The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume IX. From Steele and Addison to Pope and Swift.

XV. Education


A. Writings on Education

Ainsworth, Robert (1660–1743). The most natural and easie way of Institution; containing proposals for making a domestic education less chargeable to parents, and more easie and beneficial to children. 1698.

—— Thesaurus linguae Latinae compendiarius. 1736. Ed., with additions, by B. W. Beatson and W. Ellis. 1840.

Brinsley, J. Ludus Literarius or the Grammar Schoole, shewing how to proceede from the first entrance into learning to the highest perfection required in the grammar schooles, etc. 1612.

B., F. [Brokesby, Francis]. Of Education with respect to Grammar Schools and the Universities; concluding with directions to young students in the Universities. 1701.

Budgell, Eustace. Spectator, Nos. 307, 313, 337, 353.

Clarke, John. An Essay upon the Education of Youth in Grammar Schools. 1720. 2nd edn. with very large additions. 1730.

Comenius [Komensky], John Amos. Opera Didactica Omnia. Amsterdam, 1657.

Common Errors, The, in the Education of Children and their consequences, with the methods to remedy them, etc. 1744.

Dury, John. The Reformed School. n. d. [1649?].

“Gentleman,” “A” (Thos. Baker). Reflection upon Learning, etc. 2nd edn. 1700.

Guardian, The. Nos. 62, 72, 94, 105, 155.

Hoole, Charles. A new discovery of the old art of teaching schoole, etc. 1660.

Keatinge, M. W. The Great Didactic of John Amos Comenius. 1896.

Law, William. A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life. Adapted to the State and Condition of all Orders of Christians. [1728.] 10th edn. 1772. [Chaps. XVIII–XIX on education of boys and girls respectively.]

Locke, John. The Works of. 3 vols. [Thoughts and Conduct in vol. III.] 1714.

—— Some Thoughts concerning Education. 1693. Ed. Quick, R. H. Cambridge, 1898.

—— Locke’s Conduct of the Understanding. Ed. Fowler, T. Oxford, 1890.

See also bibliography to Vol. VIII, Chap. XIV, ante.

“Lover of her Sex” [Astell, Mary]. A Serious Proposal to the ladies for the advancement of their true and great interest. 1694. 4th edn. with an added 2nd part. 1697.

[Makin, Mrs. Bathsua?.] An Essay to Revive the antient Education of Gentlewomen in Religion, Manners, Arts and Tongues, with an Answer to the Objections against this Way of Education. 1673.

[Milton, John.] Of Education. To Master Samuel Hartlib. 1644. Ed. Browning, O. Cambridge, 1895.

Newton, Richard. University Education. 1726.

Osborn, Francis. Advice to a Son, or Directions for your better Conduct through the various and most important Encounters of this Life, etc. [1656 D. of N.B.] 6th edn. Oxford, 1658.

[Petty, William.] The Advice of W. P. to Mr. S. Hartlib for the advancement of some particular parts of learning. 1648.

Steele, Richard. Tatler, Nos. 63, 173, 234, 252.

—— Spectator, Nos. 157, 168, 230, 294, 330, 430.

—— Guardian, Nos. 72, 94.

Swift, Jonathan. Works, vol. IX, An Essay on Modern Education. Of the Education of Ladies. Ed. Scott, Sir Walter. 19 vols. 1883.

Tatler, The, Nos. 63, 173, 197, 234, 252, 253.

[Walker, Obadiah.] Of Education especially of Young Gentlemen. In Two Parts. Oxford, 1673.

Wase, Christopher. Considerations concerning Free Schools as settled in England. Oxford, 1678.

Wotton, Henry. An Essay on the Education of Children in the First Rudiments of Learning, together with a Narrative of what knowledge William Wotton, a child six years of age, had attained unto upon the improvement of those rudiments in the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew Tongues. 1753. [Written, 1672.]

B. Courtesy Books

Costeker, J. L. The Fine Gentleman, or the Complete Education of a Young Nobleman. 1732.

Defoe, Daniel. The Compleat English Gentleman. Ed. Bülbring, K., with introduction and notes. 1890.

Ellis, Clement. The Gentile Sinner, or England’s Brave Gentleman characteriz’d in a Letter to a Friend, both as he is and as he should be. 2nd edn. Oxford, 1661.

Gailhard, J. The Compleat Gentleman, or Directions for the Education of Youth as to their Breeding at Home and Travelling Abroad. In Two Treatises, by J. Gailhard, who hath been Tutor abroad to several of the Nobility and Gentry. 1678.

Gentleman’s Calling, The. 1667. [Preface dated 1659.]

Higford, William. The Institution of a Gentleman. In Three Parts. 1660.

Peacham, Henry. The Compleat Gentleman Fashioning him absolute in the most necessary and commendable qualities concerning Minde, or Bodie, that may be required in a Noble Gentleman. 1622.

—— Rpt. of 1634 edn. with introduction by Gordon, G. S. Oxford, 1906.

[Penton, Stephen.] The Guardian’s Instruction, or the Gentleman’s Romance. Written for the Diversion and Service of the Gentry. 1688. Rpt. with introduction by Sturmer, H. H. 1897.

—— New Instructions to the Guardian, etc. 1694.

“Person of Honour, A.” The Courtier’s Calling; shewing the ways of making a Fortune and the Art of Living at Court according to the Maxims of Policy and Morality. In Two Parts, the First concerning Noblemen, the Second concerning Gentlemen. 1675.

C. Projects and Utopias

Bellers, John. Proposals for raising a Colledge of Industry of all useful Trades and Husbandry with profit for the Rich, a Plentiful Living for the Poor, and a Good Education for Youth, which will be Advantage to the Government by an Increase of the People and their Riches. 1696.

Cowley, A. A proposition for the advancement of experimental philosophy. 1660/1.

—— Cowley’s Essays. Ed. Lumby, J. R. Cambridge, 1887. Ed. Waller, A. R. Cambridge, 1906.

D. F. [Defoe, Daniel]. An Essay upon Projects. 1697.

Harrington, James. The Commonwealth of Oceana. 1656. Ed. Morley, H. 1887.

Hartlib, Samuel. A description of the famous Kingdom of Macaria. 1641.

Maidwell, Mr. [Lewis]. An Essay upon the necessity and excellency of education. With an [account of erecting the Royal Mathematical Schole Recommended by His Royal Highness, Lord High Admiral of England etc., upon a Report from the Navy Board. Declaring amongst other advantages to the Nation the particular services of such a Foundation to the Royal Navy of England, in Its several capacitys. 1705.

Novae Solymae—Libri Sex. [Anon.] 1648. Trans. by Begley, Walter under title: Nova Solyma. The Ideal City, or Jerusalem Regained, etc. 2 vols. 1902.

A. Pamphlets and Sermons

Ayliffe, J. The Case of Dr. Ayliffe at Oxford. 1716.

Boreman, Robert. [char] the triumph of learning and of truth, an answer to four queries: Need of Universities? etc., 1653. Harl. Miscellany, vol. I, p. 505. 1808.

Chandler, S. Doing good recommended, and An Answer to Essay on Charity Schools. 1728.

Charity Schools, An Account of, lately erected in England, Wales, and Ireland. 6th edn. (Annual Publication.) 1707.

Charity Mathematical School, An Account of the, in Hatton Garden Founded Anno Domini 1715, etc. 1749.

D. D. [Defoe, Daniel]. More Short Ways with the Dissenters. 1704.

Dell, William. The Tryal of Spirits … whereunto is added … The right Reformation of Learning, Schools and Universities, according to the State of the Gospel, and the light that shines therein, etc. 1653.

—— The Stumbling Stone, etc. 1653.

Green, John. The Academic, or a Disputation on the State of the University of Cambridge and the Propriety of the Regulations made in it on the 11th of May and the 26th day of June 1750. 1750.

Remarks on the Academic. 1751.

Hall, Thomas. Vindiciae Literarum, the Schools Guarded, etc. 1654.

Hendley, W. A Defence of the Charity Schools wherein the many false, scandalous and malicious objections of those advocates for ignorance and irreligion, the authors of the Fable of the Bees, and Cato’s Letter in the British Journal, June 15, 1723, are fully and distinctly answer’d, etc. 1725.

[Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan or the Matter, Forme and Power of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiastical and Civil. 1651. Rptd., ed. Waller, A. R. (Cambridge English Classics.) Cambridge, 1904.]

—— Tracts of Mr. Thos. Hobbs of Malmesbury. I. Behemoth, the History of the Causes of the Civil Wars of England from 1640 to 1660. 1682.

—— English Works of Thomas Hobbes. Ed. Molesworth, Sir William. II vols. 1839–46. [Behemoth in vol. VI.]

Mandeville, Bernard. See bibliography to Chap. XI, ante.

Newton, R. Rules and Statutes for the Government of Hertford College, in the University of Oxford, with observations on particular parts of them, shewing the Reasonableness thereof. 1714.

[Owen, James, of Shrewsbury.] Moderation still a Virtue, in Answer to several bitter Pamphlets … with A Defence of the Private Academies against Mr. Sacheverell’s misrepresentations of ’em. 1704.

[Palmer, Samuel.] A Defence of the Dissenters’ Education in their Private Academies in Answer to Mr. W——y’s disingenuous and Un-Christian Reflections upon ’em. 1703.

—— A Vindication of the Learning, Loyalty, Morals and most Christian Behaviour of the Dissenters towards the Church of England. In answer to Mr. Wesley’s Defence of his letter concerning the Dissenter’s Education in their Private Academies, and to Mr. Sacheverel’s Injurious Reflections upon them. 1705.

Sacheverell, Henry. The Nature and Mischief of Prejudice and Partiality stated in a sermon preach’d at St. Mary’s in Oxford at the Assizes held there, March 9th, 170 3/4. 2nd edn. Oxford, 1704.

—— The Communication of Sin. A Sermon preach’d at the Assizes held at Derby, August 15th, 1709. 1709.

Sedgwick, Joseph. [char] learning’s Necessity to an able minister of the Gospel. 1653.

—— A Sermon preached at St. Marie’s in the University of Cambridge, May 1st, 1653 … Together with an Appendix, wherein Mr. Del’s Stumblingstoneis briefly repli’d into. And a fuller Discourse of the use of Universities and Learning, etc. 1653.

Talbott, James. The Christian School Master, or the Duty of those who are employ’d in the Publick Instruction of Children, especially in Charity Schools. 1707.

H. D. [Ward, Seth]. Preface by N. S. [Wilkins, John]. Vindiciae Academiarum, containing some brief Animadversions upon Mr. Webster’s Book stil’d The Examination of Academies, Together with an Appendix concerning what M. Hobbs and M. Dell have published on this Argument. Oxford, 1654.

Waterhous[e], Edward. An humble Apologie for Learning and Learned Men. 1652/3.

Webster, John [Chaplain in the Army]. Academiarum Examen, wherein is discussed and examined the Matter, Method, and Customs of Academick and Scholastic Learning and the insufficiency thereof discovered and laid open; and also some expedient proposed for the Reforming of Schools and the perfecting and promoting of all kind of Science, etc. 1654.

[Wesley, Samuel, the Elder.] A Letter from a Country Divine to his friend in London concerning the Education of Dissenters in their Private Academies, in several parts of this Nation. 1702. [Written in 1693.]

—— A Defence of a Letter concerning the education of Dissenters in their Private Academies: with a more full and satisfactory account of the same, and of their morals and behaviour towards the Church of England. Being an Answer to the Defence of Dissenters’ Education. 1704.

—— A Reply to Mr. Palmer’s Vindication of the Learning, Loyalty, Morals, and most Christian Behaviour of the Dissenters towards the Church of England. 1707.

Willis, Richard. A Sermon Preach’d in the Parish Church of St. Andrews, Holborn. 1704. [“Account of Charity Schools,” appended.]

Wilson, Thos. (Bp. of Sodor and Man). The True Christian Method of Educating the Children both of the Poor and Rich, etc. 1724.

B. Ancients v. Moderns Controversy
See, also, bibliographies to Chaps. IV and XIII, sec. I B, ante.

Bentley, Richard. A Dissertation upon the Epistles of Phalaris. 1699.

B., C. [Boyle, Charles]. Phalaridis Epistolae. Ex MSS. recensuit C. B. Oxford, 1695.

—— Dr. Bentley’s dissertations on the Epistles of Phalaris, etc., examin’d. 1698.

Burnet, Thomas. The Theory of the Earth, containing an account of the original of the Earth, and of all the general changes which it hath already undergone, or is to undergo till the consummation of all things. 1684.

—— Telluris Theoria Sacra—Orbis Nostri Originem et Mutationes Generales, quas aut jam subiit aut olim subiturus est, complectens. 2 vols. 1681–9.

Fontenelle, Bernard Le Bovier de. Oeuvres diverses, etc. Amsterdam, 1701. [Vol. III contains, Une Digression sur les Anciens et les Modernes.]

Perrault, Charles. Parallèle des anciens et des modernes en ce qui regarde les arts et les sciences. Dialogues. 4 vols. Paris, 1688.

Swift, Jonathan. A Tale of a Tub, written for the universal improvement of mankind: To which is added An Account of a Battel between the antient and modern books in St. James’s Library. 1704.

Swift, Jonathan. A Discourse concerning the mechanical operation of the Spirit, in a letter to a Friend. 1704.

—— The Battle of the Books; with selections from the literature of the Phalaris controversy. Ed. Guthkelch, A. 1908.

Temple, Sir William. Miscellanea, Part II [containing, “Essay on Ancient and Modern Learning”]. 1690.

—— Essays on Ancient and Modern Learning, and Poetry. Ed. Spingarn, J. E. Oxford, 1909.

Wotton, William. Reflections upon Ancient and Modern Learning. 1694.

—— (with Richard Bentley). Reflections upon ancient and modern Learning. with a dissertation upon the Epistles of Phalaris, etc. 2nd edn. of preceding. 1697.

—— A Defense of the Reflections upon Ancient and Modern Learning, with observations upon The (sic) Tale of a Tub. 1705.


Act of Uniformity. Documents relating to the Settlement of the Church of England by the Act of Uniformity of 1662. 1862.

Adamson, J. W. Pioneers of Modern Education, 1600–1700. Cambridge, 1905.

Allen, W. O., and McClure, E. Two Hundred Years: the History of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 1898.

Ayliffe, J. The Antient and Present State of the University of Oxford. 2 vols. 1714.

Baker, Thomas. History of the College of St. John the Evangelist, Cambridge. Ed. Mayor, J. E. B. Cambridge, 1869.

Brodrick, G. C. A History of the University of Oxford. 2nd edn. 1891.

—— Memorials of Merton College. Oxford Hist. Soc. Oxford, 1885.

Carlisle, Nicholas. A Concise Description of the Endowed Grammar Schools in England and Wales. 2 vols. 1818.

Clark, Andrew. The Life and Times of Anthony Wood, Antiquary of Oxford, 1632–1695, described by Himself. Oxford Hist. Soc. 5 vols. Oxford, 1891–1900.

Cooper, C. H. Annals of Cambridge. 5 vols. Cambridge, 1842–1908.

Godley, A. D. Oxford in the Eighteenth Century. 1908.

Laurie, S. S. John Amos Comenius, Bishop of the Moravians. Cambridge, 1887.

Leach, Arthur F. A History of Winchester College. 1899.

—— Educational Charters and Documents, 598–1909. Cambridge, 1911.

Lyte, H. C. Maxwell. A History of Eton College. 4th edn. 1911.

McDonnell, M. F. J. A History of St. Paul’s School. 1909.

Montmorency, J. E. G. de. State Intervention in English Education. Cambridge, 1902.

Mullinger, J. B. A History of the University of Cambridge, vols. I–III. 1886–1911.

Oxford Historical Society’s Publications. Collectanea. First Series. 1885. Second Series. 1890. Third Series. Oxford, 1896.

Sandys, Sir J. E. A History of Classical Scholarship. 3 vols. Cambridge, 1903–8.

Sargeant, John. Annals of Westminster School. 1898.

Sprat, Thomas (Bp. of Rochester). The History of the Royal Society of London for the Improving of Natural Knowledge. 1667.

Ward, John. The Lives of the Professors of Gresham College. 2 vols. 1740.

Watson, Foster. The English Grammar Schools to 1660; their curriculum and practice. Cambridge, 1908.

—— The Beginnings of the teaching of modern subjects in England. 1909.

—— The Education of the Early Nonconformists. In Gentleman’s Magazine, vol. CCXCI, Sept., 1901.

—— Unlicensed Nonconformist Schoolmasters, 1662, and onwards. In Gentleman’s Magazine, vol. CCXCIII, Sept., 1902.

—— Schoolmaster Followers of Bacon and Comenius. In Gentleman’s Magazine, vol. CCXCV, Nov., 1903.

Wordsworth, Christopher. Scholae Academicae: Some Account of the Studies at the English Universities in the Eighteenth Century. Cambridge, 1877.


A., N. [Amhurst, Nicholas]. Terrae Filius, or the Secret History of the University of Oxford, in several Essays, to which are added Remarks upon a late Book entitled University Education, by Newton, R., D.D., Principal of Hart Hall. 1726.

Aubrey, J. Letters written by eminent persons in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 2 vols. (vol. II in 2 parts). 1813.

Bourne, H. R. Fox. The Life of John Locke. 2 vols. 1876.

(Bristow, W.) The genuine account of the life and writings of Eugene Aram.… To which are added the remarkable defence he made on his trial … his Plan for a Lexicon, some pieces of poetry etc. [1759.]

Calamy, Edmund. An Abridgment of Mr. Baxter’s History of his Life and Times. 1702.

—— An Historical Account of My own Life. Ed. Rutt, J. T. 2 vols. 1829.

[Coventry, Francis.] The History of Pompey the Little: or the Life and Adventures of a Lap-Dog. 1751.

Cumberland, Richard. Memoirs of Richard Cumberland, written by Himself. 1806–7.

Evelyn, John. Diary and Correspondence of John Evelyn, F. R. S. Ed. Bray, W. 4 vols. 1902.

Gibbon, Edward. The Memoirs of the Life of Edward Gibbon with various observations and excursions by himself. Ed. Hill, G. Birkbeck. 1900.

Hearne, Thomas. Reliquiae Hearnianae: The Remains of Thomas Hearne, M.A. of Edmund Hall. Being Extracts from his MS. Diaries, Collected with a Few Notes by Philip Bliss. 3 vols. 1869.

Jebb, Sir R. C. Richard Bentley. 1882.

Kettlewell, John. Compleat Works of. To which is prefix’d the Life of the Author, with an Appendix of several original papers. 2 vols. 1719.

Mason, William. Isis: an Elegy. 1749.

Mayor, J. E. B. (ed.). Life of Ambrose Bonwicke by his Father, 1729. Cambridge, 1870.

—— Life of Ambrose Bonwicke (the Elder). Cambridge, 1870.

—— Cambridge under Queen Anne. Illustrated by Memoirs of Ambrose Bonwicke (1729) and Diaries of Francis Burman (1710) and Z. C. von Uffenbach (1712). Ed., with notes by Mayor, J. E. B., with preface by James, M. R. Cambridge, 1911.

Monk, James Henry. The Life of Richard Bentley. 2nd edn. 2 vols. 1833.

Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley. The Letters and Works. Ed. Wharncliffe, Lord, and Thomas, W. M. 2 vols. 1887.

Quiller Couch, L. M. (ed.). Reminiscences of Oxford by Oxford Men, 1559–1850. Oxford Hist. Soc. Oxford, 1892.

Shenstone, William. Poems. Vol. XIII in The Works of the English Poets from Chaucer to Cowper. 1810.

—— The School-Mistress; a poem in imitation of Spenser. 1742.

Tyerman, L. Life and Times of the Reverend Samuel Wesley, M.A., Rector of Epworth. 2 vols. 1866.

Warton, Thomas. The Progress of Discontent. 1746. In Poetical Works of Thos. Warton. Ed. Mant, Richard. 2 vols. Oxford, 1802.

—— The Triumph of Isis, a Poem occasioned by Isis, an Elegy. n. d. [1749].

Wordsworth, Christopher. Social Life at the English Universities in the Eighteenth Century. Cambridge, 1874.


Archbishop Secker’s Diary. In the MSS. Collections of the Archbishop’s Library, at Lambeth.