a Gentleman retired from Business.… 1770.

Walton, C. Notes and Materials.… 1854. [See under Law.]

Whyte, A. Jacob Behmen: An Appreciation. Edinburgh, 1894.

[Articles on Boehme, of great value, are]

Allen, G. W. A Master Mystic. An Introduction to the teaching of Jacob Boehme, in the Theosophical Review, 1904–5, vol. XXXV, pp. 202, 321, 420, and vol. XXXVI, p. 160.

—— A Series of “Excerpts from Boehme” with comments, in The Seeker, ed. Allen, G. W., Nov., 1906, Aug., Nov., 1907, May, Aug., Nov., 1908, Feb., May, Aug., Nov., 1909 (in progress).

[The influence of Boehme on Sir Isaac Newton is an interesting point which cannot be developed here. Law definitely asserts that Newton owed a debt to Boehme. See Some Animadversions upon Dr. Trapp’s Reply, Works, vol. VI, pp. 314–15, The Spirit of Love, Works, vol. VIII, p. 38, and letter to Dr. Cheyne, printed in Walton’s Notes, p. 46, note. See, also, Walton’s Notes, p. 408, note, and 416, note; the Athenæum, 26 Jan., 1867, p. 127, and Overton’s William Law, p. 189.]

B. Other Writers
Antoinette Bourignon (1616–1680)
(1) Works

Toutes les œuvres de Mlle. Anthoinette Bourignon. 19 vols. Amsterdam, 1679–84 and 1686. [Ed. by Poiret, Pierre.]

[Mademoiselle Bourignon knew Boehme’s works, and had met admirers of him in Amsterdam; she enumerates him with Tauler, à Kempis and Engelbrecht in her list of inspired and illuminated men. Her works were translated into English (in 1699, 1703, 1707, 1708, etc.) and much read, more especially in Scotland.]

(2) Biographical and Critical

Gordon, Alex. The Fortunes of a Flemish Mystic. A paper read before the Liverpool Literary and Philosophical Society, 4 March, 1872.

La vie de Damlle. Antoinette Bourignon. Amsterdam, 1683. [By Poiret, Pierre, translated by Dr. Garden into English, in 1696. See below. Poiret also wrote an apologetic Mémoire of her in the Nouvelles de la rép. des lettres, 1685, and defended her against V. L. von Seckendorf, 1686.]

Linde, Antonius von der. Antoinette Bourignon, das Licht der Welt. Leiden, 1895. [This gives a very full account of her life and work, and of the people closely connected with her, also a full list of her writings on pp. 261–4, and of early lives and later accounts of her.]

Macewen, Alex. R. Antoinette Bourignon, Quietist. 1910.

Select Lives of Foreigners, eminent in piety. 2nd edn. Bristol, 1796.

The Light of the World: A most True Relation of a Pilgrimess, M. Antonia Bourignon, Travelling towards Eternity, To which is added A Preface to the English Reader. 1696. [Preface by George Garden, an Aberdeen minister (1650–78) who warmly espoused Mlle. Bourignon’s views, and was, in consequence, in 1701, deposed by the General Assembly for teaching her “damnable errors.” His chief opponent was Dr. Cockburn, Episcopalian minister of Aberdeen, who wrote Bourignianism Detected. Garden replied to this as well as to Leslie’s Preface to The Snake in the Grass, in his Apology for M. Bourignon, 1699. His nephew, Garden, J., also a mystic, was later a friend of Byrom; see Journal, vol. I, pt. 2, pp. 519–20 and vol. II, pt. I, pp. 128–30.]

(3) The Bourignon Controversy

Cockburn, John. Bourignianism Detected: or the Delusions and Errors of Antonia Bourignon, and her Growing Sect. 1698.

—— A Letter from John Cockburn, D.D. To his Friend in London. 1698.

[Leslie, Charles.] The Snake in the Grass. Third Edition.… 1698.

[Garden, Dr. George.] An Apology for M. Antonia Bourignon, in Four Parts. 1699.

White, George. Advertisement anent the reading of the books of Antonia Bourignon. Aberdeen, 1700.

[Barclay, Robert.] A Modest and Serious Address to the well meaning Followers of Ant. Bourignon. 1708.

Hog, James. Notes about the Spirit’s Operations.… Edinburgh, 1709.

[In 1771 the ordination formula was drawn up by General Assembly of the Free Kirk of Scotland, embracing a renunciation of Bourignian errors, which remained until in 1844 “Erastian” was substituted.]

Dionysius Andreas Freher (1649–1728)

A large quantity of MS. writings (duplicates in B. M. and Dr. Williams’s library), some few in Freher’s hand, but mostly copied by his friend Leuchter. They are commentaries on and expositions of Boehme, and were much prized by Law, who himself copied out a number of them. Freher also left many symbolical drawings, illustrating Boehme, which are very interesting. Some of these were specially chosen out by Law, and were reproduced in the edition of Boehme’s works (1764–81) which appeared after Law’s death.

For some account of Freher by himself, see Walton’s Notes and Materials, p. 141, note; and, of his writings, with copious extracts from them, ibid. pp. 258–491., and for a list of the MSS., see Walton, pp. 679–84, or Appendix B. to Barker’s reprint of Boehme’s Threefold Life of Man, 1909. There are 27 vols. of Freher’s MSS. in the B. M. [Add. MSS. 5767–5794].

Madame Guyon (1648–1717)
(1) Works

Lettres Chrétiennes et Spirituelles (Madame Guyon et Fénelon), à Londres (Lyons), 1767–8. 5 vols. [Ed. by Dutoit, J. P., and really published at Lyons.]

[“Lettres Spirituelles” in] Le Directeur Mistique, ou Les uvres Spirituelles De Mons. Bertot, … Directeur de Made Guion. [4 vols.] A Cologne.… 1726.

Opuscules Spirituels De Madame J. M. B. de la Mothe Guion. A Cologne.… 1704.

Recueil de Divers Traitez De Theologie Mystique qui entrent dans la Célèbre Dispute du Quietisme qui s’agite présentement en France. Contenant I. Le Moyen court et très facile de faire Oraison: II. L’Explication du Cantique des Cantiques. Cologne.… 1699.

Vie de Madame J. M. B. de La Mothe Guion, écrite par elle-même.… Cologne, 1720. [Ed. by Poiret, P.]

(2) Biographical and Critical

Allen, T. T. Autobiography of Madame Guyon. 2 vols.… 1897.

Guerrier, L. Madame Guyon, sa vie, sa doctrine, et son influence. Orleans, 1881.

Life, The, of Lady Guion.… Bristol.… 1772.

Masson, M. Fénelon et Madame Guyon, Documents nouveaux et inédits.… Paris, 1907.

Matter, M. Le Mysticisme en France au Temps de Fénelon. Paris, 1865.

Quakerism A la-Mode: or a History of Quietism, Particularly that of the Lord Archbishop of Cambray and Madam Guyone. Containing An Account of her Life, her Prophecies and Visions.… 1698.

Upham, T. C. Life … of Madame Guyon. 2nd edn. 1905.

Nicolas Malebranche (1638–1715)

De La Recherche de la Vérité.… A Paris, chez André Pralard. 2 vols. 1674. 3rd vol. 1678. [Two English translations appeared in 1694.]

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772–1834)
[See note 2 to p. 367, ante.]

Thomas Erskine of Linlathen (1788–1870)

Letters of Thomas Erskine. Ed. Hanna, W. Edinburgh. 2nd edn. 1878.

Henderson, H. F. Erskine of Linlathen, selections and biography. Edinburgh, 1899. [See specially, pp. 26, 27, 67.]

Louis Claude De Saint-Martin (1743–1803)

[St. Martin visited London in 1787, where he became acquainted with Law’s writings which profoundly impressed him. He apparently did not read Boehme until 1792, but was from that time onwards his devoted student and admirer and called him le prince des Philosophes divins. He translated several of Boehme’s works into French.]

(1) Works
[For complete list, see bibliographies by Matter, M., and Waite, A. E.; see below.]

De l’Esprit des Choses.… Paris, 1800. [St. Martin describes this as a preparatory introduction to the works of Boehme.]

Le Ministère de l’Homme-esprit. Paris, 1802. [Translated into English by Penny, E. B., 1864. Contains, pp. 21–8, a masterly summary of Boehme’s philosophy.]

uvres Posthumes de St. Martin. 2 vols. Tours, 1807.

La Correspondance Inédite de L. C. de Saint-Martin, dit le Philosophe Inconnu, et Kirchberger, Baron de Liebistorf … du 22 mai, 1792, jusqu’au 7 novembre 1797.… Amsterdam. Paris [printed], 1862. [Translated into English, under the title:]

Mystical Philosophy and Spirit Manifestations. Selections from the … Correspondence between L. C. de Saint-Martin … and … Baron de Liebistorf.… Translated by E. B. Penny.… Exeter, 1863.

(2) Biographical and Critical

Caro, E. Du Mysticisme au XVIIIe siècle. Essai sur la vie et la doctrine de Saint-martin. Paris, 1852.

Franck, A. Le Philosophie Mystique en France à la Fin du XVIIIe siècle. Paris, 1866.

Gence, J. B. M. Notice Biographique sur Louis Claude de Saint-Martin. Paris, 1824. [See specially extract in Walton’s Notes, pp. 492–626.]

Matter, M. Saint-Martin, le Philosophe Inconnu.… Paris, 1862. 2nd edn. 1864.

Moreau, L. Le Philosophe Inconnu, Réflexions sur les Idées de L. C. de S. Martin.… Paris, 1850.

Waite, A. E. The Life of Louis Claude de Saint-Martin … and the substance of his transcendental doctrine. 1901.


[See, on this, Hamberger’s preface to his Jacob Boehme, and Hoffmann’s book on Baader below.]

Baader, F. X. v. Sämmtliche Werke, 16 vols. Leipzig, 1851–60. [Specially] Vorlesungen über speculative Dogmatik. Fermenta Cognitionis. Gesammelten philosophischen Aufsatz.

Hegel, G. W. F. (1770–1831). [Account of Boehme’s philosophy in] Geschichte der Philosophie, vol. III, Werke, Berlin, 1836, vol. XV, pp. 296–327.

Hoffmann, F. Franz v. Baader in seinem Verhältniss zu Hegel und Schelling. Leipzig, 1850.

Schelling, F. W. J. (1775–1854). [His later philosophy, specially] Philosophische Untersuchungen über das Wesen der menschlichen Freiheit. 1809.

—— Denkmal der Schrift … des Herrn F. H. Jacobi. 1812.

[See Schopenhauer’s remarks on Schelling’s debt to Boehme, in Handschriftlichen Nachlass, Leipzig, 1864, p. 261.]

Schlegel, K. W. F. v. (1774–1829). Vorlesungen über die Philosophie des Lebens. 1828. [Much in it is owing to Boehme.]

[Interesting notices of Boehme in] Vorlesungen aus den Jahren 1804–6, vol. I, pp. 424–9. Geschichte der alten und neuen Literatur, 1815, vol. II, pp. 223–5.


Abbey, C. J. The English Church and its Bishops; 1700–1800. 2 vols. 1887.

—— and Overton, J. H. The English Church in the Eighteenth Century. 2 vols. 1878.

Barclay, R. The Inner Life of the Religious Societies of the Commonwealth. 1876.

Baxter, Richard. Reliquiae Baxterianae, or Mr. Richard Baxter’s Narrative of the most memorable passages of his Life and Times.… 1696.

Blunt, J. H. Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, Ecclesiastical Parties and Schools of religious thought. 1874.

De la Croix, Henri. Études d’histoire et de psychologie du Mysticisme. Paris, 1908.

Fox, George. A Journal, or Historical Account of the life, travels, Sufferings … of … George Fox.… 2 vols. 1694–8. Ed. from the MSS. by Penny, Norman, with introd. by Harvey, T. E. 2 vols. Cambridge, 1911.

Gichtel, Johann Georg. Theosophia Practica. 3rd edn. Leyden, 1722. [See Index vol. for Boehme, Lead and other mystics.]

Inge, W. R. Christian Mysticism. (Bampton Lectures.) 1899.

—— Studies in the English Mystics. (St. Margaret’s Lectures.) 1899.

Jones, Rufus M. Studies in Mystical Religion. 1909.

Julian, John. A Dictionary of Hymnology. Revised edn. 1907. [Short accounts of A. Bourignon, Mme. Guyon, Byrom, etc.]

Lecky, W. E. H. A History of England in the Eighteenth Century. Vols. I and II. 3rd edn. 1883–90.

Marsden, J. B. History of Christian Churches and Sects. 2 vols. 1856.

Overton, J. H. The Nonjurors, their lives, principles and writings. 1902.

—— and Relton, F. The English Church from the accession of George I to the end of the eighteenth century (1714–1800). 1906. [Vol. VII in A History of the English Church, ed. Hunt, W.]

Pattison, Mark. Tendencies of Religious Thought in England [in] Essays and Reviews, 1860. Essays of Mark Pattison, Oxford.… 1889, vol. II, pp. 42–118.

Perry, G. G. The Student’s English Church History. Vols. II and III. 1878. 1887.

Récejac, E. Essai sur les fondements de la connaissance mystique. Paris, 1897. [Eng. translation by Upton, S. C., 1899.]

Sewel, William. The History of the Rise, Increase and Progress of the … Quakers. 1722.

Skeats, H. S. A History of the Free Churches of England. 1894.

Southey, Robert. The Life of Wesley, 3rd edn., with notes by … S. T. Coleridge.… 1846. 2 vols.
Stephen, Sir Leslie. History of English Thought in the eighteenth century. 2 vols. 1876.

Underhill, Evelyn. Mysticism. 1911.

Vaughan, R. A. Hours with the Mystics. 2 vols. 1860.

Wedgwood, Julia. John Wesley, and the Evangelical Reaction of the Eighteenth Century. 1870.

Wesley, John. Works. 14 vols. 1829.

Woodward, Josiah. An Account of the Rise and Progress of the Religious Societies, In the City of London … the 3rd edn. enlarged.… 1701.