The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume XI. The Period of the French Revolution.

III. Bentham and the Early Utilitarians



Albee, E. History of English Utilitarianism. 1902.

Bonar, J. Philosophy and Political Economy. 1893.

Halévy, E. Formation du Radicalisme philosophique. 3 vols. 1901–4.

Stephen, Sir L. The English Utilitarians. 3 vols. 1900.


Bentham’s MSS., largely unpublished, are deposited in University College, London (Catalogue by Whittaker, T. 1892) and in the British Museum.

A. Collected Works and Selections

Works. Ed. Bowring, John. 11 vols. 1838–43.

Vols. X and XI contain a Life of Bentham and an Index to his Works. The first nine volumes contain the writings published in his life-time (including English versions of those published by Dumont), except the writings on religion. Deontology is not reprinted. The chief contents not previously published in English are:

Principles of the Civil Code (translated from Dumont); Principles of the Penal Code (translated from Dumont); View of a Complete Code of Laws (translated from Dumont); Principles of International Law; Junctiana, Proposal for a junction of the Atlantic and Pacific; Essay on Political Tactics (translated from Dumont); Anarchical Fallacies (summary in Dumont); Protest against Law Taxes; Manual of Political Economy; Pannomial Fragments; Nomography, or the Art of Inditing Laws; Logical Arrangements, or Instruments of Invention and Discovery; Emancipate your Colonies; Securities against Misrule, addressed to a Mahommedan State; Fragment on Ontology; Essay on Logic; The Constitutional Code (complete).

Benthamiana: or Select Extracts from the works of Jeremy Bentham. Ed. Burton, J. H. Edinburgh, 1843.

B. Works published separately

A Fragment on Government; being an examination of what is delivered on the subject of Government in general in the Introduction to Sir William Blackstone’s Commentaries: with a Preface in which is given a Critique of the Work at large. 1776. 3rd edn. 1822. Ed. Montague, F. C. 1891.

View of the Hard Labour Bill. 1778.

Defence of Usury. 1787. 2nd edn. 1790. 3rd edn. 1816.

An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. 1789. 2nd edn. 1823. Rptd. Oxford, 1879.

The Panopticon, or Inspection House. 1791. (Written 1787.)

A Protest against Law Taxes. 1795.

Poor Laws and Pauper Management (in Arthur Young’s Annals, Sept., 1797 and later).

The Panopticon versus New South Wales. 1802.

A Plea for the Constitution. 1803.

Scotch Reform, with a Summary View of a Plan for a Judicatory. 1808. 2nd edn. 1811.

Chrestomathia. 1816.

Swear not at all. 1817. (Written 1813.)

A Table of the Springs of Action, printed 1815. (Ed. Mill, James.) 1817.

Catechism of Parliamentary Reform, in The Pamphleteer, Jan., 1817. (Written 1809.)

Papers upon Codification and Public Instruction. 1817. (Written 1811–15.)

Church of Englandism and its Catechism examined. 1818.

Radical Reform Bill, with explanations, in The Pamphleteer, Dec., 1819.

Elements of the Art of Packing as applied to Special Juries. 1821. (Written 1809.)

Three Tracts relating to Spanish and Portuguese Affairs. 1821.

On the Liberty of the Press [addressed to Spain]. 1821.

The Analysis of the Influence of Natural Religion upon the Temporal Happiness of Mankind, by Philip Beauchamp. (Ed. Grote, G.) 1822.

Not Paul but Jesus, by Gamaliel Smith. 1823.

Codification Proposals. 1823.

Book of Fallacies. (Ed. Bingham, P.) 1824.

The Rationale of Reward. 1825.

The Rationale of Evidence. (Ed. Mill, J. S.) 5 vols. 1827.

The Rationale of Punishment. 1830. (This work and The Rationale of Reward are translated from Dumont, with assistance from the manuscript of Bentham written about 1775.)

Constitutional Code for the use of all Nations and all Governments professing Liberal Opinions. Vol. I. 1830.

Official Aptitude maximised—Expense minimised. 1831. (A collection of papers written in 1810 and following years.)

Deontology or Science of Morality. (Ed. Bowring, J.) 2 vols. 1834.

C. Works compiled by Etienne Dumont from Bentham’s MSS. and his Introduction of 1789

Traités de Législation civile et pénale. 3 vols. 1802. 2nd edn. 1820.

Théorie des Peines et des Récompenses. 1811, 1818, 1825.

Tactique des Assemblées délibérantes et Traité des Sophismes politiques. 1816.

Traité des Preuves judiciaires. 1823. (Eng. trans. 1825.)

De l’Organisation judiciaire et de la Codification. 1823.

Theory of Legislation; by Bentham, Jeremy. Translated from the French of Étienne Dumont, by Hildreth, R. 1876.

D. Biography and Criticism

Atkinson, C.M. Jeremy Bentham. 1905.

Dicey, A.V. Law and Public Opinion in England. Lecture VI. 1905.

Kenny, C.S., in Law Quarterly Review. Vol. XI, nos. 41 and 42. 1895.

Mill, J.S., in London and Westminster Review, August, 1838. (Rptd. in Dissertations and Discussions. Vol. I. 1859.)

Mohl, R.V. Geschichte und Litteratur der Staatswissenschaften. Book III. 1858.

Montague, F.C. Introduction to Edition of A Fragment on Government. 1891.

Nys, E. Études de droit international. 1901.

Pringle, Pattison, A.S. The Philosophical Radicals and other essays. 1907.

Sidgwick, H., in Fortnightly Review, May, 1877. (Rptd. in Miscellaneous Essays and Addresses. 1904.)

Sir William Blackstone
See ante, Vol. X, Chap. XII, bibliography.

J. Hector St. John Crèvecœur (1731–1813)

Letters from an American farmer; describing certain provincial situations, manners, and customs not generally known; and conveying some idea of the late and present interior circumstances of the British colonies in N. America. 1782. Rptd. with preface by Trent, W. P., and introduction by Lewisohn, L. 1908. Transl. into French, 1787; and into German, 1788–9.

Robert Hall (1764–1831)

Works. Ed. Gregory, O. 6 vols. 1832–8.

Christianity consistent with the love of Freedom. 1791.

Apology for the freedom of the Press. With remarks on Horsley’s sermon. 30 Jan., 1793. 1793.

Modern Infidelity considered in respect to its influence on Society. 1800.

Samuel Horsley, Bp. of St. Asaph (1733–1806)

Tracts in controversy with Priestley. 1789.

Sermon before the House of Lords. 1793.

Sermons. 3rd edn. 3 vols. Dundee, 1812.

Speeches in Parliament. Dundee, 1813.

Charges. Dundee, 1813.

Sir James Mackintosh (1765–1832)

Miscellaneous Works. 3 vols. 1846.

Discourse on the study of the Law of Nature and Nations. 1799.

Dissertation on the progress of Ethical philosophy chiefly during the 17th and 18th centuries. 1830. 10th edn. 1872.

Vindiciae Gallicae: defence of the French Revolution against Burke including strictures on the late production of de Calonne. 1791.

Thomas Robert Malthus

An Essay on the Principle of Population as it affects the Future Improvement of Society, with Remarks on the Speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and other Writers. 1798.

An Essay on the Principle of Population; or, a View of its Past and Present effects on Human Happiness. 2nd edn. 1803.

Observations on the effects of the Corn Laws. 1814. 3rd edn. 1815.

An Inquiry into the Nature and Progress of Rent. 1815.

Grounds of an Opinion on the Policy of restricting the Importation of Foreign Corn. 1815.

Principles of Political Economy. 1820. 2nd edn. (with life of the author by Bp. Otter). 1836.

The Measure of Value stated and illustrated. 1823.

Definitions in Political Economy. 1827.

Summary View of the Principle of Population. 1830.

Bonar, J. Malthus and his Work. 1885.

—— Letters of Ricardo to Malthus. 1887.

Cossa, L. Il Principio di popolazione di T.R. Malthus. 1895.

Molinari, G. de. Malthus, essai sur le principe de population. 1889.

Soetbeer, A. Stellung der Sozialisten zur Malthusschen Bevölkerungslehre. 1886.

Dugald Stewart

Works. Ed. Hamilton, Sir W. II vols. 1854–8.

Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind. Vol. I. 1792. Vol. II. 1814. Vol. III. 1827.

Outlines of Moral Philosophy. 1793.

Philosophical Essays. 1810.

Memoirs of Adam Smith, William Robertson and Thomas Reid. 1811.

A General View of the Progress of Metaphysical, Ethical and Political Philosophy since the Revival of Letters. (Encyclopaedia Britannica Supplementary Dissertation.) Part I. 1815. Part II. 1821.

The Philosophy of the Active and Moral Powers. 1828.

John Horne Tooke (1736–1812)

E, or the Diversions of Purley. 2 vols. 1786–1805. New edn. Ed. Taylor, R. 2 vols. 1829.

Review of the Constitution. 1791.

Proceedings on trial of J.H. Tooke for high treason. 2 vols. 1795.

Joseph Townsend

A Dissertation on the Poor Laws. 1785.

Observations on Various Plans for the Relief of the Poor. 1788.

Journey through Spain. 1791. 3rd edn. 1814.

Richard Watson, Bp. of Llandaff (1737–1816)

Apology for Christianity, in a series of Letters to E. Gibbon. 1776.

Apology for the Bible, in answer to Thomas Paine. 1796.

Address to the People of Great Britain. 1798.

Miscellaneous Tracts. 3 vols. 1815.

Arthur Young

On the War in North America. 1758.

Reflections on the Present State of Affairs at home and abroad. 1759.

A Farmer’s Letters to the People of England. 1768.

A Six Weeks’ Tour through the Southern Counties of England and Wales. 1768.

A Six Months’ Tour through the North of England. 4 vols. 1771.

The Farmer’s Tour through the East of England. 4 vols. 1770–1.

A Course of Experimental Agriculture. 1770.

The Farmer’s Calendar. 1771.

Political Arithmetic. 1774.

Tour in Ireland. 1780.

Travels during the years 1787, 1788, 1789, and 1790 undertaken more particularly with a view of ascertaining the Cultivation, Wealth, Resources, and National Prosperity of the Kingdom of France. 2 vols. Bury St. Edmunds, 1794 (first edn. of vol. I published 1792). French transl. 1793–4, 1856. Ed. with introduction, etc., by Betham-Edwards, M. 3rd edn. 1890.

The Example of France a warning to England. 1793.

Autobiography. Ed. Betham-Edwards, M. 1898.