An Encyclopedia in Eighteen Volumes


Edited by W. P. Trent, J. Erskine, S. P. Sherman & C. Van Doren



Chapter VIII. Mark Twain
By STUART P. SHERMAN, Ph.D., Professor of English in the University of Illinois

  1. Mark Twain’s Place in American Literature
  2. Youth
  3. Printer and Pilot
  4. The Far West
  5. Journalist and Lecturer
  6. The Quaker City Excursion
  7. Later Life
  8. Artistic Ideals
  9. Travel Books
  10. The Innocents Abroad
  11. Roughing It
  12. A Tramp Abroad
  13. Life on the Mississippi
  14. Following the Equator
  15. Fiction
  16. The Gilded Age
  17. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
  18. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
  19. A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court
  20. Pudd’nhead Wilson
  21. Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc
  22. Naturalistic Pessimism; What is Man? The Mysterious Stranger


IX. Minor Humorists
By GEORGE FRISBIE WHICHER, Ph.D., Associate Professor of English in Amherst College

  1. Humorous Paragraphs and Columns in Newspapers
  2. Comic Journalism; Puck, Judge, Life
  3. New Tendencies after the Civil War
  4. Charles Godfrey Leland
  5. George Ade
  6. Eugene Field
  7. Mr. Dooley
  8. O. Henry


X. Later Poets
By NORMAN FOERSTER, A.M., Professor of English in the University of North Carolina

  1. Poets of East and West
  2. New England; Emily Dickinson
  3. Thomas Bailey Aldrich
  4. Minor Figures
  5. The Middle States
  6. Bayard Taylor
  7. Richard Henry Stoddard
  8. Edmund Clarence Stedman
  9. Minor Figures
  10. Richard Watson Gilder
  11. Richard Hovey
  12. The West
  13. Joaquin Miller
  14. Edward Rowland Sill
  15. Minor Figures
  16. James Whitcomb Riley
  17. William Vaughn Moody
  18. Contemporary Poetry


XI. The Later Novel: Howells
By CARL VAN DOREN, Ph.D., Literary Editor of The Nation, Associate in English in Columbia University

  1. The Dime Novel
  2. John Esten Cooke
  3. Theodore Winthrop
  4. Domestic Sentimentalism
  5. Harriet Beecher Stowe
  6. Uncle Tom’s Cabin
  7. Dred
  8. Her Novels of New England Life
  9. E. P. Roe
  10. Lew Wallace
  11. Edward Eggleston
  12. William Dean Howells
  13. The Development of His Taste
  14. Experiments in Fiction
  15. A Chance Acquaintance
  16. A Modern Instance
  17. The Rise of Silas Lapham
  18. Turgenev and Tolstoy
  19. A Hazard of New Fortunes
  20. Altruria
  21. Travels and Memoirs
  22. Later Novels
  23. The Eighties
  24. Francis Marion Crawford
  25. Characteristics
  26. Ideals; Range
  27. Reactions from Official Realism; Rococo Romance
  28. S. Weir Mitchell
  29. Naturalism; E. W. Howe
  30. Stephen Crane
  31. Frank Norris
  32. Jack London
  33. Contemporaries


XII. Henry James
By JOSEPH WARREN BEACH, Ph.D., Associate Professor of English in the University of Minnesota

  1. The Question of James’s Americanism
  2. His Passion for “Europe
  3. Americans in His Stories
  4. Transcendentalism
  5. Parentage and Education
  6. Newport, Boston, Cambridge
  7. Residence Abroad
  8. Miscellaneous Writings; Collected Stories
  9. Earlier Novels
  10. Short Stories
  11. Later Novels
  12. Peculiarity of the James Method
  13. James and Pater
  14. American Faith and European Culture


XIII. Later Essayists

  1. Types of American Essayists
  2. Donald Grant Mitchell
  3. Detachment from Public Affairs
  4. George William Curtis
  5. Prue and I
  6. Public Career
  7. Charles Eliot Norton
  8. His Great Influence
  9. Thomas Wentworth Higginson; Varied Interests
  10. Moncure D. Conway
  11. Edward Everett Hale; The Man Without a Country
  12. Julia Ward Howe
  13. Emma Lazarus
  14. Mrs. Stowe
  15. Charles Dudley Warner
  16. Hamilton Wright Mabie
  17. Edwin Percy Whipple
  18. Edmund Clarence Stedman
  19. William Winter
  20. Laurence Hutton
  21. Living Essayists


XIV. Travellers and Explorers, 1846–1900

  1. Texas
  2. The Santa Fé Trail
  3. By the Missouri to Oregon
  4. Naval Expeditions
  5. Missionaries
  6. Routes from Santa Fé to Los Angeles
  7. The Oregon Trail
  8. California
  9. Frémont
  10. The Mormons
  11. The Gold-Seekers
  12. Indians
  13. A Pacific Railway
  14. Perry’s Visit to Japan
  15. Boundary Surveys
  16. Joaquin Miller
  17. Mark Twain
  18. Travellers to the Orient
  19. The South Seas
  20. The Colorado River
  21. Geological Surveys
  22. The Bureau of Ethnology
  23. War with the Sioux
  24. Cowboys
  25. The Isthmus of Panama
  26. Travels in the Older States
  27. Africa
  28. Egypt
  29. Italy
  30. Spain
  31. Russia
  32. Many Lands
  33. The Philippines
  34. Alaska
  35. Arctic Exploration
  36. Peary’s Discovery of the North Pole


XV. Later Historians
By JOHN SPENCER BASSETT, Ph.D., LL.D., Professor of American History in Smith College

  1. Changes in Conceptions of History
  2. Underlying Movements
  3. The Growth of Historical Societies
  4. The American Historical Association; The American Historical Review
  5. The Collection of Historical Documents
  6. The Transformation of Historical Instruction in the Universities
  7. Herbert B. Adams
  8. Minor Historians of the Old School
  9. John William Draper
  10. Accounts of the Civil War
  11. John G. Nicolay and John Hay; Abraham Lincoln, a History
  12. Southern Histories
  13. The Great Subject”—The Age of Discovery and Exploration
  14. Americana and Collectors
  15. Henry Harrisse
  16. Justin Winsor
  17. Edward Gaylord Bourne
  18. Four Literary Historians
  19. John Foster Kirk
  20. Francis Parkman
  21. France and England in North America
  22. Edward Eggleston
  23. A History of Life in the United States
  24. John Fiske
  25. Historians of the Latest Period
  26. Henry Charles Lea
  27. Hubert Howe Bancroft
  28. Alfred Thayer Mahan
  29. Charles Francis Adams
  30. Henry Adams
  31. Mont Saint Michel and Chartres; The Education of Henry Adams


XVI. Later Theology
By AMBROSE WHITE VERNON, A.M., D.D., Professor of Biography in Carleton College

  1. The Decline of Theology
  2. Charles Hodge
  3. Heresy Trials
  4. Charles Augustus Briggs
  5. Changing Conceptions of the Bible
  6. The Revised Version
  7. The Higher Criticism
  8. Evolution
  9. Foreign Missions
  10. The Study of Comparative Religions
  11. Walter Rauschenbusch
  12. Washington Gladden
  13. Phillips Brooks


XVII. Later Philosophy
By MORRIS R. COHEN, Ph.D., Professor of Philosophy in the College of the City of New York

  1. American Life and American Philosophy
  2. The Traditions of American Philosophy; Large Indebtedness to Great Britain
  3. Other Influences
  4. Scotch Common-Sense Realism
  5. The Evolutionary Philosophy
  6. Its Influence on American Theology
  7. John Fiske
  8. His Substitution of the Evolutionary Myth for the Old Theology
  9. Scientific Thought in America
  10. Chauncey Wright
  11. His Conception of True Scientific Method
  12. William T. Harris
  13. His Attack on Agnosticism
  14. The Journal of Speculative Philosophy
  15. The Improvement of Philosophical Teaching
  16. The Philosophical Review
  17. Philosophical Professors
  18. Charles S. Peirce
  19. The Origins of Pragmatism
  20. Josiah Royce
  21. Metaphysical Idealism
  22. The World and the Individual
  23. William James
  24. His Vividness and Humanity
  25. Principles of Psychology; Radical Empiricism
  26. Pluralism
  27. John Dewey
  28. Naturalism
  29. Great Influence
  30. J. Mark Baldwin; Pancalism
  31. George Santayana; The Life of Reason
  32. Detachment
  33. The New Realism


XVIII. The Drama, 1860–1918

  1. The Civil War on the Stage
  2. Black and Red Americans
  3. Dion Boucicault; John Brougham
  4. General Unconcern with Native Drama; Edwin Forrest; Charlotte Cushman; Edwin Booth; Lawrence Barrett
  5. Lester Wallack
  6. W. E. Burton
  7. The Search for Foreign Plays
  8. Augustin Daly
  9. Critics; Laurence Hutton; Brander Matthews; William Winter
  10. Bronson Howard
  11. Local Color
  12. Steele MacKaye
  13. The Theatres of the Eighties in New York
  14. The Star System; Theatrical Trusts; Charles and Daniel Frohman
  15. David Belasco
  16. Augustus Thomas
  17. Clyde Fitch
  18. James A. Herne
  19. William Gillette
  20. Charles Klein
  21. Lurid Melodrama
  22. Successful Novels on the Stage
  23. The Publication of Plays
  24. George Ade
  25. George M. Cohan
  26. William Vaughn Moody
  27. Later Literary Drama
  28. The Broadway School
  29. Tricks and Farces
  30. Independent Theatres; The New Theatre
  31. Pageants
  32. Secessionist Groups


XIX. Later Magazines
By WILLIAM B. CAIRNS, Ph.D., Associate Professor of American Literature in the University of Wisconsin

  1. The Importance of the American Magazine
  2. Advertising
  3. Short Stories
  4. The North American Review
  5. Minor Reviews in New England and New York
  6. The South
  7. The Older Magazines Continued
  8. The Atlantic Monthly
  9. Harper’s Monthly Magazine
  10. Scribner’s Monthly; The Century Magazine
  11. Scribner’s Magazine
  12. Putnam’s Monthly Magazine and Its Successors
  13. The Galaxy
  14. The Overland Monthly
  15. The Ladies’ Home Journal
  16. Popular Magazines
  17. Muck-Raking; McClure’s Magazine
  18. Recent Developments


XX. Newspapers Since 1860
By FRANK W. SCOTT, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of English in the University of Illinois

  1. The Newspapers of 1860
  2. Progress During the Civil War
  3. Correspondents
  4. Censorship
  5. The Influence of the Great Editors
  6. Mechanical Improvements
  7. Reconstruction
  8. Charles A. Dana and the New York Sun
  9. Weekly Papers; The Independent
  10. Harper’s Weekly
  11. The Nation
  12. The Decline of Editorials
  13. The Growth of Advertising
  14. The Associated Press; Foreign News Service
  15. Sensationalism; Joseph Pulitzer and the New York World
  16. William Randolph Hearst
  17. The Sunday Supplement
  18. Recent Tendencies
  19. Economic Bias Among Newspapers
  20. The New Importance of the Weekly and Monthly Papers
  21. Collier’s Weekly; The New Republic; The Weekly Review; The Liberator; The Survey; Reedy’s Mirror; The Dial; The Bellman; Party Organs
  22. Public Activities of Newspapers
  23. The World War


XXI. Political Writing Since 1850
By WILLIAM KENNETH BOYD, Ph.D., Professor of History in Trinity College, Durham, North Carolina

  1. The Change of Temper after 1850
  2. Pro-Slavery Arguments; Thomas R. Dew
  3. Attacks on Jefferson’s Ideas and on Modern Industrial Conditions
  4. States’ Rights and Secession
  5. Southern Writers Opposed to Secession; Francis Lieber
  6. Writers Opposed to Slavery
  7. Hinton Rowan Helper
  8. Northern Attitudes Toward Slavery
  9. The Fugitive Slave Law; Uncle Tom’s Cabin
  10. The Kansas-Nebraska Act; Charles Sumner
  11. The Dred Scott Decision
  12. National Theories During the War
  13. The Organic Theory; Sovereignty in the Nation
  14. Practical Problems of Nationality
  15. Opposition to the Administration
  16. Reconstruction Theories: Presidential, State Suicide, Conquered Province, Forfeited Rights
  17. Confederate Apologists
  18. Personal Memoirs, North and South
  19. Civil Service Reform
  20. Thomas A. Jenckes
  21. George William Curtis
  22. Tariff Reform
  23. David A. Wells
  24. William G. Sumner
  25. The Currency
  26. Agrarian Agitation
  27. Bimetallism
  28. The Knights of Labor
  29. The Trusts
  30. The Disfranchisement of the Negro
  31. New Doctrines
  32. Henry George; The Income Tax
  33. Edward Bellamy
  34. Criticism of Governmental Administration
  35. Imperialism and Expansion
  36. The Granger Movement; Populism
  37. Progressivism


XXII. Lincoln
By NATHANIEL WRIGHT STEPHENSON, Professor of History in the College of Charleston

  1. The Mystery of Lincoln’s Temperament
  2. His Lack of Precocity
  3. Juvenilia
  4. Religion
  5. Pioneer Loneliness
  6. Mystical Faith
  7. First Period of Maturity
  8. Comic Writings
  9. Spiritual Enthusiasm for the Law
  10. Literature Applied to Practical Tasks
  11. Second Period of Maturity
  12. The Great Speeches of 1858–1860
  13. The Eclipse of the Winter of 1860–61
  14. The First Inaugural; Lincoln’s Final Manner
  15. Possible Influence of Seward


XXIII. Education
By PAUL MONROE, Ph.D., LL.D., Professor of the History of Education in Teachers College, Columbia University

  1. American Education Primarily Institutional
  2. The Colonies
  3. Virginia
  4. Pennsylvania
  5. New Netherland and New York
  6. New England; The Massachusetts Law of 1647
  7. The Apprentice System
  8. Elementary Schools
  9. Latin Grammar Schools
  10. Ezekiel Cheever
  11. Christopher Dock
  12. The New England Primer
  13. Colonial Colleges
  14. Franklin on Education
  15. Samuel Johnson; William Smith
  16. The Revolution
  17. Early National Legislation
  18. The Positions of the Fathers
  19. Thomas Jefferson
  20. DeWitt Clinton
  21. The Lancastrian System
  22. Pestalozzian Influences
  23. Textbooks
  24. Noah Webster
  25. Lindley Murray
  26. Jedidiah Morse
  27. Nicholas Pike
  28. Law Schools
  29. Medical Schools
  30. Private Societies
  31. Educational Periodicals
  32. The American Journal of Education
  33. Labour and Education
  34. Practical and Physical Education
  35. Educational Reports
  36. Horace Mann
  37. Henry Barnard
  38. Technical Literature of Education
  39. Free Schools
  40. Education for Girls
  41. Emma Hart Willard
  42. Mary Lyon
  43. State Universities
  44. College Problems
  45. Great College Presidents
  46. Lyceums
  47. Ralph Waldo Emerson
  48. Imaginative Literature Dealing with Education
  49. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow; Oliver Wendell Holmes
  50. Locke Amsden
  51. The Hoosier Schoolmaster
  52. College Secret Societies; Phi Beta Kappa
  53. Memoirs by Educators
  54. Popular Problems of Education
  55. The Education of Henry Adams
  56. Books for and about Children
  57. The Literature of the Immigrant
  58. Important Writers on Educational Topics
  59. William James
  60. G. Stanley Hall
  61. Edward L. Thorndike
  62. William T. Harris
  63. John Dewey
  64. Foreign Observers
  65. General Conclusions