An Encyclopedia in Eighteen Volumes


Edited by A. W. Ward & A. R. Waller



Chapter I. Edmund Burke
By HERBERT J. C. GRIERSON, M.A., LL.D., Chalmers Professor of English Literature in the University of Aberdeen

  1. Early Life and Work
  2. A Vindication of Natural Society; The Sublime and Beautiful
  3. Political Career
  4. Writings on Public Affairs; Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontents
  5. The American Controversy
  6. Writings on Ireland
  7. Indian Speeches
  8. Warren Hastings
  9. The French Revolution
  10. Burke’s Political Philosophy
  11. His Temperament
  12. His Prose
  13. The Speech on Economical Reform
  14. A Letter to a Noble Lord
  15. Burke as an Orator


II. Political Writers and Speakers
By C. W. PREVITÉ-ORTON, M.A., Fellow of St. John’s College

  1. Light, Short, Satiric Verse
  2. The Rolliad
  3. John Wolcot (Peter Pindar)
  4. George Canning; The Anti-Jacobin
  5. George Ellis; John Hookham Frere; William Gifford; The Baviad; The Maeviad
  6. The Needy Knife-grinder
  7. Richard Payne Knight; Erasmus Darwin
  8. The Rovers
  9. The New Morality
  10. William Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft; Political Justice; Caleb Williams; St. Leon; Vindication of the Rights of Woman
  11. Thomas Paine: The Rights of Man; The Age of Reason
  12. William Cobbett; Weekly Political Register
  13. Rural Rides
  14. Orators
  15. Charles James Fox
  16. The Younger Pitt
  17. Richard Brinsley Sheridan
  18. Henry Grattan


III. Bentham and the Early Utilitarians
By W. R. SORLEY, Litt.D., F.B.A., Fellow of King’s College, Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy

  1. Jeremy Bentham
  2. His Friends; Étienne Dumont, James Mill
  3. The Westminster Review
  4. A Fragment on Government; Sir William Blackstone’s Commentaries
  5. The Principle of Utility; Beccaria’s Crimes and Punishments
  6. An Introduction to the Principle of Morals and Legislation
  7. The Hedonic Calculus
  8. Natural Rights
  9. Arthur Young; Travels in France
  10. Thomas Robert Malthus; An Essay on the Principle of Population
  11. Dugald Stewart


IV. William Cowper
By HAROLD CHILD, sometime Scholar of Brasenose College, Oxford

  1. Cowper’s Early Years
  2. His Friendship with the Unwins; John Newton
  3. Olney Hymns
  4. Satires
  5. Lady Austen; The Task
  6. John Gilpin; On the Receipt of my Mother’s Picture
  7. Translations
  8. Letters


V. William Wordsworth
By ÉMILE LEGOUIS, Professor of English Language and Literature at the Sorbonne

  1. The Influence of Rousseau
  2. Wordsworth’s Childhood
  3. His Wanderings
  4. The French Revolution
  5. Dorothy Wordsworth
  6. Friendship with Coleridge
  7. Lyrical Ballads
  8. Wordsworth’s Marriage
  9. Ode to Duty
  10. The Excursion
  11. The White Doe of Rylstone
  12. Laodamia
  13. Sonnets; Later Years
  14. The Ruined Cottage
  15. His poetry of Nature
  16. There was a Boy
  17. Wordsworth and Shelley
  18. Michael
  19. The Lucy poems
  20. His Description of the Moral Emotions


VI. Coleridge
By C. E. VAUGHAN, M.A., Balliol College, Oxford

  1. Early Years
  2. The French Revolution
  3. Coleridge’s Friendship with Wordsworth
  4. The Opium habit
  5. The Friend; Biographia Literaria
  6. Influence of Wordsworth
  7. Kubla Khan
  8. The Ancient Mariner
  9. Christabel
  10. The Poetry of Nature; Anima Poetœ
  11. The Hour of Romance
  12. Coleridge’s Theory of Criticism
  13. Coleridge as Philosopher


VII. George Crabbe

  1. Early Life
  2. The Library
  3. The Village
  4. The Newspaper
  5. The Parish Register
  6. Sir Eustace Grey
  7. The Borough
  8. Tales
  9. Tales of the Hall
  10. The Change in English Poetry during Crabbe’s Lifetime
  11. Crabbe’s Couplets
  12. Summary


VIII. Southey
Lesser Poets of the Eighteenth Century
By GEORGE SAINTSBURY, M.A., Merton College, Oxford, LL.D., D.Litt., F.B.A., Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature in the University of Edinburgh

    1. Details of Southey’s Life
    2. His Politics
    3. Wat Tyler; Joan of Arc; Southey’s Blank Verse
    4. Holly Tree; My Days among the Dead are passed
    5. Ballads
    6. Thalaba
    7. Madoc
    8. Southey as Historian and Reviewer
    9. Commonplace Books
    10. The Curse of Kehama
    11. The Life of Nelson
    12. Roderick the last of the Goths
    13. The Life of John Wesley
    14. Miscellaneous Prose; The Lives of the Admirals
    15. The Doctor
    16. Southey’s Letters
    17. Southey and Dryden
    1. Anstey; The New Bath Guide
    2. Hanbury Williams
    3. John Hall Stevenson; Crazy Tales
    4. Erasmus Darwin; The Botanic Garden; The Loves of the Plants
    5. William Hayley; The Triumph of Temper
    6. The Della Cruscans
    7. William Lisle Bowles
    8. Frank Sayers
    9. Sir William Jones


IX. Blake
By J. P. R. WALLIS, M.A., Assistant Lecturer in English Literature in the University of Liverpool

  1. Early Career
  2. Poetical Sketches
  3. An Island in the Moon
  4. Beginnings of Mysticism; Songs of Innocence and Thel
  5. Tiriel; Revolutionary writings
  6. The Marriage of Heaven and Hell and the earlier “Prophecies
  7. The later Lambeth books
  8. Songs of Experience
  9. Europe and The Song of Los
  10. The Urizen group
  11. The crisis in Blake’s spiritual development
  12. The Four Zoas
  13. His mystical Christianity
  14. Milton and Jerusalem
  15. His Theory of Imagination
  16. Lesser Verse and Prose
  17. Blake and the Romantic Revival


X. Burns
Lesser Scottish Verse

  1. BURNS
    1. The Old School of Scottish Verse
    2. Burns’s Indebtedness to his Predecessors
    3. The Kilmarnock volume
    4. The Cotter’s Saturday Night
    5. Burns’s “English” poems
    6. His six-line stave
    7. Death and Doctor Hornbook; The Address to the Deil
    8. Holy Willie’s Prayer
    9. The Auld Farmer’s New Year Salutation to his Mare Maggie
    10. The Christis Kirk stave
    11. The Holy Fair
    12. Halloween
    13. The Cherrie and the Slae stave
    14. The Jolly Beggars; Tam o’ Shanter
    15. Burns at Edinburgh
    16. His Songs and Adaptations
    1. Joanna Baillie
    2. Lady Anne Lindsay of Balcarres; Susanna Blamire; Mrs. Grant of Carron; Mrs. Grant of Laggan; Elizabeth Hamilton; Mrs. John Hunter; Mrs. Maclehose (“Clarinda”)
    3. Caroline Oliphant, Lady Nairne
    4. Dr. Blacklock; Richard Gall; John Hamilton; John Lapraik; John Lowe
    5. Hector MacNeil
    6. James Tytler
    7. John Mayne
    8. Sir Alexander Boswell
    9. Robert Tannahill; Alexander Wilson; William Motherwell
    10. James Hogg
    11. The Queen’s Wake
    12. John Leyden
    13. Allan Cunningham
    14. Thomas Mounsey Cunningham
    15. William Tennant
    16. John Hyslop; Robert Gilfillan; William Nicholson; William Glen; William Watt
    17. Michael Bruce and John Logan; The Cuckoo; James Grahame
    18. Robert Pollok


XI. The Prosody of the Eighteenth Century

  1. Changes in the Heroic Couplet of Dryden
  2. The Octosyllabic Couplet
  3. The Spenserian Stanza
  4. Blank Verse
  5. Lyric Poetry of the Eighteenth Century
  6. Edward Bysshe’s Art of Poetry
  7. Eighteenth Century Prosodists
  8. Joshua Steele
  9. Young
  10. Shenstone; Gray; Johnson
  11. John Mason
  12. Mitford
  13. Cowper
  14. Summary


XII. The Georgian Drama
By HAROLD V. ROUTH, M.A., Peterhouse, Lecturer in English Literature at Goldsmiths’ College, London

  1. The Decay of the Drama and the Advance of the Actor
  2. The Theatre in the Eighteenth Century and its Audiences
  3. Richard Cumberland; The Brothers; The West Indian
  4. Lesser Playwrights
  5. Oliver Goldsmith: She Stoops to Conquer
  6. Richard Brinsley Sheridan: The Rivals
  7. A Trip to Scarborough
  8. The School for Scandal
  9. Hannah More; Percy
  10. Hannah Cowley
  11. General Burgoyne: The Heiress
  12. Thomas Holcroft: The Road to Ruin; The Deserted Daughter
  13. Elizabeth Inchbald
  14. George Colman the Younger: Inkle and Yarico
  15. Thomas Morton and others
  16. Cumberland’s Jew
  17. Realism and the Drama


XIII. The Growth of the Later Novel

  1. Thomas Amory: John Buncle
  2. Memoirs of Several Ladies
  3. William Beckford
  4. Vathek
  5. William Godwin
  6. Caleb Williams; St. Leon
  7. Thomas Holcroft: Autobiography, Novels
  8. Mrs. Inchbald: A Simple Story, Nature and Art
  9. Robert Bage: Hermsprong
  10. Maria Edgeworth
  11. Belinda
  12. The Absentee; Ormond
  13. Tales for the Young
  14. Charlotte Smith; Regina Maria Roche; Eaton Stannard Barrett
  15. Clara Reeve
  16. Ann Radcliffe
  17. The Mysteries of Udolpho and other works
  18. Matthew Gregory Lewis: The Monk
  19. Charles Robert Maturin: Melmoth the Wanderer
  20. Jane and Anna Maria Porter: Thaddeus of Warsaw; The Scottish Chiefs
  21. Thomas Hope: Anastasius
  22. Thomas Love Peacock


XIV. Book Production and Distribution, 1625–1800
By H. G. ALDIS, M.A., Peterhouse, Secretary of the University Library

  1. Attempts at State Control under Charles I. and the Commonwealth
  2. The Censorship of L’Estrange
  3. Lapse of the Licensing Laws
  4. Copyright before 1709
  5. The first Copyright Act
  6. The battle for Perpetual Copyright
  7. The relations between Author and Publisher in the Seventeenth Century
  8. Milton, Baxter
  9. Earnings of playwrights
  10. Literature becomes a Profession
  11. Increase of the Reading Classes
  12. Patrons and Dedications
  13. The Publisher as Patron and Employer
  14. Leading Publishers in Commonwealth and Restoration times
  15. The Eighteenth Century
  16. Tonson, Lintot, Dodsley, Millar
  17. Trade books
  18. Society for Encouragement of Learning
  19. Bell’s Poets and Johnson’s Poets; Paternoster Row Numbers
  20. Booksellers’ Clubs
  21. Cadell, Strahan
  22. Literary Booksellers
  23. Curll and Grub Street
  24. The Trade” in London
  25. Little Britain
  26. Scot, Bateman, the Ballards
  27. Other Localities; Westminster Hall
  28. Literary Coffee-houses
  29. Payne, Davies
  30. Popular Literature
  31. Practical Divinity, Chapbooks
  32. The Retail Bookseller
  33. Sale by auction
  34. Printed Catalogues; James Lackington
  35. Circulating Libraries and Book Clubs
  36. Trade Lists of Current Publications
  37. Trade sales
  38. The Provincial Trade
  39. Scotland and Ireland


XV. The Bluestockings

  1. The term “Bluestocking
  2. Conversation parties; Mrs. Vesey
  3. Mrs. Montagu
  4. Her share in Lord Lyttelton’s Dialogues of the Dead
  5. Her Essay on Shakespeare; Mrs. Montagu and Voltaire
  6. Mrs. Elizabeth Carter
  7. Her Translation of Epictetus
  8. Hannah More
  9. Her friendship with Horace Walpole
  10. Mrs. Chapone


XVI. Children’s Books
By F. J. HARVEY DARTON, sometime Scholar of St. John’s College, Oxford

  1. Schoolbooks
  2. The Hornbook
  3. Books of Courtesy
  4. Hell-fire tales
  5. Exemplary” Compilations
  6. Bunyan’s Divine Emblems
  7. Watts’s Divine Songs
  8. The Chapbook
  9. Fairy Tales
  10. Nursery Rimes
  11. John Newbery
  12. Dorothy Kilner
  13. Sarah Trimmer
  14. Mrs. Sherwood
  15. Maria Edgeworth
  16. Thomas Day’s Sandford and Merton
  17. The Moral Tale in Verse
  18. Ann and Jane Taylor’s Original Poems
  19. Miss Turner’s Cautionary Stories
  20. Charles and Mary Lamb
  21. Later Writings for Children